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a^2iQ. % 





The Titans Piled Mounlaitts Upon MouHtotHs that They Might get 
into the Heavens and Battle with the Gods. Jupiter 
Mounted on His Eagle Came Down and Over- 
threw Them with His Thunderbolts. 



^y.jl/^.:l 



^ - '. \ 

APR 8 1903 ) 



?CU4.^< 



Copyri^t, IMS, by J. H. Tewdai^b A Sons Oo^ 

MlLWAUXKB, WlB. 



All rights raMrred. 




CONTENTS. 

Secret Virtues to be Found in the Enmity Between Animals, 1675 

Occult Virtues Inherent in Animals in Life and Death, 1675 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE OCCULT. 

The Moral Constitution of Man 1677 

Elements of the Divine Paraclete and the Four Characters of the 

Absolute 1677 

Atributes of God and the Meaning of Satan 1678 

Stairway of the Science of Being, 1678 

Faith Healing and Formulas for Treatment of the Sick, . 1679 

Healing Admonitions Applicable to all Diseases, 1680 

How A Man May Think Himself to Death or into Strength, . 1681 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

GRAPHOLOGY. 

Character in Handwriting, 1682 

Dictionary of Faculties Readable in Natural Penmanship, . . . 1682 

Study of Signatures from Famous Poets, Novelists. Admirals. Musi- 
cians. Surgeons, Ecclesiastics, Preachers, Orators, Actors. States- 
men, Politicians, Scientists, Philanthropists, Religious and Mil- 
itary Commanders, 1691 

CHAPTER XXV. 

DICTIONARY OF BEAUTY AND CHARACTER. 

Definitions of Beauty, ^ 1698 

Detailed Description of the Different Features of Beauty in the 

Face 1698 

Special Characteristics in Alphabetical Order, Giving Complete In- 
sight INTO the Mysteries of Character Reading, 1701 

CHAPTER XXVL 

DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY. 

The Fabulous and Romantic Myths, Heroes and Deities that Con- 
stituted the Religious Pantheon of the Ancient Greeks and 
Romans, 1710 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

HYPNOTISM, CLAIRVOYANCE AND TELEPATHY. 

Methods and Experiments. Stages of Hypnotic Condition. Dehypnotiza- 
tion. Who Can Be Hypnotized, Extension of Sense Perceptions, 
Crystal Gazing, Hypnotic Transference of Sensation and Thought, 
the *'Willino Game*' as an Explanation of Telepathy, Kinds of 
Thought Transference, Directions for Practice by Which to Be- 
come Skilled in Cijlirvoyance and Telepathy, the Vast Possibili- 
ties of Mental Science, 1721 

(For Complete Alphabetical Index See End of Volume III.) 



Witchcraft and Magic, Good and Evil 

Spirits, Etc. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



ANTLER — Stags' horns are 
considered in Spain to be an omen 
of the evil eye, and to be a safe- 
guard against its malignant influ- 
ence. Should the evil glance be 
cast, it is believed that the horn re- 
ceives it and instantly snaps asun- 
der. They wear a tip of horn 
moimted in silver or gold, as a 
charm. 

APPARITIONS, VISIONS, 
GHOSTS, ETC.— Shouting "Ram, 
Ram,*' drives away ghosts and all 
evil things. (Bengalese.) 

Negroes think that sprinkling 
the floor with quicksilver is worry- 
some to ghosts. 

The apparition of the head of a 
man announces death to the family 
of Donatis in Venice. 

It is said that Napoleon was vis- 
ited by a spirit in red, that warned 
him of coming events. 

In France, the "little red man of 
the Tuilcrics" appears on the eve 
of some great national disaster. 

The WTiite Lady of Avenel 
showed by the changing width of 
her golden girdle the changing for- 
tunes of the family. (Walter Scott, 
"The Monastery.") 

If you wish to have the power to 
sec ghosts, go to the graveyard at 
midnight and stand on the grave 
of a relative, alone. 

Pontius Pilate is believed to ap- 
pear once a year on the top of 



Mount Pilate, and whoever 
him will die before the year is out 

When ghosts walk, the Russian 
peasant is murmuring a prayer and 
the Bedouin shepherd is muttering 
a curse. 

In Wales, ghostly harpers appear 
on the surface of lakes, play bode- 
ful tunes which foretell calamity to 
the neighbors, and then disappear. 

If you have steel in your hand, a 
ghost cannot harm you. 

Phosphorescent lights on land or 
sea denote the presence of an evil 
spirit 

It is unlucky to see the vision of 
an absent person, particularly if 
you do not see the face plainly. It 
is an omen of his death. 

The old Celts believed in 
wraiths or doubles; anyone seeing 
a double of himself would die soon 
after. 

If you see ghosts frequently and 
ask them what they want, they will 
seldom reply, but will leave you 
and not appear again. 

A ghost appearing to a bride in 
the form of a white horse, was con- 
sidered to be the very best omen. 

If a person is haunted by an ap- 
parition whose face he cannot see, 
turning his coat will obtain for him 
the full sight of the ghost or its dis- 
appearance. 

Strange lights around a lonely 
dwelling mark a visit from the devu 
to that habitation. 



I9Q4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The royal family of Germany has 
a "white lady," whose appearance 
always heralds a death. 

If a seat in which a person is 
sitting suddenly appears empty, al- 
though the person has not moved, 
it is a certain sign that that person 
will shortly die. 

In England and Germany, a 
"white woman" is always an au- 
gury of death. 

Whoever sees his shadow with- 
out a head on the eve of St Syl- 
vester, will die within a year. 

A nameless and voiceless specter 
stalks about the royal palace at 
Stockholm, and was once seen by 
two princes, on the occasion of the 
death of the king, who expired on 
the battlefield of Luetzen. 

The Stanley family are warned 
by a spirit with a shriek of calam- 
ity, when death is near. (Scott's 
Peveril of the Peak.) 

In Cambridgeshire, there is an 
apparition known as the "Shuck," 
and in the Isle of Man it is the 
"Manthe Dog." It is a wild and 
savage dog, that appears to chase 
about in the air. 

The ghost of the last person 
buried keeps watch over the 
churchyard until another is buried, 
to whom he delivers his charge. 

It is notorious that in a certain 
noble English family, the form of 
a spectral head appears as a sign 
of death to any member. The ap- 
pearance of a spectral black dog is 
also a portent of death. 

To see a spectral huge black dog, 
with fiery eyes, is, among the ne- 
groes, a token of death; but the 
warning fails if the dog can be shot 
with a silver bullet on seeing him 
the next time. 

A dark gray man foretells death 
to a whole clan in Scotland. 



The "Ghost of the Hill" is an- 
other Scotch death-warning. 

In Fouqu6's beautiful story of 
the Undine, the water-spirit, she 
warns the recreant knight of his 
approaching death, and he dies on 
the night of his second nuptials. 

Tradition says that the appear- 
ance of two spectral owls of im- 
mense size on the battlements of 
Wardour Castle, still warns the 
family of Arundel of the approach 
of an enemy. 

To see the spirit of an absent per- 
son coming toward you, is a good 
sign. If it appears going away 
from you, the person will die. 

German legend tells of a "Lady 
of Waldeck," a water nymph,, 
whose appearance would foretell 
the death of the person who sees 
her. 

If a phantom flame springs up in 
the floor before you, one in the 
house who is sick may die. 

It is very unlucky to meet the 
"love-talker." Irish.) 

To a certain noble family living 
in the East of England, appears a 
spectral black dog as an omen of 
death. 

In a certain noble English fam- 
ily, the form of a spectral head ap- 
pears as a sign of death t6 any of 
the members, and notably so when 
the chief dies. 

In a certain noble Scotch family^ 
a female figure, dressed in brown 
clothes, appears as a warning of 
death. 

The "hag of the mist," as she is 
called, is a wamer, who, by her 
shrieks, foretells death to those 
who see or hear her. 

In monasteses, the seats of 
monks and nuns are occupied by 
figures without heads when they 
are about to die. 



iao6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



If you can step on the head of 
your own shadow, it is noon. 

Tradition says that the appear- 
ance of two spectral owls of im- 
mense size on the battlements of 
Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, still 
warns the Arundel family of the 
approach of the last enemy. 

If there are paths newly-made in 
the morning through the grass, 
which do not show any footprints, 
it is a sign that a ghost has walked 
there in the night. (Negro.) 

The apparition of a headless dog 
is a sign of death. 

The appearance of Samuel to 
Saul was a dire omen, the Bible 
having accounts of many such ap- 
pearances. 

He who brushes a ghost una- 
wares; will be shot by the fairies in 
the loins. 

The Australians consider the 
ghosts of the unburied dead to be 
demons. 

A reappearance of the dead is 
supposed to happen usually nine 
days after death. 

If you see a ghost, it will be visi- 
ble to your companions if you 
touch them. 

Among the Sioux Indians, the 
fear of the vengeance of their vic- 
tim's ghost deters from murder. 

The Maoris believe in ghosts, 
"kehuas," and to step on one l)ring 
across the path is an omen of death. 

Ghosts were believed to be of 
such delicate texttu-e that they suf- 
fered pain if exposed to the light, 
and that is why they were seen only 
in dark places and in the night- 
time. 

Ghosts can be banished betwixt 
door and doorpost, and if you slam 
the door, they will be so tormented 
that they will leave. 



Wax lights are believed to at- 
tract specters, and this is the reason 
why churches are supposed to be 
haunted. 

If a person wished to know 
whose ghost he was seeing, he 
would turn up his cuff or collar and 
thus it would expose its face and 
remain as long as he kept the cuff 
turned up. 

In the Castle of Orlamunde, if 
the servants hear a little bird chirp- 
ing at night, they know that the 
white lady who haunts the halls or 
ruins of at least a hundred castles 
around, is coming to warn the 
household of some evil that will 
happen. 

In West Surrey, there is a belief 
that when an infant dies it goes, ap- 
parently in the body, to the nearest 
relative and announces its own 
death. 

In New Zealand, when a person 
is about to die, his ghost is believed 
always to appear to the nearest and 
dearest, no matter how far away. 

If the "fetch-lights" are seen, 
they are considered the forerunners 
of death, in Wales. 

When a member of the Graham 
family was to die, a lady in green 
was always seen seated under a 
particular tree in the grounds of 
Kincardine Castle, weeping that 
the shadow of death hung over the 
family. 

In Scotland, the family of Roth- 
murchas have "the ghost of the 
hill" to warn them of death. 

A spirit in gray always appears 
to a Campbell about to die. 

The house of Forbes is warned 
by a lady in green sleeves. 

In Denmark, it is believed that 
specters may be driven away by 
smoking the room with the smoke 
of a tallow candle. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



zao7 



In 1657, the way to conjure a 
ghost was to sit cross-legged, spit 
three times to east, south and west, 
and say: ''In the name of God, 
what art thou, whence dost thou 
come?" 

The writing on the wall, "Mene, 
Mene, Tekel Upharsin," was a sign 
of the destruction of Babylon and 
the death of Belshazzar. 

In Wales, a large luminous body 
which rests close to the ground, 
frequently covering a large space, 
is called the "tamoed," and is 
thought to be the token of the de- 
mise of anyone over whose land it 
hovers. 

To prevent a visit from the spirit 
of the deceased a Hidatsa Indian 
scorches with red coals a pair of 
moccasins, which are left at the 
door of the lodge. The smell of the 
burning leather keeps out the 
ghost 

In New Zealand, it is considered 
very ominous to see the figure of 
an absent friend ; if the face is not 
visible, he will die soon ; while if it 
is plain to be seen, he is dead al- 
ready. 

If your house is haunted, bum 
rosemary bush, cow-dung, and 
horn, and the duppy will leave. 
(Jamaica.) 

To see a ghost or "duppy," you 
must look over your left shoulder. 
(Jamaica.) 

To make a duppy laugh, show, it 
a fire stick. (Jamaica.) 

In the Turks Islands, if one 
wishes to have the power to see 
•*jumbies," "duppies," or ghosts, 
all that is necessary is to put in 
one's eye the water from the eye 
of a piebald horse. 

Mark a circle on your door with 
chalk, and no duppy will enter. 
(Jamaica.) 



Byron often received visits from 
a specter, but said he believed it 
to be a creature of his imagination. 
Newstead Abbey, the family home 
of Lord Byron, like most feudal 
homes and castles, had its ghost 

If a person at night suddenly 
sees a shadowy image of himself — 
**seeing his wraith," the Scotch call 
it — he is then soon to die. 

One day when Servius slept in 
his chamber, Tanaquil saw playing 
about his head a flame of fire. This 
was a sign that the boy would rise 
to greatness. Servius became a 
famous grammarian, and died 
about 300 B. C. 

The family of Rothmurchan, in 
Scotland, always had death or dis- 
aster foretold them by the appear- 
ance of a specter called Bodac au 
Dun. 

The family of Middleton, in 
Yorkshire, are warned of death by 
the appearance of a Benedictine 
nun. 

To see a dead person go about 
in white, meant that another of the 
family was to die. (Western Nor- 
way.) 

Goethe states that he one day 
saw the exact counterpart of him- 
self, coming towards him. 

The Australian natives are much 
afraid of ghosts at night. They stand 
in greatest dread of the ghost of a 
man who was feared in life, and 
this feeling is greater after a lapse 
of several years from the time of 
his death. 

To shout, whistle, or carry mut- 
ton at night, will cause the ghosts 
to follow the person doing so. 
(Madagascar.) 

Count Emanuel Swedenborg 
continually talked with spirits, and 
wrote great works about his visits 
to heaven and hell. 



I908 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Pope saw an arm apparently 
come right through the wsh, and 
made inquiries after its owner. 

Jumbies are, in folklore of Brit- 
ish Guiana, ghosts pure and simple, 
in which the simple, but not always 
pure, believe. 

If three persons hang up a mos- 
quito-net together, they will see a 
specter. (J^an.) 

Bohemian tradition tells of a tall 
woman in white with long dishevel- 
ed hair, who goes about on certain 
nights, seeking disobedient chil- 
dren. 

If you see a person whom you 
know to be sick walking on the 
street, that person will surely die. 

A soldier of 1878, a Highlander, 
told a correspondent that his moth- 
er's wraith came and stood by hini 
at the hour she died in Scotland, 
while he was on guard in India, in 
the Indian mutiny. 

If a person sees his or her shad- 
ow in the water in the month of 
May, he or she will die before the 
year is out 

About the middle of the seventh 
Chinese month, which falls during 
our autumn, paper clothes, i chi, 
are burned by many in their laun- 
dries and shops, a rite said to be 
performed for the spirit world at 
large, both Chinese and foreign 
ghosts being propitiated or honor- 
ed. 

Whoso takes home with him 
some oi the grains of com which is 
the food of a specter hen and her 
chicks, will find them transformed 
into grains of gold. (German.) 

Ignatius Loyola, the founder of 
the order of the Jesuits, was until 
his thirtieth year a worldly knight, 
who, l)ring wounded on the field of 
Pampeluna, had an apparition of 
the Virgin. Being sent by his chiv- 
alrous captors to his father's castle. 



he was induced by the reading of 
some pious books, intended to di- 
vert the tedium of his illness, to 
devote himself to a religious life, 
a resolution in which he was much 
strengthened by his vision on the 
battlefield. 

When Jochebad, the wife of Am- 
ram, the Hebrew, in the land of 
Egypt, brought forth a son, Moses, 
the whole house was filled with 
great light, as of the light of the 
sun and moon at the time of their 
shining. ("Book of Jasher.") 

If you want to see duppies, take 
the matter from a dog s eye and 
rub your eye with it; and if you 
are troubled by duppies, sprinkle 
sand before your door at night. 
(Jamaica.) 

To take oflF a "duppy," let the 
person on whom it is set, sit on a 
Bible and jump three times over a 
fire. A goat or some other ani- 
mal's blood must be shed on the 
fire, and the flesh partaken of by all 
present (Jamaica.) 

The "white lady" of Talks-hill. 
Gloucestershire, is said to scream 
if any danger threatens a miner in 
passing that way; and so firm is the 
belief in that part, that none hear- 
ing that sound will go to work that 
day, or proceed in the direction 
they intended g^ing. 

Grongers are ghosts of people 
who have been buried at sea. They 
come to the most distant parts of 
the world to warn their friends of 
their death, and appear at twilight 
in wet clothes. 

In some parts of Northern 
Europe, when Odin, the spectral 
hunter, rides by with his furious 
host, the windows in every sick- 
room are opened in order tfiat the 
soul, if it wishes to depart, shall not 
be hindered irom joining the head- 
long chase. 



I3IO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



walked about in his shroud from his 
room to the chapel, carrying his 
head under his arm. 

The estate of Treville was gfiven 
to an old family who came with 
William the Conqueror to England. 
For many generations the fcimily 
has been declining, and has now 
become extinct. Tlirough all time, 
a peculiar token has marked the 
coming death of a Vingoe, the 
owners of Treville. Above the 
deep caverns in the Treville cliff 
rises a cairn. On this chains of fire 
were seen ascending and descend- 
ing, and often accompanied by loud 
and frightful noises. It is said that 
these tokens have not failed to fore- 
tell the death of the head of the fam- 
ily, but since the last male member 
died by a violent end, they have not 
been seen. 

If the Welsh mountaineers see a 
tall man, thin and pale, in the dusk 
of the evening when they go out, 
and he has a black dog whose steps 
are towards the marsh which is at 
the foot of Mount St Michael, they 
will run home, lock the doors, and 
fall on their knees to pray, for they 
believe that a tempest is coming. 
Soon after the winds howl, the 
thunder bursts forth in terrible 
peals, and the mountains shake to 
the base; and it is whispered that 
Merlin, the enchanter, is evoking 
the souls of the dead. 

The old "familiar," who had his 
abode in the castle near Biggar, 
Scotland, was called **Carmoolis," 
and was supposed to visit the 
houses of the dying in the village 
after dark; and children would 
never dare to repeat, after the sun 
went down, the old rhyme: 

"Carmoolb, Cannoolis, come if ye dare, 
Lift up the latch and draw the bar I" 

. Ghosts of one's ancestors in 
Scotland, can be prevented from 



hurting one for a year by rising at 
midnight and standing barefooted 
and snapping the fingers. Another 
plan is to put black beans in the 
mouth, walk out into the air, throw 
them one by one behind you, never 
look back, repeating these words: 
**With these beans I ransom my- 
self." 

To dear a house oi ghosts, the 
owner must clash cymbals of brass. 
In some houses, utensils of that 
metal were struck nine times by the 
master, repeating: "Avaunt, ye an- 
cestral manes I" 

Wm. Sharpe, M. D., in referring 
to his book, '*Dream Visions," 
says: "The meagre outline which 
I gave of the visions can give the 
reader no adequate idea of their 
vividness and the splendor of pres- 
entation; I believe they far siu*- 
pass those recorded by Anna 
Kingsford. They are only a few 
out of many far more striking, for 
instance: 

Six months before the tragic end 
of the Emperor of Russia, I saw, in 
vision, in the northeastern heavens, 
a great beast, like a Siberian mam- 
moth, suspended by ropes, which 
were suddenly cut, and the beast 
fell to the ground, with a force that 
tore up and scattered the earth in 
all directions. Other particulars 
followed which pointed to Russia." 
The beast, also the sun, is the an- 
cient symbol for a ruler. 

In watching in the churchyard to 
see the procession of ghosts of 
those who are to die the coming 
year, an old woman at Scarborough 
after many faces had passed that 
she knew, saw a figure turn and 
g^e at her. It was herself. She 
screamed, fell senseless to the 
ground, and did not survive the 
shock. 

The old sexton at a town in 
Yorkshire, always watched to see 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



I3II 



how many were coming to him the 
following year. 

A fiery streak passing through 
the air, as large as the pole 
that is placed across a cart- 
load of hay, is called in Ger- 
many, "the fiery dragon." If a 
person, on seeing it, does not get 
under shelter, he or she will be 
fouled by it, and will not be able to 
get rid of the stench for long after. 

If you see the ghost that walks at 
High Fell at midnight on midsum- 
mer night, and it passes you in si- 
lence, no harm save fright ensues. 
If she speaks to you, you will die 
within a year. (Mrs. Ward, "Rob- 
ert Elsmere.") 

« 

Anyone who meets his own dou- 
ble (as Shelley said he did, a few 
days before his end) is doomed to 
death. The writer, M. Barth, guar- 
antees the perfect accuracy of 
the following incident, which oc- 
curred fifty-seven years ago. We 
translate it from the French: 

A bookbinder of Strasburg of 

the name of K , a robust young 

man, who, as far as I know, was not 
particularly superstitious, returned 
from a fire where he had been over- 
heated. Seeking to quench his 
thirst, he went down into the cellar 
to get a glass of wine, when on 
opening the door he saw himself 
bending down before the barrel 
and drawing the wine. At his ap- 
proach the specter turned his head, 
looked at him with an unconcerned 
air, and disappeared. The appari- 
tion did not last an instant. He 
mounted the stairs again pale and 
tottering. The same evening he 
was taken vrith a shivering fit, he 
took to his bed, and he died a few 
days later, carried off by a high 
fever. 

The Faenol ghost was much 
talked of in die olden time in the 



neighborhood of Bangor, Carnar- 
vonshire. It used to be very trou- 
blesome, often appearing to way- 
farers in the night in the shape of 
a large bird screeching amongst 
the branches of the trees, and utter- 
ing in a shrill voice: 

Gwael gwae! imi erioed 
Ro'i bwyall mewn troed 
I dori coed y Faenol! 

Woe! woe's me that I ever put 

A handle to my axe 

To fell the trees of Faenol! 

Tradition will have it to be the 
ghost of a person who was execut- 
ed for felling trees in this neighbor- 
hood. 

Many years ago two old maiden 
sisters who were known as Shukan 
and Bettan, lived together at the 
Oak, a small tenement distant 
about half a mile from Mochdre 
church, in Wales. In course of 
time, Shukan, who was the older of 
the two, died, and was buried in 
the churchyard. It appears that 
she had not been treated kindly, 
especially dtu'ing her last illness, by 
Bettan; and before her departure 
she declared that she would "trou- 
ble" her unkind sister. One night 
soon afterwards, true to her prom- 
ise, Shukan appeared at the bed- 
room window, clad in a shroud. 
She rapped incessantly, shrieking 
ever and anon, "Bettan, thee art 
worse than Judas," "Bettan, thee 
are worse than Judas." Poor Bet- 
tan was terrified; and imploringly 
asked what she should do to get rid 
of the "trouble." "Come with me 
to the churchyard," was the reply. 
To this she assented; and hurriedly 
prepared to accompany her unwel- 
come visitor. They proceeded on 
their way. In passing Bron-y-llan 
farmhouse, a cock crew; and the 
ghost of Shukan immediately van- 
ished. Bettan thereupon returned 
home, to be "troubled" no more. 



laia 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



There is a legend of a bull that 
had no skin, but kept up a contin- 
ual roaring. This animal frequent- 
ed a bridge at Bagbury, to the 
grievous detriment of the people 
living there. It was declared to be 
possessed of a devil, and to such a 
pass had things come that seven 
parsons out of the district were 
gathered together in the church to 
**pray the devil down," or try and 
exorcise the evil one. In the midst 
of these proceedings Old Nick him- 
self appeared in propria person^ 
and made his entry with such a 
rush that the church walls were 
rent asunder, and all the lights were 
put out except one candle, which a 
ready-witted parson hid in his vest- 
ments. Thus the meeting broke up 
in confusion,' but the disturbed 
clerics were not long in arranging 
a second gathering, and at this they 
were more successful, and their la- 
bors resulted in the unruly spirit 
being "laid." The le^nd contin- 
] ues that they buried it under the 
southern abutment of the bridge 
over the Camlad in Churchstoke 
village, where it is supposed to be 
safely ensconced at present. 

Once in a while there appears 
on the Rhine, St. Ursula with her 
11,000 virgins, visible only to peo- 
ple with sharp eyes or an enlighten- 
ed spirit Legend tells that they 
had been massacred by the invad- 
ing Huns, because they objected to 
their style of wooing. "This is a 
warning to deal gently with the 
savage wooer." 

German legends tell of the ghost 
of Genevieve of Brabant, who 
roams about the villages of the 
Rhine with no covering but her 
long golden hair, and with no other 
purpose than to relieve herself of 
the ghost of a suspicious husband, 
who still follows her. By her ap- 
pearance, she gives warning to silly 



maidens not to marry a jealous 
fellow. 

At Aberwerth, on the Rhine, is 
a troop of unmarried damsels who 
are doomed to dance forever, until 
they find lovers who are willing ta 
marry them. While living, they 
would not wait to let lovers woo 
them on their fathers' hearths, and 
ran after the young men instead; 
so they are punished for their for- 
wardness. 

Negroes in Virginia say that if a 
spook is present, there is a feeling 
of heat as it approaches you. If at 
the same time you notice a peculiar 
kind of smell, it will warn you that 
you too will be a ghost within a 
year. If you dare to answer a 
ghost when it speaks to you, you 
might as well make your will. 

A "boggart" is a gate ghost,, 
which sits on top of a gate or fence. 
Most English families were haunt- 
ed by one; some were the fore- 
runners of death when they ap- 
peared; some were the wandering 
souls of murdered folks ; and others 
were mischievous goblins. 

The wraith of a living person, ac- 
cording to Dr. Jameson, **does not> 
as some have supposed, indicate 
that he shall die soon; although in 
all cases viewed as a premonition 
of the disembodied state. The sea- 
son in the natural day in which the 
specter makes its appearance is 
understood as a certain presage of 
the time of the person's departure; 
if seen early in the morning, it 
forebodes that he shall live long, 
and even arrive at old age; if in 
the evening, it means that his death 
is close at hand." 

A correspondent writes: "My 
sister Marion had a son named 
John. He enlisted in the British 
army under an assumed name, and 
no trace could be found of him^ 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



Z3I3 



and nothing was icnown of him for 
years. One day my sister was sit- 
ting in her house near the Clyde, 
when she saw her son John enter 
by one door, look at her as she 
exclaimed, and when she asked, 
••Where have you been so long?" 
he disappeared. Then she said to 
me, "I knew it was his wraith!" A 
few months later, a soldier from In- 
dia called to tell her her son was 
killed by falling ofiF his horse at 
Munniar. When the doctor told 
him he had not long to live, he 
gave his right name and where his 
parents lived, gave his watch and 
other trinkets to his comrade to 
take to his mother. He died at the 
time his mother saw his ghost." 

Before the death of one of the 
lords of Lusignan, the form of 
Melusina appeared in the air, ut- 
tering long lamentable cries. She 
was dressed in mourning. On the 
extinction of the family, Melusina 
appeared on the old tower of Lu- 
signan, and whenever a king of 
France was to depart this life. 

At Heisterbach on the Rhine, the 
last abbot of the community still 
wanders about the ruins of the old 
abbey, looking in vain for the 
grave which is denied to his bones 
until every vestige of the abbey 
disappears. It is a bad omen for a 
person to carry away a piece of 
the abbey as a relic; something 
grievous always happens to him. 

The spirit of an ancestor slain in 
battle heard galloping along a 
stony bank, and riding thrice 
around the family residence, ring- 
ing his fairy bridle, is the sign of 
death in the Highland family of 
McLean of Lochburg. 

If you see a raw heart or liver of 
beef brought before you when you 
are in a captivated state of gloom, 
it is a sign of murder or of great 



fright, and your life may be at 
stake. It is a very old superstition 
and seldom encountered nowadays, 
except where people live in a con- 
tinual strife and contest about life 
and rights. 

There is a belief in Spain that if 
one goes out at nighttime, there is 
great danger of meeting the 
•*Squadra d'Arrossa," an invisible 
procession of people long since 
dead, who sweep the streets about 
midnight. Whoever meets them and 
crosses their path will not live the 
year out. It is therefore considered 
very dangerous to go out after 
dark. 

A midnight wanderer often met 
with in folklore, is a specter 
in white carrying a lantern. 
He appears at first as a mere child, 
but as you look at him he waxes 
in stature every moment, until he 
becomes of gigantic size, and then, 
having done his worst, he vanishes. 
This spirit never shows itself to 
anyone carrying a lantern. 

Wherever the "Welfin Lady 
Guelph" is seen, it is a very bad 
omen. She was seen in the castle 
of Brunswick the night before the 
battle of Jena, and it is said that her 
former apparition had all but de- 
termined the representative of her 
house to resign the command of the 
Prussian army. 

On the Rhine, the Abbess Hildc- 
garde, one of the wives of Karlo- 
man, is said to be the inventress of 
healing ointments, pills and plas- 
ters, and is considered the patron- 
ess of patent medicines. If she ap- 
pears to sick persons, she will 
cause them soon to recover. 

Lord Castlereagh, the same who 
afterwards cut his own throat, was 
once visiting Lord Lytton's father 
at their family seat, Knebworth. 
Without any warning to the visitor. 



I8I4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



he was given the bedchamber 
called the ''Yellow Boy's Room." 
Next morning Castlereagh told 
Mr. Bulwer he had been very seri- 
ously alarmed in the night ''I 
woke suddenly," he said, '*and saw 
the figure of a boy sitting in front 
of the fire, with his back to me, and 
long yellow hair streaming down it 
As I woke, it turned, rose, came to 
my bedside, and drawing back the 
curtain with one hand, with the 
other passed his finger across its 
throat" Mr. Bulwer did not tell 
Lord Castlereagh that the boy al- 
ways appeared to any one about to 
die a violent death and foretold the 
manner of it (Frith 's Autobiogra- 
phy.) 

The lost child is a specter which 
troubles many superstitious people. 
A little girl is said to be wandering 
during storms and rain, and if she 
stops at your house wailing and 
moaning, do not open to her, or 
you will rue it. 

The so-called ghost-dance is one 
of the most dangerous of the In- 
dian superstitions. They believe 
that after this dance has been duly 
given, the spirits of the dead chiefs 
and braves will return to the earth 
and help exterminate the whites. 

Near the coast in Lyme, there 
appears, from time to time, a lady 
dressed in silk, and when she disap- 
pears, coins and gems are sure to 
be found. Another Lyme super- 
stition is that a certain Lady San- 
ford is doomed to wander at a cer- 
tain place a ''cock stride a year/' 
saying: 

"I rue the time 

I sold water for wine 

And combed my hair of a Sunday." 

In Transylvania, if a person's 
shadow is measured with a piece of 
string and the string buried, he will 
die in forty days. 

A ghostly knight is often to be 



seen in the window at Roland's 
Eck, on the Rhine, that same win- 
dow from which the great warrior 
Roland saw the body of his love 
borne from the convent below to 
her grave. This sad spectacle, be- 
ing too much for the heart of the 
man who had scattered legions 
with his single arm, had been the 
cause of his death. 

At Rheydt, in Rhenish Prussia, 
there are what is called the "rest- 
less riders." If you go to their 
meeting place at the proper time, 
you can see a host of them in the 
tournament field, there engaged in 
a passage at arms, charging 
fiercely at one another and 
galloping about like mad, but 
so silently and lightly that 
nothing can be heard, except, of 
course, by those who get there at 
the right time. 

It is believed that a ghost has 
not the power to speak until it is 
first spoken to. The mode of ad- 
dressing a ghost is to ask it in the 
name of the three persons of the 
Trinity, to tell you who it is and 
what is its business? This it may 
be necessary to repeat three times, 
after which it will, in a low and 
hollow voice, declare its satisfac- 
tion at being spoken to, and desire 
the party addressing it not to be 
afraid, as it will do him no harm; 
and it will then proceed to say what 
it wishes of you. 

St. Andrew's cross appeared in 
the sky to Achains, king of Scots, 
and Hungus, king of the Picts, the 
night before the battle with Athel- 
stan, as a presage of victory. 

A cross appeared to Don Alonzo 
before the battle of Ourique, in 
1139, in the eastern sky, with the 
promise of victory. 

The conversion of Constantine 
the Great was due to the apparition 
of a flaming cross, with the motto. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1315 



**In hoc signo vinccs" ("Under this 
cross thou shalt conquer"). He 
adopted it as his standard and won 
the battle against Maxentius, A. D. 
312. 

The Teton Indians say that when 
a quiet and well behaved person 
dies, his ghost is apt to be restless 
and cause trouble; but the ghost of 
a bad person who dies a natural 
death, is never feared. The ghost 
of a murdered person is always 
dangerous. If a ghost calls to a 
loved one and he answers, he will 
die soon after. If someone is heard 
weeping outside of a lodge, it is a 
sign that someone dwelling in that 
lodge is doomed to die. If a sister 
dies, she has a strong desire to 
come back and carry away a be- 
loved brother. So in the event of a 
death in the family, a gun is fired 
or medicine is thrown on the fire to 
make a smoke to drive away the 
ghost If one who is alone, en- 
counters a ghost, it will pull his 
mouth and eyes until they are 
crooked. This danger is encoun- 
tered only by one who has dreamed 
of a ghost He who has harmed a 
ghost always faints, and it is hard 
to revive him. 

Among the tribes of the Siouan 
family, the word wa-n4-ghi 
(*'ghost") means more than "appa- 
rition." The living man is sup- 
posed to have one, two, or more 
wanaghi, one of which, after death, 
remains at the grave and another 
goes to the place of the departed. 
The writer has been told that for 
many years no Dakota would con- 
sent to have his picture taken lest 
one of his wa-ni-ghi should remain 
in the picture instead of going after 
death to the spirit land. The Te- 
tons call the lock of hair cut from 
the forehead of the deceased and 
kept for some time by the parents 
the "ghost'* or "shadow"; and till 



it is buried the deceased is sup- 
posed to retain his usual place in 
the household circle. (Dorsey, 
Teton Folklore.) 

There is a ghost at Beaupr6, 
Glamorganshire, Wales, and a cen- 
tury ago much more of this house 
was habitable than at present. It 
was, and still is, the creed of the 
neighborhood that one or more of 
the old dames Bassett haunted in 
spirit the scene of their abode while 
in the flesh. Spirits of this kind 
were not often visible, but their 
presence became known by the 
rustling of the stiff silk dresses with 
which, as when in the body, they 
delighted to deck themselves. An 
old woman who had been in service 
at Beaupr^ when a girl, related that 
one night she and her fellow-serv- 
ants were going to bed, and bolted 
their door as usual. The staircase 
to their bedroom was a narrow 
stone one, and they distinctly heard 
someone in a rustling silk dress 
ascending it. They put out their 
candles instantly and dashed into 
bed, but the silk-dressed lady came 
into the room and moved about 
there for some time; but, although 
they looked, they could not see 
her. 

The Ainu people of Japan are 
very much afraid of the ghosts of 
the dead returning to their homes; 
and tell how, in ancient times, they 
used to bum down the huts in 
which the oldest woman of the 
family had died. She was thought 
to possess great power of evil, and 
if she returned, she would blight 
the prospects of her relatives. 

The Duke of Somerset, the great 
sacrilegious nobleman of the time 
of Henry VIII., who worked such 
mischief and perpetrated such rob- 
beries of God's poor, is said to have 
been more than once warned of 
his coming death on the scaffold 



Z3l6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



by the appearance of a bloody hand 
stretched out from the panelled 
wall of the corridor of his mansion; 
it is also said that the hand was vis- 
ible to his duchess as well as him- 
self. 

God himself once gave a warn- 
ing to men in a writing on the wall. 
At Belshazzar's feast, a hand of 
light appeared upon the wall and 
wrote the Aramaic words "Mene 
mene tekel upharsin," which trans- 
lated into English, mean, "Thou 
hast been weighed in the balance 
and found wanting.'' 

The specter with the bloody 
hand appears to the Kincardines 
and challenges them to fight with 
him. He who accepts the chal- 
lenge dies. 

Another family in Wales has a 
death warner in the shape of a girl 
with a hairy hand. 

Before the death of a McLean 
of Lochburg, the phantom of an 
ancestor was seen galloping along 
the sea beach and uttering doleful 
lamentations. 

The dead monks of Kreuzberg 
who lie there in the vault, uncoffin- 
ed, garmented as they lived, are 
given to jollity and illicit sports 
about midnight The old dead gar- 
dener with his withered wreath 
about his skull, the last of the 
brotherhood, sits upright on his 
stone seat, and trolls such catches, 
and tells such stories, that the rest 
of them regularly die of laughing, 
and don't wake up until the fol- 
lowing night's dews. If a traveler 
stops to listen to their weird laugh- 
ter, and hears any of the chat, it 
will be a great misfortune to him 
and his family. 

Japanese ghosts have hair loose 
and long, falling weirdly over the 
face. They are diaphanous and 
pretematurally tall, only the upper 



part of the figure is ever shown, 
the lower part fading utterly away. 
So the Japanese always declare "a 
ghost has no feet." (Lafcadio 
Heam, "Glimpses of Unfamiliar 
Japan.") 

At Falkenberg, there is said to 
be a ghostly knight When he was 
alive, he spent his nights with a 
phantom lady and pledged his love 
to her. After a time, however, he 
married a living lady, pretty and 
substantial, as brides of upper earth 
should be. The result may serve 
as a warning to all, "It is best to be 
off with the old love before you are 
on with the new!" The newly- 
married couple speedily died of 
fright, for every night the cold 
form of "the other" lay between 
them, as a mutely anno3dng re- 
proach upon the infidelity of the 
bridegroom. This knight's spirit is 
ever roaming about, seeking his 
two brides, but he is deprived of 
both. Any single person who sees 
him will make an unhappy mar- 
riage, so say the natives of the 
Rhine, who seem to have ghosts 
for the particular purpose of point- 
ing a moral as well as adorning a 
tale. 

The Manxmen believe that their 
Isle of Man was originally inhabit- 
ed by one gigantic man named 
Manannan. He protected the isl- 
and by a mist If, however, his 
enemies succeeded in approaching 
in spite of this, he threw chips into 
the water, which became warships, 
and his stronghold being Peel Cas- 
tle, he could make one man on its 
battlements look like a thousand. 
He became jealous of Cuchulainn, 
with whom his wife, Fand, had 
fallen in love, and shook a cloak of 
invisibility between the two which 
produced forgetfulness, so that he 
carried his wife off to fairy land. 
His strength and ferocity became 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



Z3I7 



the terror of the whole island. He 
used to transport himself with great 
ease across the gorge between 
Peel Castle and Contrary Head. 
On one occasion, in a fit of rage, he 
lifted a large block of granite from 
the castle rock and, although it 
weighed several tons, hurled it, 
with the greatest ease, against the 
slope of the opposite hill, about 
three miles distant, where it is seen 
to this day, with the print of his 
hand upon it He went about on 
three legs at a great pace, and from 
that is derived the coat of arms of 
the island His grave is said to be 
the green mound thirty yards long 
outside the walls of Peel Castle. 
(Moore, **Folk-Lore of the Isle of 
Man.") 

A headless man is the habitu6 of 
one of the stages in Newfoundland, 
and said to be the ghost of a 
Frenchman. Many people assert 
having seen this apparition, and 
consider it an evil omen. In the 
neighborhood of this ghost's haunt 
is a locality which was formerly in- 
habited by Frenchmen. There is a 
good beach for landing, but no boat 
will remain tied to it. Fasten the 
painter as you will, ghostly hands 
untie the knots again and again. 
An old fisherman living there 
claims to have had some strange 
experiences. He saw a mer- 
maid sitting 0.1 a rock as plain- 
ly as ever he saw anything, and 
was within a couple of boats' 
lengths of her when she dived to 
her crystal depths below. 

The "jumbi," according to the 
superstition of the negroes of Ber- 
muda, are the spirits of their an- 
cestors. The word "jumbi" is ap- 
parently equivalent to ghost. These 
jumbi tfiey fully believe to be about 
them all the time. They often say 
they have seen the jumbi of their 
father or mother or of some other 



person. The owl is called the 
"jumbi-bird," and held sacred. No 
African would injure one of them 
on any account. The silk-cotton 
tree is also sacred; it is the jumbi 
tree, haunted by the spirits of the 
dead. A correspondent who lived 
for many years in the West Indies, 
chiefly in St. Vincent and St. 
Lucia, says that he had a magnifi- 
cent silk-cotton tree on one of his 
estates, and it was with the greatest 
difficulty that he could ever get a 
negro to free it from the orchid 
growths that infested the boughs; 
they were afraid to disturb the 
"jumbi-tree," afraid of the wrath of 
the ghosts. 

Many of the negroes of Ber- 
muda keep a fetish in their houses, 
which is held sacred. It is a piece 
of wood or something else that a 
jumbi has touched. It protects 
them from accidents and from evil. 
Even when converted to Christian- 
ity, they will persist in keeping 
these fetishes in their houses, so as 
to be on the safe side in all events. 

Allanbank, one of the residences 
of the noble Scotch family, the 
Stuarts, has been haunted for years 
by a ghost called "Pearlin Jean." 
She may be **laid" now, but she was 
once the most celebrated ghost in 
Scotland. She was a French wom- 
an whom one of the Stuarts kept as 
his mistress. He deserted her, and 
was just getting into his carriage 
to leave when his lady unexpected- 
ly made her appearance, and step- 
ping on the fore wheel of the coach 
to speak to her lover, he bade the 
postillion to drive on. She fell, and 
one of the wheels passing over her 
forehead, crushed her and killed 
her instantly. When Mr. Stuart 
got home to Allanbank and was 
driving under the gateway, he per- 
ceived Pearlin Jean sitting on top 
of the arch, her head and shoulders 



iis8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



streaming with blood. After that 
she haunted the house at all times, 
and rustled around in her high- 
heeled shoes and rich silks. At 
one time they had seven ministers 
come to see if they could not "lay" 
the ghost, but she became worse 
than ever. She was called "Pear- 
lin" from the quantity of that lace 
which always appeared on her cos- 
tume. 

Sir Alexander Jardine of Apple- 
garth owned Spedlin's Tower, and 
for some ofiFense confined in the 
dungeon a man named Porteous. 
He went cm a journey, taking his 
keys with him, and after a few days 
suddenly remembered the poor 
man, who, confined and starving, 
might be dead. He sent the keys 
back by a messenger, but it was 
too late; Porteous had died of hun- 
ger. At once his ghost began to 
haunt Spedlin's Tower from roof to 
cellar, and so annoyed the family 
that they had a score of ministers 
come to lay the ghost. They only 
succeeded, however, in driving him 
back to the scene of his death, 
where he would be heard crying 
and moaning, "Let me out, let me 
out; I' deeing o' hunger." He 
would flutter against the door of 
the vault, and if a twig was thrown 
through the keyhole, he would be 
siu'e to remove the bark. The spell 
that kept the ghost in this place 
was a large black-lettered Bible. 
Once, when it was taken from the 
house? he at once escaped, and 
played such terrible pranks that it 
was quickly returned. This story 
is told by Grose, the antiquarian, 
in 1788, and other writers and peo- 
ple corroborate it 

The Duke of Buckingham, 
prime minister of Charles I., king of 
England, was much hated by the 
people, and at last stabbed by Lieu- 
tenant Felton, in the thirty-sixth 



year of his age. Lord Qarendon, 
in his history of the rebellion in 
England, gives the following ac- 
count of an apparition, which pre- 
ceded Buckingham's death: 

To one of the officers of the 
wardrobe at Windsor, who had 
been studying in a college at Paris, 
appeared one night a man oi vener- 
able aspect After the apparition 
had asked him twice whether he 
knew him or not, the officer recog- 
nized him as George Villiers, the 
father oi the Duke of Bucking- 
ham. 

After this, the apparition begged 
him to do him the favcH* and go to 
his son the duke, in his name, and 
tell him "that he must exert him- 
self to make himself popular, or at 
least to soothe the embittered 
minds of the people, otherwise he 
vrould not be permitted to live 
long." After this the apparition 
vanished, and the (^cer slept 
quietly till morning, when at his 
awakening he recollected all the 
particulars of his mysterious dream. 
But not taking any great notice of 
said dream, he did not do as the 
apparition had ordered him. 

A few nights after, the apparition 
came again, and begged him more 
severely, but it was not till the 
third time that the apparition made 
its appearance to him, that he went 
and gave the duke the particulars 
of this vision. 

But the duke did not take any 
notice of the dream at all, acted as 
he had done before, and the result 
is known. 

In (wder that the ghost may 
travel the ghost-road in safety, it is 
necessary for each Lakota during 
his life to be tattooed, either in the 
middle of the forehead or on the 
wrists. In that event, his spirit will 
go directly to the "Many Lodges." 
The other spirit road is said to be 



tOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



Z3I9 



short, and the foolish one who trav- 
els it never reaches the ''Many 
Lodges." An old woman sits in 
the road, and she examines each 
ghost that passes. If she cannot 
find the tattoo marks on the fore- 
head, wrists, or chin, the unhappy 
ghost is pushed from a cloud or 
cliff and falls to this world. Such 
is the lot of the ghosts that wander 
o'er the earth. They can never 
travel the spirit road again, so they 
go about whistling, with no fixed 
abode* 

A young Lakota died just be- 
fore marrying a young girl whom 
he loved. The girl mourned his 
death, so she cut her hair here and 
there with a dull knife, and gashed 
her limbs, just as if she had been 
an old woman. The ghost retiun- 
ed and took her for his wife. 
Whenever the tribe camped for the 
night, the ghost's wife pitched her 
tent at some distance from the 
others, and when the people re- 
moved their camp, the woman and 
her husband kept some distance 
behind the main body. The ghost 
always told the woman what to do; 
and he brought game to her reg- 
ularly, which the wife gave to the 
people in exchange for other arti- 
cles. The people could neither see 
nor hear the ghost, but they heard 
his wife address him. He always 
sent word to the tribe when there 
was to be a high wind or heavy 
rain. He could read the thoughts 
of his wife, so that she need not 
speak a word to him, and when she 
felt a desire for anything he soon 
obtained it for her. (Dorsey, Te- 
ton Folk-Lore.) 

Nicholas I., Prince of Montene- 
gro, bom 1841, was alarmed by the 
appearance of a dead body which 
vanished and came again at inter- 
vals. This was followed bv human 
faces which came into the room, 



and after gazing at him awhile, de- 
parted. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, the great 
English portrait painter, bom 1723, 
leaving his house, thought the 
lamps were trees, and the men and 
women bushes agitated by the 
breeze. 

OUver Cromwell, lying sleepless 
on his couch, saw the curtains open 
and a gigantic woman appear, who 
told him he would become the 
greatest man in England. 

Ben Jonson, the celebrated Eng- 
lish dramatist of the Elizabethan 
age, spent the watches of the night 
an interested spectator of a crowd 
oi Tartars, Turks, and Roman 
Catholics, who rose up and fought 
around his armchair until sunrise. 

Bostock, the physiologist, saw 
figures and faces, and there was 
one human face before him for 
twenty-four hours. The features 
and head were as distinct as those 
of a living person. These visions 
and apparitions were supposed to 
portend some great change in the 
lives of those who experienced 
them. 

It is a widespread belief that one 
can injure a person by stepping on 
his shadow, stabbing it, or assault- 
ing it in any way, thus inflicting the 
same injury upon the person him- 
self. In the East, it is also believed 
that a man's shadow can be en- 
tirely separated from him, and that 
death would be the result 

In the Island of Wetar, in the 
Eastern Archipelago near Celebes, 
the magicians profess to make a 
man ill by stabbing his shadow 
with a spear or hacking it with a 
sword. 

Sankara, to prove his super- 
natural powers to the Grand Lama, 
soared into the air; but as he 
mounted up, the Grand Lama per- 
ceiving his shadow swaying and 



I320 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



wavering on the ground, stuck his 
knife into it, upon which down fell 
Sankara and broke his neck. 

It was thought in Arabia, that if 
a hyena trod on a man's shadow, it 
deprived him of the power erf 
speech; also if a dog were standing 
on a Tool and a hyena should tread 
on its shadow, the dog would fall 
as if dragged down by a rope. 
Again, it was believed that if a dog 
trod on the shadow of a hyena, it 
would render the hyena dumb. 

Whoever entered the sanctuary 
of Zeus on Mount Lycaeus, was 
believed to lose his shadow and to 
die within a year. In the west 
country of England, is an old be- 
lief that many have sold their souls 
to the devil, and that those who do 
so lose their shadow; from this it 
would seem to be thought that the 
shadow contains the soul — the 
"Ka" of ancient Egypt 

"Sir Charles Lee, by his first 
lady, had only one daughter, of 
which she died in child-birth, and 
when she was dead, her sister, the 
Lady Everard, desired to have the 
education of the child, and she was 
very well educated till she was 
marriageable, and a match was 
concluded for her with Sir W. Par- 
kins, but was then prevented in an 
extraordinary manner. Upon a 
Thursday night she, thinking she 
saw a light in her chamber after she 
was in bed, knocked for her maid, 
who presently came to her, and she 
asked, 'Why she left a candle 
burning in her room?' The maid 
answered that she had 'left none, 
and that there was none but what 
she had brought with her at that 
time;' then she said it must be the 
fire; but that, her maid told her, 
was quite out, adding, she believed 
it was only a dream, whereupon 
Miss Lee answered it might be so, 
and composed herself again to 



sleep. But about two of the dock 
she was awakened again, and saw 
the apparition of a little woman 
between her curtains and her pil- 
low, \rtio told her she was her 
mother, that she was happy, and 
that by twelve of the clock that day 
she should be with her. Where- 
upon she knocked again for her 
maid, called for her clothes, and 
when she was dressed, went into 
her closet and came not out again 
till nine, and then brought out with 
her a letter sealed to her father, 
carried it to her aunt. Lady Ever- 
ard, told her what had happened, 
and desired that as soon as she was 
dead it might be sent to him. The 
lady thought she was suddenly fall- 
en mad, and therefore sent present- 
ly away to Chelmsford for a physi- 
cian and surgeon, who both came 
immediately, but the physician 
could discern no indication of what 
the lady imagined, or of any indis- 
position of her body; notwithstand- 
ing the lady would needs have her 
let blood, which was done accord- 
ingly; and when the young woman 
had patiently let them do what they 
would with her, she desired that 
the chaplain might be called to 
read prayers; and when prayers 
were ended, she took her guitar 
and psalm-book and sat down upon 
a chair without arms, and played 
and sung so melodiously and ad- 
mirably that her music-master, 
who was then there, admired at it; 
and near the stroke of twelve she 
rose and sat herself down in a grezi 
chair with arms, and presently, 
fetching a strong breathing or two, 
she immediately expired, and was 
so suddenly cold as was much won- 
dered at by the physician and sur- 
geon. She died at Waltham, in 
Essex, three miles from Chelms- 
ford, and the letter was sent to Sir 
Charles, at his house in Warwick- 
shire; but he was so afflicted at the 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1321 



death of his daughter that he came 
not till she was buried; but when 
he came, he caused her to be taken 
up and to be buried with her moth- 
er at Edmonton, as she desired in 
her letter." 

**Belshazzar, the king, made a 
great feast to a thousand of his 
lords, and drank wine before the 
thousand. Belshazzar, while he 
tasted the wine, commanded to 
bring the golden and silver vessels 
which his father, Nebuchadnezar, 
had taken out of the temple which 
was in Jerusalem, that the king and 
his princes, his wives and his con- 
cubines, might drink therein. Then 
they brought the golden vessels 
that were taken out of the temple 
of the house of God which was at 
Jerusalem, and the king and his 
princes, his wives and his concu- 
bines, drank in them. They drank 
wine and praised the gods of gold 
and of silver, of brass, of iron, of 
wood and of stone. 

"In the same house came forth 
fingers of a man's hand, and wrote 
over against the candlestick, upon 
the plaster of the wall of the king's 
palace; and the king saw the part 
of the hand that wrote. Then the 
king's countenance was changed 
and his thoughts troubled him, so 
that the joints of his loins were 
loosed and his knees smote to- 
gether one against the other. And 
this is the writing that was written: 

'mene mene tekel upharsin.' 
Which, translated, means: 'TTiou 
hast been weighed in the balance 
and been found wanting'; or 
*Thou art weighed in the balance 
and found wanting.'" (Book of 
Daniel, Chapter V.) 

A battalion of French soldiers, 
during the toils and dangers of a 
campaign, were marching on a cer- 
tain point, on a hot and overcom- 
ing day, and at double the usual 



speed. Their strength was eight 
hundred men; all hardy, seasoned, 
and courageous men, careless of 
danger, despising consequences, 
and little occupied with the 
thoughts of ghosts and phantas- 
magoria. On the night of the oc- 
currence in question, the battalion 
was forced to occupy a narrow and 
low building, barely calculated to 
accommodate three hundred per- 
sons. Nevertheless, they slept, but 
at midnight one and all were rous- 
ed by frightful screams issuing 
from all quarters of the house, and 
to the eyes of the astonished, af- 
frighted soldiers appeared the vis- 
ion of a huge dog, which bounded 
in through the window and rushed 
with extraordinary heaviness and 
speed over the breasts of the spec- 
tators. The soldiers quitted the 
building in terror. Next night, by 
the solicitations of the surgeon 
and chef de bataillon, who accom- 
panied them, they ag^in resumed 
their previous quarters. "We 
saw," said the surgeon, "that they 
slept. Wide awake, we watched 
the arrival of the hour of the pre- 
ceding panic, and midnight had 
scarcely struck when the veteran 
soldiers, for the second time, start- 
ed to their feet; again they hafl 
heard the supernatural voiceb, 
again the visionary hound had be- 
strode them to suffocation. The 
chef de bataillon and myself neither 
heard nor saw anything." 

South Carolina negroes believe 
that every house has its own spirit, 
which prompts each one in it to do 
good or evil. Or as one old miser, 
in the face of death, said : 

"That count ob de leading ob de 
spirit ob dat house; sence freedom, 
I'm 'bout three barrels ob gritts 
and six side ob bacon in debt to 
my stom-jacket." 

If the family is quarrelsome, they 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



say: ''De speret ob de house am a 
quarrely one, an' causes short talk- 
in' 'mong dem folks." If the fam- 
ily is sickly, its "becase de speret 
ob de house am a berry sickly one." 
These household spirits rule the 
negro to a great extent, but not so 
completely as do witches or hags, 
who live bodily with them in Uie 
house. The Plateyes, living in the 
woods and swamps, are spirits of 
witches who died during slavery. 
If an old woman, who knows the 
power of herbs and roots, walks 
around a broom that may be lying 
on the floor instead of stepping 
over it, she gets a first-class name 
for a witch. The negro often puts 
the broom over the bed, to charm 
away witches. These hag^ live on 
the breath of babies. One mother 
charmed away the witch from her 
child by "drawin* seben lines on de 
floo' wid a piece of chalk, den I 
take de broom an' lay him cross- 
ways ober de lines, an' scatter some 
mustard seed all 'bout de floo'; an' 
bress God 'fo'e fust fowl crow, we 
all wake up wid sich a noise dat 
we pure thought de shingle came 
off de roof." 

These hags take midnight ram- 
bles without their skins, which they 
slip off and hide until their return. 
If the skin can be found and salt 
and pepper put on it, the witch can- 
not put it on again, notwithstand- 
ing she repeats the charmed words, 
"Kin, Kin, ain't you know me?" 
Then the hag can be caught. If 
the sleeping babe smiles, the moth- 
er wakes it at once, "'cause dem 
white-robed speret-folks do talk to 
it an' try fer coax it fer go wid dem 
to lib." From the house, where 
every act of furniture or dress has 
a saying attached to it, the hag 
follows to the crop-field. The 
band that drops the seed must be a 
growing or lucky one. The sow- 
ing of parsley is committed alone 



to the mind; and a stranger must 
transplant it for the owner, who 
will not touch it till it is picked^ 
for if he or she does there will be a 
death in the family before the year 
is out 

If a woman steps over the melon- 
vine, they will either drop their 
flowers or the fruit be poor and 
tasteless. If she climbs a fruit tree» 
it will have seven years barrenness; 
unless it is an apple tree, which 
bears better then— forgiveness of 
Eve. Failure to thank God for 
each new fruit in its season invites 
a drought on next year's crop. 
Parting with the first calf or colt 
breaks the luck between the owner 
and the animal. 

They watch the dying to foretell 
their eternal condition; if too weak 
to speak, or the head turned to the 
righty or hands uplifted, it augurs 
well; but if head turned to the left, 
or hands inactive, or murmurs of 
seeing ugly shapes or shadows, is a 
sure sign the poor soul is lost for- 
ever. Friends must not touch the 
dead body; strangers must wash it 
and shroud it and bury it When 
the mother dies, the children are 
lifted over her coflin, to prevent her 
calling them, and the youngest is 
carefully marked with soot from 
the chimney of the main living 
room; then the coffin is closed. If 
the dead die happy — and nearly all 
do— the funeral is one (rf rejoicing, 
not mourning. 

When burying a stranger, the 
leader steps forward at the grave- 
yard and says: "Sperets ob dis 
graveyard, we ax your permission 
to bury sister or brother so-and-so 
among you." 

This is repeated three times. 

Mr. S. Amott, of Carsethom, in 
a paper on "Kirkbean Folklore," 
read before the Dumfries and Gal- 
loway Antiquaries, gave the start- 



ia34 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



over whom she presides. At 
NeuhauSy the legend is firmly 
believed by the people. Bal- 
bin says, in his chronicles, that he 
heard her call out the name of the 
unhappy wife of Perchta of Rosen- 
berg, who died 1476. An old tra- 
dition narrates of her that she often 
appeared among the laborers, di- 
recting their work, and causing the 
master to give them sweetened 
pap for dinner. The "white lady" 
of the Rosenberg is said to have 
appeared to members of that family 
even while they were traveling far 
away from their home. The pic- 
ture of this renowned ghost as she 
was when living, can be seen in the 
picture galleries of several of the 
Rosenbergs, who are now known 
as the princes of Schwartzenberg. 
She is represented as a slight wom- 
an, dressed in white velvet with 
gold embroidered wide sleeves, and 
a sort of hood, also of white velvet, 
that falls on one side, showing the 
thick curly hair. The face is pale, 
but lit up by dark melancholy eyes. 
Her life on earth was very sad. She 
married a man who treated her 
cruelly, so that she left him and 
went to live with her brother. She 
died unforgiving, and soon after 
her death, was seen in the castle 
of Neuhaus, but not as she was 
usually dressed, in black, but in a 
long white dress and a veil that hid 
her face; but when the veil slipped 
to one side, one saw the face was 
pale as a corpse. She always came 
on important occasions, and when 
a child was bom she was always 
present, and seemed pleased. Be- 
fore a death in the family, she al- 
ways appeared, and had on a pair 
of black gloves. When her rela- 
tion, Peter Woks, died, she ap- 
peared to tell the news to all his 
relations, in every city and castle 
where they lived. As he died child- 
less, she also appeared to the new 



owners, Schwamberg and Slawata. 
The tale goes that a monk was vis- 
ited by her, to whom she said that 
she could never be in peace until 
she was reconciled with her hus- 
band, and both she and her hus- 
band appeared before him, and in 
his presence as witness, formally 
made a reconciliation and g^ve 
each other forgiveness. When it 
was ended, the white lady said: 
"You will be repaid in heaven for 
your godly work, and soon you will 
be with us." He died on Uie next 
anniversary of the day. 

The following appeared in the 
Akron Beacon Journal of August 
10,1899: 

Three bright South Akron lads,, 
who have never been known to 
prevaricate, and who are altogether 
too young to have been guilty of 
seeing double, or triple, claim to 
have had a most startling experi- 
ence one day this week. 

If their story is true, the boys 
saw what many older and less for- 
tunate people have long tried to 
discern through the mists of super- 
stition or faith, for they claim to 
have seen the devil, horns, hoofs, 
tail and all, the real live satanic 
majesty himself. 

The oldest of the three boys is 
14, and it is his story to which the 
younger members of the trio ad- 
here. They started out to pick 
berries, going across country in an 
open wagon, toward Thomastown. 
They drove a gentle old horse that 
stood quietly by the roadside while 
the boys searched for the wild small 
fruit. 

Finally one of the lads became 
weary and staid on the cushioned 
seat, while the others entered a 
wooded pastureland. They had 
gone some distance, when they 
heard shrieking in the direction of 
their rig. Running to the spot^ 



1926 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



haunted at 'Tuckahoo/' and by no 
less historical ghosts than those of 
Comwallis and Washington, who 
were guests in the same chamber 
immediately after each other, and 
just before the surrender and free- 
dom of America. One night of 
thunder and lightning, of wind and 
tempest, the family, then living, 
were gathered in the great hall, 
when they saw Comwallis, in his 
military clothes, bloodstained and 
smoke-begrimed, hastily descend 
the stairs, while in a moment 
Washington followed, the look (A 
radiant victory on his splendid 
countenance. The next day the 
post brought the news of "Com- 
wallis is fallen, America is free!" 
Recently a lady in gray appeared 
on the great staircase; a frightened 
servant called the mistress of the 
house, who came out to see the ap- 
parition, when a crash behind her 
showed that the heavy ceiling had 
fallen directly over the chair which 
she had just occupied. Many are 
the tales of the strange occurrences 
at this famous residence, and even 
the United States may proudly 
point to her Colonial homes, which 
like the castles of Europe, have a 
weird and mysterious history. 

The ancient map-makers wrote 
across unexplored regions: "Here 
are lions." Across the villages of 
fishermen and turners of the earth, 
so different are these from us, we 
can write but one line that is cer- 
tain : "Here are ghosts I" 

To approach a village at night, a 
timid man requires great strategy. 
A man was once heard complain- 
ing to himself: "By the cross of 
Jesus, how shall I go? If I pass by 
the hill of Dumboy, old Captain 
Bumey may look out on me. If I go 
round by the water and up by the 
steps, there is the headless one, and 
another on the quays, and a new 



one under the old churchyard wall. 
If I go round the other way, Mrs. 
Stewart is appearing at the Hill- 
side g^te, and the devil himself is 
in Hospital Lane!" I never knew 
which spirit he braved, "by the 
cross (rf Jesus," but feel quite sure 
it was not the one in Hospital 
Lane. 

In the western parts of Ireland is 
a whimsical grace, a curious ex- 
travag^ce. The people who re- 
count them, live in the most wild 
and beautiful scenery, under a sky 
ever loaded with fantastic flying 
clouds. They are farmers and labor- 
ers who do a little fishing now and 
then. They do not fear Uie spirits, 
and feel an artistic and humorous 
pleasure in their doings. In the sur- 
rounding villages, the creatures use 
the most strange disguises. A dead 
old gentleman robs the cabbages 
of his own garden in the shape of a 
large rabbit A wicked sea-cap- 
tain stayed for years inside the 
plaster of a cottage wall, in the 
shape of a snipe, making the most 
horrible noises. He was only dis- 
lodged when the wall was broken 
down, then out of the solid plaster 
the snipe mshed away whistling. 

The house ghost is usually a 
harmless and well-meaning crea- 
ture. It is put up with as long as 
possible. It brings good luck to 
those who live with it I remem- 
ber two children who slept in their 
mother's room, and in the room 
also was a ghost They sold her- 
rings in the Dublin streets, and did 
not mind the ghost much, because 
they knew they would always sell 
their fish easily while they slept i 
the "ha'nted" room. (Yeats, "Th 
Celtic Twilight") 

AUGURY— If the Hindu wish 
to find out if luck is with him, h 
places some milk by the nest of ^ 





ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



hand is the sign of good fortune, 
and everything to the right is bad 

Amber, when emplpyed in divi- 
nation, was burned. If it was con- 
sumed, the omen was favorable; 
but if it refused to bum, the omen 
was imlucky. 

When roasting com, place seven 
ears in a basket and let each person 
choose one. If the rows of kernels 
are straight and smooth, it means 
good luck; but if they are mixed 
up and crooked, ill. 

In the leading paper of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, published 
within a stone's throw of the Uni- 
versity, a prcrfessed divinator has 
kept for years a large, business- 
like and soberly-worded advertise- 
ment of his services. 

At the time of the Druids, a 
nobleman would take the entrails 
of an animal and walk through the 
embers of a dying fire; if he was 
injtu-ed, it foretold ill luck to him- 
self and to the country. 

A Tartar mode of divining is by 
the lines and cracks in a shoulder- 
bone, called ''reading the speal- 
bone." The bad or good luck de- 
pends upon which way the cracks 
run. If lengthwise, the augury is 
good; if crossed, both good and 
bad. 

The Chinese decide their fate by 
throwing up sticks which are num- 
bered. The priest then compares 
the number with his book oi ora- 
cles, and tells the inquirer what it 
reads. Three times and out, tells 
the story. 

In Bayreuth, girls go silently and 
without being seen on Easter mid- 
night to a fountain, and there throw 
willow twigs in the water. Whose 
sink first will be the first to die. 

There is a well called the foun- 
tain of Barenton ; if you drop a pin 



in it and say, "Laugh 1 Laugh t 
fountain of Barenton," it will break 
into bubbles and seem to laugh, 
thus indicating that you are to 
have good fortune. But if it keeps 
sullenly quiet, you cannot expect 
it 

When loc^ng fw something, 
you should spit on your hand and 
say: 

"Spit spat spo, where did that go?^ 

and whichever way the spit goes, 
there you will find it 

Tacitus calls by the name of Sor- 
t06 the manner which the Germans 
use to form conjectures about fu- 
tiuity. They cut the branch of a 
tree into small parts or slips, and 
distinguishing these slips by cer- 
tain marks, scattered them at ran- 
dom on a white doth. 

Anciently, futurity was foretold 
by inspecting fire or flame. If it 
burned toward the right, the omen 
was good; if toward the left, evil. 

When pitch was cast on a fire, it 
was a good augury if it caught and 
blazed at once. 

Divination is common in Brit- 
tany. It is accomplished by means 
(A needles. Five and twenty new 
needles are put into a plate, water 
is poured over them and as many 
needles as cross each other, so 
many are the diviners' enemies. 

Cicero tells of an ancient method 
of foretelling future events. A kind 
of dice made of wood or gold, with 
certain letters or marks inscribed 
upon them, were thrown into an 
urn sometimes filled with water and 
drawn out by the hand of a boy or 
the person who consulted the 
oracle. 

Place three bones in a field and 
name each after a living person. 
The one which the dog buries will 
die in a year. The one which he 



1330 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



When Augustus arrived in the 
Island of Capri, some decayed 
branches of an old ilex tree which 
hung drooping to the ground, re- 
covered and became green, at 
which good omen he was so de- 
lighted that he made an exchange 
with the Republic of Naples of the 
Island of Ischia for the Island of 
Capri. 

Mountains with three points are 
thought to be cut by tiie deviL 

Rocks are pebbles dropped by a 
giantess from her apron. 

Blinding your eyes, walk into the 
garden and pluck the first stalk you 
touch. If it is straight, it will be 
the forerunner of a fine husband. 
If earth clings to the roots, you go 
on an extensive journey. 

When a Chinaman contemplates 
and hardly knows whether or not 
to proceed with anything, he leaves 
his meal unfinished, and taking his 
chop-sticks in his sleeves, goes out 
of doors and listens to the passers- 
by, taking particular note of the 
first sentence he hears. From this, 
he draws conclusions of the general 
tenor in regard to the subject of 
his doubts, whether to do or not to 
da 

Before the death of Augustus, 
the first letter of his name on a 
statue so inscribed, was struck by 
lightning, which was interpreted as 
a presage that he would live only 
one hundred days longer, the letter 
C designating that number; and 
that he would be placed among the 
gods, as "aesar," the remaining 
part of Caesar, signifies in the Tus- 
can language, a god. 

After the birth of Augustus, 
when his father, Octavius, while 
marching with his army through 
the deserts of TTirace, c(Misulted the 
oracle in the grove of Bacchus con- 
cerning his son, the priests declar- 



ed that the world had gotten a 
master, because, when they poured 
wine upon the altar, there burst out 
so prodigious a flame that it as- 
cended above the roof of the temple 
and reached the very heavens, a 
circumstance which had not hap- 
pened to anyone but Alexander the 
Great, upon his sacrificing at the 
same altar. 

In ancient times, people used to 
have what they called **cup divina- 
tion." The Egyptians took small 
pieces of gold and silver along with 
certain gems engraved with sym- 
bolic characters. The infernal 
powers being then invoked, the an- 
swer came either by voice or signs 
on the surface of the water in the 
cup, or the representation of the 
person inquired about 

The Arabians draw omens con- 
cerning a course of action from ar- 
rows. They take tliree of these 
and write upon one, **God forbids 
it me"; on another, **God orders it 
me"; and on the third they do not 
write. These are put into a quiver, 
out of which one is drawn at ran- 
dom, and if it contained the first in- 
scription, the matter was let alone; 
if the next, the thing was done; and 
if they drew one without any in- 
scription, they drew over again. 

If you wish to know whether an 
absent person is alive or dead, lay 
a piece of coal and a loaf of bread 
on the table, and suspend a darning 
needle exactly between both by a 
thread. If it moves toward the 
bread, the person is well; but if to- 
wards the coal, the absent one is 
sick or dead. (German.) 

If you take a pack of cards and 
cut them, look at the card, make a 
wish, shuffle and cut in three piles. 
If the card you looked at in the first 
place is in the first pile, you will get 
your wish. If it is in the second, 
you will get it after some time. If 



1232 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



you require, whether relating to 
love or business; but if broken and 
odd, then the success will be bad, 
if not altogether unfortunate. 

A, Featherman, in his "History 
of the Melanesians," has collected 
the following superstitions: They 
draw auguries like the Greeks from 
the flight of birds, and also from 
the even or uneven cut of a banana. 
Also in measuring the left arm up 
to the shoulder, with the stretched 
out thumb and middle finger, and 
then taking the downward measure 
with the stretched thumb and the 
index finger, they consider it a pro- 
pitious sign if the two measures 
agree. Some of the tribes never 
bathe in certain rivers, nor do they 
cut any wood on the banks. It 
would be dangerous and unlucky 
to do so. On projecting some im- 
portant enterprise, they strew 
strips of some white stuff over the 
ground, and place a quantity of 
food near them, and then with up- 
lifted hands they express the wish 
that their undertaking may succeed 
or that their health may be pre- 
served. This will of course insure 
the good luck of whatever they un- 
dertake. 

When the Gauls were approach- 
ing Rome, all signs and omens were 
observed with anxiety. A brazen 
statue of victory in the forum was 
found standing by the side of its 
pedestal, and from the altar of the 
Capitoline temple there welled forth 
on three successive days, first blood, 
then honey, then milk. Anauruspex 
calmed the affrighted city by ex- 
plaining that the goddess of victory 
standing upright on firmer ground, 
with her face toward the country 
whence the enemy was expected, 
was a favorable sign ; that the blood 
that welled forth meant victory, be- 
cause sacrifices would then be of- 
fered on the Capitoline altar in 



thanksgiving; but that honey and 
milk signified pestilence and fam- 
ine, because honey was given to 
the sick, and the food of animals 
served for the food (A men in fam- 
ine. 

When all the members of the ex- 
pedition had landed on the coast 
of Sussex, William the Conqueror 
came last, and stumbling, measured 
his majestic length on the beach. 
Forthwith all raised a cry of dis- 
tress. "An evil sign is here I" ex- 
claimed the superstitious Normans. 
But William, who had g^rasped 
some sand in his hands, rose, and 
with a loud and cheerful voice said» 
"See Seigneurs I by the splendor 
of God! I seize England with my 
two hands. Without challenge no 
prize can be made, and that which 
I have grasped I will, by your good 
help, maintain!" On this, one of his 
followers, snatching a handful of 
thatch from a roof, brought it to 
William, exclaiming merrily: "Sire, 
come forward and receive seizin! 
I give you seizin in token that this 
realm is yours!" "I accept it," 
said William, "and God be with 
us!" (Strickland.) 

The Bible contains many ac- 
counts oi various methods of divi- 
nation, their use and results, and 
the persons who practiced them. 
As regards Belomancy, in Ezekiel 
xxi, 21, we read: "For the king of 
Babylon stood at the parting of the 
ways, at the head of the two ways, 
to use divination. He made his 
arrows bright, he consulted with 
images, he looked in the liver." 
Also, in Proverbs xvi, 33: "The 
lot is cast into the lap but the whole 
disposing thereof is the Lord's." 
In the Acts of the Apostles, the 
story of the vagabond Jews, Exor- 
cists, shows how popular supersti- 
tious customs must have been, for 
so many to have lived by them,. 



1334 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The condition of elephants shall 
be determined by (weighing) their 
tusks; that of cows and horses by 
their hair; that of princes by gold; 
that of Brahmins and others by 
wax; that of countries, years, 
months and days, shall also be de- 
termined by the wax, and that of 
other articles by the articles them- 
selves. 

Waters to be weighed shall also 
be put into the northern scale; if 
well-water should be found to 
weigh more when weighed the 
next day, there will be no rain in 
winter; if rain-water should weigh 
more, there will be moderate rain; 
if tank or lake-water should weigh 
more, there will be abundant rain. 
(From the ancient Hindu astrolog- 
ical work, "Brihat Samhita.") 

The Finnish lads and maids have 
some very pretty and poetical 
charms of divination. Here is one 
of them which the Finnish poet 
Runeberg has immortalized in 
song: 

'*AI1 Saint Johns' eve sits the maiden 

spinning. 
Round the soft stems of the verdant 

corn-blades 
Silken ribbons all of dififerent colors." 

On the next morning the maid 
goes out to inquire into her future 
fate. If the black stalk has grown, 
it is "the stalk of sorrow." Then 

"Talketh she and grieveth with the 

others. 
Has the red stalk grown, the stalk of 

gladness. 
Talks she and rejoiceth with the others. 
Has the green stalk grown, — the stalk 

of love, — then 
Keeps she silent, — in her heart rejoic- 

mg. 

It is almost a pity, and perhaps 
almost needless, to explain this 
poetical version of the custom ; but 
let any maid in any land go out on 
St. John's eve and bind around the 
com blades a black ribbon upon 
one, a red ribbon on another, and a 



green ribbon upon the third, and 
on the next morning observe how 
it has fared with her venture, if it 
is to be sorrow, gladness, love, ac- 
cording to the growth of the corn- 
stalks during the night. 

The invention of divination is 
ascribed by some ancient writers to 
Prometheus, by others to the 
Phrygians or Etrurians; by Zoroas- 
ter, to Ahriman, the principle or 
angel of darkness and evil; and 
likewise by the holy fathers of the 
Christian church to the devil. 

The following is a list of some of 
the principal ancient methods of 
divination: 

Aeromancy, by air. 

Alectryomancy, by cocks and 
hens. 

Alphitomancy, by barley meal. 

Anthropomancy, by the entrails 
of a human being. 

Arithmancy, by numbers. 

Astrology, or divining future 
events by the situation and ap- 
pearance of the stars. 

Belomancy, by marked arrows. 

Bibliomancy, by the Bible (open- 
ing the book at random). 

Botanomancy, by fig- or other 
plants and leaves. 

Capnomancy, by the movement 
and density of smoke. 

Cartomancy, by cards. 

Chiromancy, by the hands. 

Cleromancy, by lots. 

Dactylomancy, by finger-rings. 

Demonomancy, by evil spirits. 

Gastromancy, by sounds or signs 
appearing to be uttered from the 
belly. 

Geomancy, by earth. 

Gyromancy, by rounds and cir- 
cles. 

Hydromancy, by water. 

Ichthyomancy, by fishes. 

Idolomancy, by consulting idols. 

Libanomancy, by pouring out 
liquids. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1235 



Lithomancy, by stones. 

Necromancy, by communication 
with the dead. 

Onciromancy, by dreams. 

Onomancy, by names. 

Omithomancy, by birds. 

Orphiomancy, by serpents. 

Palmistry, by the lines of the 
palm of the hand. 

Pedomancy, by the feet 

Psychomancy, by souls, minds, 
and wills. 

Pyromancy, by fire, 

Rhabdomancy, by a staff. 

Sciomancy, by shadows. 

Stareomancy, by the elements. 

Theomancy, by Scripture. 

Theriomancy, by the lower ani- 
mals. 

Fortune telling by the grounds 
in a tea- or coffee-cup: 

Pour the grounds of tea or cof- 
fee into a white cup; shake them 
well about, so as to spread them 
over the surface; reverse the cup 
to drain away the superfluous con- 
tents, and then exercise your fertile 
bxkcy in discovering what the 
figures thus formed represent. 
Ixmg, wavy lines denote vexations 
and losses — ^their importance de- 
pending on the number of lines. 
Straight ones, on the contrary, 
foretell peace, tranquillity, and 
long life. Human figures are usu- 
ally good omens, announcing love 
affairs, and marriage. If circular 
figures predominate, the person for 
whom the experiment is made, 
may expect to receive money. If 
these circles are connected by 
straight unbroken lines, there will 
be delay, but ultimately all will 
be satisfactory. Squares, foretell 
peace and happiness; oblong fig- 
ures, family discord ; whilst curved, 
twisted, or angular ones, are cer- 
tain signs of vexations and annoy- 
ances, their probable duration be- 
ing determined by the number of 



figures. A crown, signifies honor; 
a cross, rfews of death; a ring, mar- 
riage — if a letter can be discovered 
near it, that will be the initial of 
the name of the future spouse. If 
the ring is in the clear part of the 
cup, it foretells a happy union; if 
clouds are about it, the contrary; 
but if it should chance to be quite 
at the bottom, then the marriage 
will never take place. A leaf oi 
clover, or trefoil, is a good sign, 
denoting, if at the top of the cup, 
speedy good fortune, which will be 
more or less distant in case it ap- 
pears at, or near the bottom. The 
anchor, if at the bottom of the cup, 
denotes success in business; at the 
top, and in the clear part, love and 
fidelity; but in thick, or cloudy 
parts, inconstancy. The serpent is 
always the sign c^ an enemy, and if 
in the cloudy part, gives warning 
that great prudence will be neces- 
sary to ward off misfortune. The 
coffin, portends news of a death, or 
long illness. The dog, at the top 
of the cup, denotes true and faith- 
ful friends; in the middle, that they 
are not to be trusted; but at the 
bottom, that they are secret ene- 
mies. The lily, at the top of the 
cup, foretells a happy marriage; at 
the bottom, anger. A letter, signi- 
fies news; if in the clear, very wel- 
come ones; surrounded by dots, 
a remittance of money; but if 
hemmed in by clouds, bad tidings 
and losses. A heart near it, de- 
notes a love letter. A single tree, 
portends restoration to health; a 
group of trees in the clear, misfor- 
tunes, which may be avoided; sev- 
eral trees, wide apart, promise that 
your wishes will be accomplished; 
if encompassed by dashes, it is a 
token that your fortune is in its 
blossom, and only requires care to 
bring to maturity; if surrounded by 
dots, riches. Mountains signify 
either friends or enemies, accord- 



1^36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ing to their situation. The sun, 
moon and stars denote happiness, 
success. The clouds, happiness 
or misfortune, according as they 
are bright or dark. Birds are good 
omens, but quadrupeds — ^with the 
exception of the dog — foretell 
trouble and difficulties. Fish imply 
good news from across the water. 
A triangle portends an unexpected 
legacy; a single straight line, a 
journey. The figure of a man indi- 
cates a visitor; if the arm is out- 
stretched, a present; if the figure is 
very distinct, it shows that the ex- 
pected person will be of dark com- 
plexion; if indistinct, light. A 
crown near a cross indicates an in- 
heritance. Flowers are omens of 
happiness, joy, and peace. A heart 
signifies joy; if surrounded by dots, 
money; if a ring is near it, a speedy 
marriage. 

To foretell coming events, break 
a new-laid egg, .separate carefully 
the white from the yolk, drop the 
white into a large tumbler half full 
of water, place this uncovered in a 
dry place, and let it remain un- 
touched for twenty-four hgurs. 
Then look again, and the figures 
which will have formed indicate the 
occupation of your future husband, 
or may be interpreted in the same 
manner as those formed by the cof- 
fee grounds, and described in the 
foregoing paragraph. The more 
whites are dropped into the glass, 
the more figures there will be. 
This fortune-telling experiment is 
believed to be particularly effica- 
cious if undertaken between mid- 
night and 1 a. m. on May day, or 
Midsummer day morning, on Hal- 
lowe'en, Christmas eve, or New 
Year's eve. 

The augurs of Rome divined by 
the entrails of their victims, by the 
pecking of the sacred hens, by the 
flight of birds, such as the eagle, 



the vulture, the crow, the raven, 
the owl, the hen, and by voice. 

If birds flew to the right, it was 
unlucky; if to the left, lucky. 

Alectryomancy is the divination 
by a cock. A circle was drawn and 
the letters of the alphabet were 
written in succession around it, and 
on each letter laid a grain of com. 
The succession of the letters in 
which the cock would eat the com, 
after having been placed in the 
center, would give the answer to 
the question. 

Axinomancy was the divination 
by an axe suspended or p(Hsed 
upon a stake, which was supposed 
to turn and indicate the guilty per- 
son when the names of the suspect- 
ed persons were pronounced; or an 
agate was placed on a red hot axe. 

Belomancy was divination by ar- 
rows. Arrows with a written label 
attached were shot off, and an indi- 
cation of futurity was sought from 
the inscription on the first arrow 
found. It is still practiced by 
Arabs and some Eastern nations. 

Biblipmancy was opening the 
Bible, noting the first passage on 
which the eye fell, and taking that 
as a sign. Many people note the 
first words of the Bible after en- 
tering church. 

If, on opening the Bible, in the 
Middle Ages, the eye first fell on 
a blank page, it was a sign of dis- 
aster. 

A Swedish mode of divination is 
the following: A person goes out 
into the moonlight, taking a psalm- 
book along, and lets it open itself. 
If it opens on the marriage cere- 
mony, he or she will marry; if at 
the funeral service, he or she will 
die; and whatever it reads on the 
first page, will indicate the per- 
son's fortune. 

To divine by key and book, tie 



laaS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tag, and wear it against your breast 
or iiung on your wrist, and it will 
impart to you the courage of the 
Uon." 

Cameron oi Lochiel received 
from the infernal spirits a small 
silver shoe, which was to be put 
on the left foot of every newborn 
son of the family, who would re- 
ceive from it courage and fortitude 
in the presence of his enemies. 
This custom was kept up until 
1746, when the house of the Cam- 
erons was burned, and the fairy 
shoe with it 

CRIME — If you look hard at a 
murderer, he will turn his eyes 
away and get pale. 

If a person has been murdered, 
the funeral torches will blow to- 
ward the murderer. 

If the murderer buries the imple- 
ments with which he did the deed, 
he will not be caught 

Nothing will grow on the place 
where a murder was committed. 

To witness a murder is to see un- 
expectedly an old friend. 

If a murderer takes off the shoes 
of his victim, it is a sign that the 
murderer will soon be captured. 

If a man has been murdered, 
bury him face down, and the mur- 
derer cannot leave the place. 

The shoes of a man who has 
been hanged are very lucky. 

Insects creeping from a murder- 
ed man's funeral indicate the direc- 
tion in which will the murderer be 
found. 

If the rope breaks when a person 
is being hanged, it is a sign that 
the person is innocent 

The superstitious say that dogs 
and some kinds of cats can detect 
a murderer years after the crime 
was committed, by the odor of the 
blood-stains on their hands. 



If you bury a murdered person 
across the world, the murderer will 
linger around until he is caught 

Detectives believe that the guilty 
person will always return to the 
scene of the murder within forty- 
eight hours. 

If one passes a murdered body, 
even without knowing it or seeing 
it, one will be stricken with fear. 

In Ireland, they bury the mur- 
dered man*s boots, so that he will 
haunt the locality. 

The Welsh believe if a criminal 
is hanged, his spirit, let loose, will 
trouble them. 

When a hanged man is cut 
down, his spirit will come back, un- 
less you give him a box on the ear. 

If a criminal is hung, it is con- 
sidered unlucky, for his soul is let 
loose to annoy the living. 

To laugh in a prison, brings ill 
luck. 

A person released from prison 
before his term expires, is said to 
be pretty sure to come back to it 
sooner or later. 

It is good luck to be accused of 
any crime or error of which you 
are wholly innocent 

It is considered an unlucky omen 
in China to take a corpse out of a 
prison through the door, and it is 
therefore taken out through an 
aperture made in the wall at the 
back of the building. 

Tremot, a hero of German 
myths, protected all robbers and 
wicked men. He wore a mask, but 
was also invisible. 

The "water of jealousy" was a 
beverage which the Jews used to 
assert no adulteress could drink 
without bursting. 

It is unlucky to report a theft (M* 
give any informatioa concerning 
it (Scotch.) 



1240 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



can stand the torture, and will not 
be forced to confess. 

A fish with a ring in it will allow 
itself to be caught, as it has sym- 
pathy for the human being accused 
of stealing the ring, and is willing 
thus to prove his innocence. 

When the Ethiopians wanted to 
pronounce a death sentence upon a 
person, they carried him to a table on 
which was painted an owl, and then 
expected him to commit suicide. 

If a man will walk seven times 
around the grave of the man he has 
mtu'dered, all his sins will be for- 
given him. But it is a very dan- 
gerous thing to do, and he seldom 
gets around more than six times 
before he drops dead. 

In Mexico, it is believed that the 
murderer who has slain his victim 
with sword or dagger, will escape, 
if the body falls on its side or back; 
but if the body falls face down- 
ward, then the murderer surely will 
be captured. 

King James, in his "Demonol- 
ogy," says: "In a secret murder, if 
the dead carcass be at any time 
thereafter handled by the mur- 
derer, it will gush out of blood as if 
the blood were crying to heaven 
for revenge on the assassin." 

At Hertford (England) assizes, 
the deposition was taken as to a 
certain suspected murderess being 
required to touch the corpse, \s^en 
the murdered woman thrust out 
her ring-finger three times and 
dropped blood on the g^rass, thus 
fastening the proof of guilt upon 
the suspected woman. 

Touch a brandice-iron baking- 
pan with the third finger, saying: 
"In the name of the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost — speak!" 
A cock will crow when the guilty 
person touches it. 



To recover stolen property, you 
have only to go to one of the Obi- 
men or -women (a kind of negro 
sorcerers), and for a consideration 
they will, at 12 o'clock midnight, 
strip themselves naked, dance 
backwards on cross-roads, and then 
reveal the name of the thief. 

In Nevis, the murderer is safe 
from being haunted by the ghost 
of his victim if he will go to his 
grave, dig down to his body, and 
drive a stake through it, thus add- 
ing insult to injury. 

* If someone steals from you in 
rainy weather, or comes in the mud 
so that you can get his footprint, 
cut out his footprint in the clay and 
hang it in the chimney comer, and 
the thief will waste away with the 
footprint. 

Whenever a wilful murder has 
been committed, a cross is imme- 
diately planted on the very spot, 
to keep off the devil, who delights 
in dwelling near such places. 

Some African natives use the fol- 
lowing charm to detect a thief: The 
suspected person is made to fast 
twelve hours, then to swallow a 
gallon of an infusion made of sassa- 
fras bark. If it produces nausea, 
and he ejects any food that was in 
the stomach, he is innocent; but if, 
instead, it acts as a purgative, he is 
guilty. 

Some of the old monks taught 
that the punishment in the future 
world for the murder of a king was 
to be crowned with a red hot iron 
crown, that "should bum mightily 
forever." This teaching may have 
suggested the actual doing, for the 
Earl of Athol, who was executed 
for the murder of James I. of Scot- 
land, was, before his death, crown- 
ed with hot iron. 

If a man commits murder in 
Tunguragua, none of the natives 



1242 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



and his tongue lolling out» repre- 
senting a man being hanged. Prof. 
Webster was shortly afterwards 
convicted of the murder of Dr. 
Parkman, and hanged on the 30th 
of August, 1850. 

In Madagascar exist several ca- 
rious ordeals for the detection of 
crime. The chief of these is the 
celebrated tangena poison ordeal, 
in which they have an implicit be- 
lief as a test of guilt or innocence, 
and by which thousands of inno- 
cent persons have perished. 

Quite recently, it is said, a young 
lady was traveling in an omnibus. 
In her purse she had all her port- 
able wealth, threepence in coppers. 
Near her sat an ill-looking man, 
dirty, wearing a large, shiny ring, 
which she supposed to be paste. 

When she alighted from the om- 
nibus her purse was gone, her 
pocket was picked; and she, with 
confusion of face, had to go on 
credit for her journey. Arrived at 
home, she searched her pocket 
afresh, and therein was the seedy 
man's shiny ring. 

It proved to be an excellent 
large diamond, but advertisement 
did not discover the owner. He 
had stolen threepence and a purse, 
and had lost a small fortune, prob- 
ably dishonestly acquired, in the 
process. 

If a Swede is robbed, he goes to 
a so-called "trollman" or "cunning 
man,'* who engages to strike out 
the eye of the thief. The trollman 
cuts a human figure on a young 
tree, and then drives some sharp 
instrument into the eye of the fig- 
tu-e. It was also a practice to shoot 
at the suspected person's picture or 
at that of an enemy, with an arrow 
or bullet, by which pain or sores 
are, it is believed, inflicted on the 
corresponding member of the per- 
son represented. 



Murderers and thieves Used for- 
merly a very old enchantment. 
They ransacked a grave and se- 
cured the hand of an unbcMn child. 
This was hung on the door of the 
house which they desired to rob, 
and instantly all the inmates would 
be thrown into a profound slumber 
from which nothing could wake 
them. The thieves could therefore 
pursue their wicked business undis- 
turbed. On leaving the place, they 
would take the hand away, when 
the enchantment would be broken. 

Ibycus, a Greek lyric poet, who 
lived about 540 B. C, was mur- 
dered by robbers on his way to the 
Corinthian games. In his dying 
moments, he observed cranes fly- 
ing over his head, whom he im- 
plored to be his avengers. Soon 
afterwards, when tibe people 
of Corinth were assembled in 
the theater, some cranes flew 
past in the air, when one of the 
murderers, who happened to be 
present, exclaimed inv(Juntarily: 
"Behold the witnesses of the death 
of Ibycus I" They were overheard, 
arrested, tried, convicted and ex- 
ecuted. 

The "hand of glory" is a foreign 
piece of superstition common in 
France, Germany, and Spain, and 
is used by burglars and assassins. 
It is the hand of a hanged man, 
holding a candle made of the fat of 
a hanged man, virgin wax, and 
sesame of Lapland. It stupifies 
those to whom it is presented, and 
renders them motionless, so that 
they cannot stir any more than as 
if they were dead. 

The following is found in an old 
volume called "Wits, Fits, and 
Fancies." A gentlewoman from 
jealousy murdered her lover most 
secretly, and was attending a 
masque most carefully disguised, 
when her lover met her (or 



1244 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



water. If in three days no mark 
was visible, he was acquitted. 

Another favc^te method was to 
have the accused and the accuser 
fight it out. God was supposed to 
aid the right The modem duel is 
a relic of this form of trial. 

The poets tells us that when 
Hercules descended into hell, Cha- 
ron, the ferryman who rowed the 
dead across the river Styx, was ter- 
rified at his appearance, and im- 
mediately took him into his boat, 
for which Pluto bound him in 
chains for a whole year. 

Burglars of Izamo (Japan) have 
a simple method of obtaining their 
desires. He hunts about for a ta- 
rai, a sort of tub, and performing 
a nameless operation in the comer 
of the garden, he covers the spot 
with the tub. This throws all the 
inmates of the house into profound 
slumber, so that he may do as he 
pleases, and carry away what he 
likes. 

In Abyssinia, when a theft has 
been committed, the report is made 
to the "thief-catcher," who sends 
to his servant, who is kept for the 
purpose, a certain dose of black 
meal compounded with milk. After 
this he has to smoke a certain 
amount of tobacco. The servant is 
by this thrown into a state of 
frenzy, in which, crawling on his 
hands and knees, fcdlowed by his 
master, he goes from house to 
house, smelling out the thief. At 
last, he enters a house and goes to 
sleep on the master's bed. This 
shows that the owner is the thief. 
He is arrested and has to pay for 
the property stolen. 

The American Indians have 
what they call taboos, prohibitory 
or punishing charms and practices. 
These are also to be found in Aus- 
tralia, and the following remarka- 
ble ones are described by George 



Turner. If a man wished that a 
sea pike might run into the body 
of the person who attempted to 
steal, say, his bread-fruits, he would 
plait some cocoanut leaflets in the 
form ol a sea pike and suspend it 
from one or more of the trees that 
he wished to protect The white 
shark taboo was another object erf 
terror to a thief. This was done 
by painting a cocoanut leaf in the 
form of a shark, adding the fins, 
etc., and this they suspended from 
a tree. It was tantamount to an 
expressed imprecation that the 
thief might be devoured by the 
white shark the next time he went 
to fish. The death taboo was made 
by pouring a little oil into a small 
calabash and burying it under a 
tree. The spot was marked by a 
hill of sand. Others of like signifi- 
cance were current 

Spilling the blood of a lamb on 
the back steps will keep all bur- 
glars away. 

On the Pacific coast, charms are 
hung up to keep thieves out of 
plantations. Such a charm are a few 
cocoanut leaves plaited into the 
form of a shark; if a thief should 
disregard it, he will be eaten by a 
real shark. 

If a heliotrope is wrapped in a 
bay leaf with a wolf's tooth, and 
placed under a man's pillow, it will 
show him where stolen goods are 
hidden. 

If butter is stolen and you live in 
a thatched house, cut away some of 
the thatch from over the door, 
cast it into the fire, and the butter 
will be restored. 

When you have been robbed, 
drive an accidentally found horse- 
shoe nail into the place where the 
fire always is, and you will have 
your own again. 

In Transylvania, if a man who 
has been robbed will select a black 




Allistrial Dfsign of Ihf Ccnms of Supmlitum. 



1246 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



with a piece <rf ribbon, and then 
ties the ribbon on the arm ot a 
"black saint" 

DEVII^— A black dog keeps the 
devil away. (Russia.) 

In Crete, basil is placed on win- 
dowsills to charm away the devil. 

Never look in the lookmg-glass 
at night, unless you wish to see 
the devil. (Russia.) 

The devil often takes the form of 
a black dog. 

The Scotch believed that the 
devil. had two crows sitting on his 
shoulders, who told him everything 
that goes on in the world. 

As long as the people of Etu-ope 
represented the devil in human 
form, they made him black; but the 
Australians and Africans make him 
as white as possible. Perhaps that 
suggested the saying that the devil 
is not so black as he is painted. 

The Jews believed that by 
sounding a consecrated horn, the 
devil was made to take to his heels. 

In Yorkshire, if you walk three 
times around a room at midnight 
in periect darkness, and then look 
in the glass, you will see the devil's 
face. 

There is a superstition that the 
devil always appears with a cloven 
foot, horns, and a tail. He dis- 
guises himself in many ways, but 
sooner or later one or the other of 
these will be sure to be seen. 

The satan of superstition used 
to be thought to be the builder of 
all castles, bridges, monuments and 
works of art beyond man's 
strength, and he was also the 
moulder of the mountains and val- 
leys. 

The Australian abori^nes be- 
lieve that the devil is a night-bird, 
which they call Kvingan. The ex- 
plorer frequently hears the strange, 



unearthly cry of this bird, but 
when he attempts to shoot a speci- 
men, the natives refuse to accom- 
pany him on these occasions, and 
he will always be unsuccessfuL 

The devil is betokened to be 
standing behind a person who 
makes faces in the looking-glass. 

To raise the devil, the Scotch 
people made a circle with chalk, 
put a hat on it and said the Lord's 
Prayer backwards. 

If, in conjuring the devil, you 
have a light, yotu* words will have 
power. 

The devil's grandmother is, as 
the Magyars say, 777 years old. 

To say the word "devil" and not 
cross yourself, will bring him near. 

If you wish the devil and his an- 
gels to flee from your dwelling, al- 
ways bless your candle before you 
light it. 

In conjuring the devil, it is nec- 
essary to have a light; words spok- 
en in the dark having no power. 

The Welsh have a custom of 
whitening all their houses, as they 
think the devil cannot come 
through white doors. 

An English superstition is to the 
effect that you can call the devil to 
sight by saying the Lord's Prayer 
backwards. 

In Russia, the devil prefers 
places with a great deal of water 
near them, therefore it is unlucky 
to live near a pond or river. 

At Cape Coast Town, the natives 
arm themselves with sticks and 
other weapons » and prepare with 
much ceremony to drive out the 
devil. This takes place once a year 
toward the close of August 

There was a very tall, leafless, 
and black tree that stood many 
years ago at the end of the village 
of Biggar, in Scotland, which was 



za48 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The devO hates dried peas in 
Japan, and flees from them; they 
are therefore thrown about the 
houses to drive the devils out 
Devils are also very much afraid 
of a holly leaf and the head of a 
sardine-like fish, called the iwashi. 
If you nail these to the entrance of 
your house, no devil will dare to 
enter in. 

The Chinese believe that those 
who eat of the plant called Shui- 
mong will die immediately after 
and become shui-mong devils; 
such devils are incapable of being 
bom again, unless they can find 
someone else who has eaten the 
same plant, and is willing to take 
their place. 

When the devil appeared to 
Cuvier, the great man looked at 
him nonchalantly and asked curtly: 
"What do you wish of me?" "I've 
come to eat you!" said the devil. 
But the great anatomist's shrewd 
eye had already examined him. 
"Horns and hoofs 1" he retorted, 
"granivorous. You can't do itl" 
Whereupon, outfaced by science, 
Satan departed. 

In North Wales, it used to be 
the custom to spit at the name of 
the devil and strike the breast three 
times at the name of Judas, to ward 
off evil influences. This was espe- 
cially done in church. 

If a man in Denmark wishes to 
have any communication with the 
devil, he must walk around the 
church three times, and on the 
third, stop and either whistle or 
cry, "Come out I" through the key- 
hole. 

Persons who enter into a com- 
pact with Satan can raise wind and 
storms by calling him up, and these 
disturbances cannot be stilled save 
by the death of a black cock, a 
black dog, or an unchristened 
child. 



The following three proverbs, 
now applied metaphorically, are 
based on ancient superstition about 
the devil: 

"Talk of the devil and he is sure 
to appear." 

"Talk of the devil and he will 
show his horns.'' 

'Think of the devil and he is 
%ure to be back of you." 

Jason Pratensis wrote that ''the 
devil being a slender, incompre- 
hensible spirit, can easily insinuate 
and wind himself into human bod- 
ies and, cunningly couched in our 
bowels, vitiate our healths, terrify 
our souls with fearful dreams, and 
shake oiu* minds with furies. These 
evil spirits go in and out oi our 
bodies as bees do in a hive, and so 
provoke and tempt us as they see 
we are inclined by our humors to 
it, or are most apt to be deluded." 
But, "Whether by obsession or 
possession these things are d(Mie, 
I cannot determine." 

Vasari, the Italian painter and 
biographer (d. 1574), tells the IdL- 
lowing strange tale of Spinello 
of Arezzo. When this artist had 
painted, in his famous fresco of the 
fall of the rebellious angels, the 
devil as a hideous demon and with 
seven heads about his body, the 
fiend came to him in the very bod- 
ily form he had conceived him, and 
asked the artist where he had seen 
him so, and why he had portrayed 
him in such a manner and put such 
a shame upon him? When Spinel- 
lo came out of the vision, he was 
in a state of terror, and falling into 
a melancholy, soon died. 

A mythical personage who orig- 
inated in German folklore, was 
Friar Rusk. He was a fiendish 
looking creature who was really a 
devil, and kept monks and friars 
from leading a religious life. He 
was probably at one time a good-* 



1350 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



on the floor, put one hand on the 
top of your head and the other 
under the soles of your feet and 
say, 'All that is between my two 
hands belongs to the devil.' " So 
the girl sat on the floor, did as she 
was bid, and said: ''All that is be- 
tween my two hands belongs to 
God I" At this unexpected termi- 
nation, the old man gave a hideous 
howl and vanished. 

There are two places on the 
Rhine where the father of lies still 
retains occupation. He has a 
devil's house, in which he may be 
seen at night, drinking hot spiced 
wine with a long since deceased 
prince. This proper pair oiten 
issues forth at night after their or- 
gies, and, disguised as monks, play 
tricks on the ferrymen and their 
boats on the river, so that when 
morning comes, there is no man 
at his right station, and every boat 
is drifting off to sea. 

Following is a description of 
the chief of the evil spirits in Ara- 
bian legend, by Beckford, in his 
"Vathek." Eblis seemed in per- 
son that of a young man whose 
noble and regular features seemed 
to have been tarnished by malig- 
nant vapors. In his large eyes ap- 
peared both pride and despair; his 
flowing hair retained some sem- 
blance to that of an angel of light. 
In his hand, which thunder had 
blasted, he swayed the iron scepter 
that caused monsters, afrits, and all 
the powers of the abyss to trem- 
ble. 

In Arabia, the prince of the zpos- 
tate angels is called Eblis, which 
means "despair," and he was exiled 
to the infernal regions because he 
would not worship Adam at the 
command of the Almighty. He 
gave as his excuse that he was 
formed out of ethereal fire, while 
Adam was formed out of common 



clay; why then should not Adam 
worship him, and not he Adam? 
The Mohammedans say that at the 
birth of their prophet, the throne 
of Eblis was precipitated to the 
bottcxn of hell, and the idols of the 
Gentiles were overturned. 

In the Basque legends collected 
by Rev. W. Webster, we find the 
following: A wealthy man once 
promised to give a pocH* gentleman 
and his wife a large sum of money 
if they would tell him the devil's 
age. When the time came, the 
gentleman, at his wife's suggestion, 
plunged first into a barrel of honey 
and then into a barrel of feathers. 
He then walked on all fours. Pres- 
ently up came his satanic majesty 
and exclaimed: "X and x years 
have I lived," naming the exact 
number, "yet I never saw an ani- 
mal like this!" The gentleman had 
heard enough, and was able to an- 
swer the question without difli- 
culty. 

Ariel had his birth before Shake- 
speare made him an airy and trick- 
sy spirit in the "Tempest," for in 
the demonology of the Calaba he 
was a water-spirit, and in the fables 
of the Middle Ages a spirit of the 
air. Shakespeare represents him 
as having been a servant to Sycora, 
who, for some acts of disobedience, 
imprisoned him in the cleft of a 
pine tree, where he remained for 
twelve years, until released by 
Prospero. In gratitude for his de- 
liverance, he became the willing 
messenger of Prospero, assuming 
any shape, or rendering himsetf 
invisible, in order to execute the 
commands of his master. 

Authors disting^shed for sense 
and talent record with great seri- 
ousness that the devil once deliv- 
ered a course of lectures on magic 
at Salamanca, habited in a profes- 
sor's gown and wig; and that an- 



1253 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



excel men in dignity as we do apes, 
and were as far excelled again by 
those who were above them. Our 
governors and keepers they are, 
moreover (which Plato in Critias 
delivered of old), and they rule 
themselves as well as us; and the 
spirits of the meaner sort had usu- 
ally such offices as we give to our 
servants. They knew all things, 
and we can no more apprehend 
their nature and functions than a 
horse can apprehend ours. The 
best kings among us and the most 
generous natures were not com- 
parable to the meanest among 
them. Sometimes they did instruct 
men and communicate their skill, 
reward and cherish, and some- 
times punish and terrify them to 
keep them in awe.** 

Burton speaks, in his "Anatomy 
of Melancholy," of subterranean 
devils being as common as the rest 
and doing as much harm. Mun- 
ster says: "They are commonly 
seen about mines and metals, and 
there are six kinds of them. The 
metal men, in many places, account 
it good luck to see them, as it is a 
sign of good ore and treasure. 
Georgius Agricola, in his book, 
reckons two more kinds, which he 
calls Getuli and Cobali, both are 
clothed after the manner of metal 
men and will many times imitate 
their works. Their office, as Pic- 
torius and Paracelsus think, is to 
keep treasure in the earth, that it 
be not all at once revealed; and be- 
sides, Cicogana avers that they are 
the frequent cause of those horrible 
earthquakes, which often swallow 
up not only houses, but whole isl- 
ands and cities. The last are con- 
versant about the center of the 
earth to torture souls of damned 
men to the day of judgment; the 
egress and regress are through 
Aetna, Lipari, Mons Hecla in Ice- 



land, Vesuvius, and it is known by 
the many shrieks and fearful cries 
that are continually heard there- 
abouts, and familiar apparitions of 
dead men, ghosts and goblins." 

At a festival, called the Sitsubun, 
the Japanese have a curious cere- 
mony of casting out devils. The 
caster out of devils wanders at 
night through the streets, crying: 
"Devils out, good fortune in!" and 
for a trifling fee, he performs his 
little exorcism in any house to 
which he is called. After that, 
dried peas are scattered about the 
house in four directions, and as 
devils hate dried peas, they fly 
away. Devils are also afraid of 
fishes' heads and holly leaves. 
People carrying these cannot be 
possessed by them. (Lafcadio 
Heam, "Glimpses of Unfamiliar 
Japan.") 

Saint Epiphanius, a dogmatical 
bishop who lived in the fourth cen- 
tury, and who wrote a treatise 
against heresies, g^ves the follow- 
ing as an illustration of the clever- 
ness of the devil, attributing the 
miracle to his power : "Among the 
Gnostics, an ancient Christian sect, 
in the celebration of their eucha- 
rist, the communion, three large 
vases of the finest and clearest 
crystal were brought among the 
congregation and filled with white 
wine. While the ceremony was 
going on in full view of everybody, 
this wine was instantaneously 
changed to blood-red, then to pur- 
ple, and then to azure-blue. When 
that was done, the priest handed 
one of the vases to a woman in the 
congregation and requested her to 
bless it. She did so, and the priest 
offered up the following prayer, at 
the same time pouring it into a 
very much larger vase than the one 
that contained it: 'May the g^ce 
of God, which is above all incon- 



i«54 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



In Sccytlandy where religion as- 
sumed the garb of gloom and 
fanaticism, a belief in the personal 
appearance of devils was universal 
in the seventeenth century, and 
continued among the vulgar till 
within the last fifty years. The 
narrations of Satan's mean pranks, 
in assaulting ministers, waylaying 
travelers, and disturbing families 
while at worship, would fill a large 
volume. In the Rev. Mr. Robert 
Law's "Memorials of Memorable 
Things, from 1638 to 1684," we 
find the following entry: 

"October, 1670.— There was a 
devil that troubled a house in Kep- 
poch, within a mile of Glasgow, for 
the matter of eight days t3rme (but 
disappeared again), in casting pots, 
and droping stones from the roof, 
yet not hurting any, like that which 
appeared in the west, in a weaver's 
house, a good man, about fourteen 
years agoe, which did the lyke, and 
spoke to them audibly.'* The tricks 
of the devil here referred to, as 
having taken place in a weaver's 
house in the west, about the year 
1656, and which were implicitly 
believed by the most learned cler- 
gy of the time, are related at great 
length by Mr. George Sinclair, 
professor of philosophy in the Col- 
lege of Glasgow, in his work, 
"Stan's Invisible World Discov- 
ered." The alleged events oc- 
curred at Glenluce, in Wigtonshire, 
and would be too contemptible for 
quotation if it were not desirable 
to show what paltry tricks were 
played off, and believed to be su- 
pernatural in those days. The fam- 
ily of the weaver, being vexed with 
noises and appearances, send for 
the neighboring clergyman to allay 
the devil, between whom and the 
worthy man a dialogue takes place, 
from which we extract a few pas- 
sages: "The minister returned 
back a little, and standing upon the 



floor, the devil said, 'I knew not 
these scriptures till my father 
taught me them.' Then the minis- 
ter conjured him to tell whence he 
was. The foul fiend replied, 'That 
he was an evil spirit come from the 
bottCHuless pit of hell to vex this 
house, and that Satan was his Eith- 
er.' And presently there appeared a 
naked hand, and an arm from the el- 
bow down, beating upon the floor 
till the house did shake again, and 
also he uttered a most fearful and 
loud cry, sa3ring, 'Come up, my 
father— -come up. I will send my 
father among you; see, there he is 
behind your backs 1' Then the min- 
ister said, 'I saw, indeed, a hand 
and an arm, when the stroke was 
given and heard.' The devil said 
to him, 'Saw you that? It was not 
my hand, it was my father's; my 
hand is more black in the loot 
(palm). Would you see me»' says 
the foul thief, 'put out the candle» 
and I shall come butt the house 
(into the outer room) among you 
like fire-balls,'" etc The visit of 
the minister was unavailing. 
"About this time the devil b^;an 
with new assaults; and taking the 
ready meat which was in the house^ 
did sometimes hide it in holes by 
the door-posts, and at other times 
hid it under the beds, and some- 
times among the bed-clothes and 
under the linens, and at last did 
carry it quite away, till nothing was 
left there save bread and water. 
The good wife, one morning mak- 
ing porridge for the children's 
brealdast, had the wooden plate^ 
wherein the meal lay, snatched 
from her quickly. 'Well!' says 
she, 'let me have my plate again.^ 
Whereupon it came flying at her, 
without any skaith done." Any 
further extract from this ridicu- 
lous, though at one time universal- 
ly believed, narrative, would be un- 
necessary. A modem police officer 



ia56 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



recently trodden upon, and hang 
it up in the chimney, to cause their 
^nemy to wither away. 

The Tamils (a race of Southern 
India and Ceylon) believe that they 
can kill an enemy at a distance by 
a ceremony with the skull of a 
child. 

If you make a cut on the wall of 
the house of an enemy, the mem- 
bers of his household will quarrel. 
(India.) 

Take six new pins and seven 
needles, stick point to point in a 
piece of new cloth, and place it un- 
der the doorstep of your enemy; 
when he or she walks over it, they 
will lose the use of their legs. 

The following is a Finnish super- 
stition: The image of an absent 
person is placed in a vessel of water 
and a shot aimed at it, thereby 
wounding or slaying a hated per- 
son at many miles' distance. 

If you can get a few strands of 
your enemy's hair, bore a hole in 
a tree, put them in, and plug up the 
hole; you can thus give him a 
headache which cannot be relieved 
until his hair is taken out of the 
tree. 

To make trouble for an enemy, 
take some hair from the back of a 
snarling, yelping cur, some from a 
black cat, put them into a bottle 
with a tablespoonful of gunpowder, 
fill the bottle with water from a 
running brook, and sprinkle it in 
the form of three crosses on his 
doorstep, one at each end, and one 
in the middle. 

The negroes think that in order 
to make an evil charm effectual, 
they must sacrifice something. In 
accordance with this idea, cake, 
candy, or small coins are scattered 
by those who place the charm. The 
articles thrown away must be plac- 



ed where wanted, and they most be 
abandoned without a backward 
glance. 

It is a true charm from the old 
country, that if you are tired of 
anyone, you can get rid of that per- 
son by taking a bushel of dry peas 
saying a wish for every one you 
take out, as from day to day you 
take out some, and as they go, he 
will waste and go to his grave* 

To cause the death of an enemy, 
mould a heart of wax and stick 
pins in it till it breaks. Another 
charm is to hold the waxen heart 
before a slow fire. As it melts, the 
life of the enemy will depart. 

To harm an enemy, take salt and 
pepper and put them into his cloth- 
ing or his house, and say: 

"I put this pepper on yon. 
And this salt thereto. 
That peace and happiness 
You may never know.** 

He will soon be miserable* 

A sheaf of com is sometimes 
buried with a certain dedication to 
Satan, in the beUef that as the com 
rots in the ground, so will the per- 
son wither away who is under your 
curse when you bury the com. 

Another form of malediction is 
to bury a lighted candle by night 
in a churchyard, with certain weird 
ceremonies. 

The following recipe for aveng- 
ing oneself on one's enemies is 
given by Ktmn, in Westphalia: 
''When the new moon falls on a 
Tuesday, go out before daybreak 
to a stake selected beforehand, turn 
to the east and say: 'Stick, I 
grasp thee in the name of the Trin- 
ity I' Take thy knife and say: 
'Stick, I cut thee in the name of 
the Trinity, that thou mayest obey 
me and chastise anyone whose 
name I mention.' Then peel the 
stick in two places to enable thee 



x«5B 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



shalt know that thy tabernacles 
shall be in peace, and thou shalt 
visit thy habitation and shalt not 



It may be suspended about the 
neck, or worn on any part of the 
body, so that it be kept from the 



A bunch of red cypress and pal- 
metto tied up together and htmg 
from the chimney board, will pre- 
vent your enemies from conjuring 
you. 

In India, amulets are worn by 
the royalists and nobility. They 
believe that they keep oflf evil spir- 
its. If they did not wear them 
their enemy would overpower 
them. 

In Bulgaria, every maiden and 
child must wear at least one blue 
bead as a safeguard; the same 
holds good for horses and animals. 

The Chinese believe that placing 
their classics under their pillows 
will keep away all evil. 

To make one die for sleep, dis- 
solve lard and put it in their drink. 

Should a German assert that he 
has suffered from indigestion, or 
from any other particular ailing, 
he will solemnly rap thrice on the 
under side of the table, repeating 
the word "tmberufen" (meaning, 
may it remain unchanged). 

At a time when in danger of at- 
tack by furious beasts, you will be 
protected if you say reverently and 
with sincere faith, the following 
words: ''At destruction and fam- 
ine thou shalt laugh, neither shalt 
thou be afraid of the beasts of the 
earth. For thou shalt be in league 
with the stones of the field and the 
beasts of the field shall be at peace 
with thee." 

A talisman against enemies: 
This talisman is to be cast of the 
purest grain tin, and during the in- 
crease of the moon. The charac- 
ters are to be engraved on it also 
during the increase of the mocm. 




sight of all but the wearer. Its ef- 
fects are to g^ve victory over ene- 
mies, protection against their 
machinations, and to inspire the 
wearers thereof with the most re- 
markable confidence. 

An incantation when somebody 
is causing something to eat them: 
(It is believed that an enemy or a 
witch can cause something inside 
of you to turn into a thing that wiU 
eat you.) "Listen, Ha! I am a 
great adawehil I never fail at any- 
diing. I surpass all others. It is 
a mere screechowl that has fright- 
ened him. Ha! now I have put it 
away in the laurel thickets. There 
I compel it to remain. 

''Hal etc. It is a hooting owl 
that has frightened him. At once 
I have put it away in the spruce 
thickets. There I compel it to re- 
main. It is only a rabbit that has 
frightened him. I have put it away 
on the mountain ridges. 

"It is a mountain sprite that has 
frightened him. I have put it away 
on the bluff." (Now this is to treat 
infants if they are affected by cry- 
ing or nervous fright Then it is 
said something is eating them. 
Blow water on them for four 
nights. Doctor them just before 
dark and do not carry them outside 
of the house. — ^"Adawehi'' signifies 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



If you shoot the picture of an 
enemy with a silver bullet, you will 
cause the death of your enemy. 

At some Bengal feasts, people 
get brick thrown into their houses 
to avert ill luck. 

Twice a man may pass through 
some great danger, but the third 
time he will be injured or lose his 
life. 

To be silent when in danger, is 
lucky. You are much more apt to 
come out of it safely. 

In Germany, old women cut out 
a turf a foot long on which an en- 
emy had trod, and hung it up in 
the chimney, in the belief that the 
enemy would shrivel up just as the 
turf did, and in the end die a lin- 
gering death. 

When a man of one of the In- 
dian tribes cannot get what he 
wants, or if he thinks he has been 
unjustly treated, he will cut or 
wound himself, or perhaps take the 
life of some member of his family, 
in (H-der that the blood of the vic- 
tim may rest upon the head of the 
oppressor. 

If you wish to bring ill luck to a 
neighbor, take nine pins, nine nails, 
and nine needles, boil them in a 
quart of water, put it in a bottle, 
and hide it tmder or in their fire- 
place, and the family will always 
have sickness. (Negro supersti- 
tion.) 

The negroes "conjure" by ob- 
taining an article belonging to an- 
other, boiling it, no matter what it 
may be, in lye with a rabbit's foot, 
and a bunch of hair cut from the 
left ear of a female opossum. They 
say terrible headaches and the like 
can be inflicted in this way. 

The American Indians believe 
that anyone who possesses a lock 
of their hair or other thing related 



to their person, w&l have power 
over them for eviL 

When the bread is taken from 
the oven, a few red hot coals or 
cinders are thrown into the oven 
by the Magyars, in the belief that 
it is as good as throwing them 
down one's enemy's throat. Thus, 
if one's enemy would partake of 
that bread, he would come to grief. 

There are people who firmly be- 
lieve that persons can be cursed» 
and there are still impostors who 
take advantage of the credulity of 
silly servant girls, and pretend that 
they are able to curse those wfaom» 
for a consideration, they are re- 
quested to curse. 

Throw a pebble upon which your 
enemy's name is inscribed, togeth- 
er with a pin, into the well of St 
Elian, in Wales, as an offering to 
the well, and a curse will come 
upon the one who bears the name, 
and in all probability he will pine 
away and die. 

If in peril by fire or water, re- 
peat reverently and with sincere 
faith the following words, and you 
will be protected in the hour of 
danger: "When thou passest 
through the waters I will be with 
thee, and through the rivers they 
shall not overflow thee. When 
thou walkest through the fire thou 
shalt not be burnt, neither shall 
the flame kindle upon thee.^ 

The simplest means of averting 
evil is to spit three times over the 
left shoulder* at the same time pro- 
nouncing the Holy Name. This is 
the invariable custom when waking 
from an evil dream. 

M. Fauvel first discovered writ- 
ten charms intended to cast a spell 
over a person, in Athens in 1811. 
These are on leaden tablets, and 
profess to bind persons by name, 
precisely in the same manner as 



1262 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



litany" is about to beg^n. Such are 
the effects of superstition and im- 
agination that the notice alone is 
frequently sufficient with these 
weak people to make them waste 
away with fear, or else go mad and 
commit suicide. 

In Mirzapoor, a Brahmin took 
his only child, an infant about fif- 
teen months old, from the arms oi 
its mother and dashed its brains out 
against the ground, that it might 
become an evil spirit and torment 
a certain person by whom he im- 
agined himself injured. 

Another child was stabbed to 
the heart, and her bleeding body 
thrown at the door of the house of 
the enemy upon whom the mur- 
derer would be avenged. 

The Finnish superstition of pro- 
ducing an absent person in the 
form of an image in a vessel of 
water and then shooting it, and 
thereby wounding or slaying the 
absent enemy, is believed to be 
efficacious at a hundred miles dis- 
tance. 

It was at the instigation of Elea- 
nor, Duchess of Gloucester (for 
which she was imprisoned), that a 
figure made of wax was used to 
represent King Henry VI., the in- 
tention being for his person to be 
destroyed as the figure was con- 
sumed. 

Light, as well as fire, is a safe- 
guard against malefic influences. 
The ignorant Irish peasant arrived 
in this instance, through supersti- 
tion, at the same truth as the highly 
cultured Emerson, who said: 
"Light is the best policeman!" In 
the government of cities, it has 
been found that nothing breaks up 
a highly disreputable neighborhood 
quicker than the placing therein of 
a number erf powerful electric 
lights. "They love darkness better 



than light, because their deeds arc 
evil". 

In British Guiana, it is to this 
day firmly believed by the negroes 
and others, that injuries inflicted 
even upon the ordure of persons 
will be felt by the individual by 
whom they were left. In Somer- 
set, England, it is also believed that 
it is very injurious to an infant to 
bum its excrement It is thought 
to produce constipation and colic 

In Australia, the sorcerei> has dif- 
ferent means of attacking an ene- 
my. He can creep near him when 
he is asleep and bewitch him to 
death by merely pointing a legbone 
of a kangaroo at him; or he can 
steal away his kidney-fat, where, as 
the natives believe, a man's power 
dwells; or he can call in the aid of 
a malignant demon to strike the 
poor wretch with his club behind 
the neck, or he can get a lock of 
hair and roast it with fat over the 
fire until its former owner pines 
away and dies. 

In Calcutta, a servant having 
quarreled with his master, hung 
himself in the night in front of the 
street door, that he might become 
a devil and haunt the premises. 
The house was immediately for- 
saken by its occupants, and, al- 
though a large and beautiful edi- 
fice, was suffered to go to ruins. 

In another instance, an Indian 
persuaded his wife to let him bum 
her alive, so that she could become 
an evil spirit and be able to tor- 
ment a neighbor who had offended 
him. 

The western tribes of Victoria, 
Australia, beUeve that if an enemy 
can get hold of so much as a bone 
from the meat one has eaten, that 
he can bring illness upon you. 
Should anything belonging to an 
unfriendly tribe be found, it is g^v- 



.* 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1263 



en to the chief, who preserves it as 
a means of injuring the enemy. It 
is loaned to any one of the tribe 
who wishes to vent his spite against 
any of the unfriendly tribe. When 
used as a charm, it is rubbed over 
with emu-fat mixed with clay, and 
tied to the point of a spear. This 
is stuck upright in the ground be- 
fore the camp fire. The company sit 
watching it, but at such a distance 
that their shadows cannot fall on it 
They keep chanting imprecations 
on the enemy till the spear thrower 
turns around and falls in his direc- 
tion. Any of these people believe 
that by getting a bone or other 
refuse of an enemy, he has the 
power of life and death over him, 
be it man, woman, or child. He can 
kill his enemy by sticking the bone 
firmly by the fire. No matter how 
distant, the person will waste away. 
This same belief is found among 
the American Indians. 

It is a common belief among the 
American Indians that certain 
medicine men possess the power of 
taking life by shooting needles, 
straws, spiders' webs, bullets and 
other objects, however distant the 
person may be at whom they are 
directed. Thus, in "Cloud Shield's 
Winter Count for 182rH825," Cat- 
Owner was killed with a spider-web 
thrown at him by a Dakota. It 
reached the heart of the victim 
from the hand of the man who 
threw it, and caused him to bleed 
to death from the nose. (Mallery, 
"Picture Writing of the American 
Indians.'^ 

In the North of Scotland, a pe- 
culiar piece of witchcraft is still prac- 
ticed, where a cowardly, yet dead- 
ly, hatred is cherished against a 
person. A "body of clay," called in 
Gaelic "Carp Creaah/' is made as 
nearly as possible to resemble the 
one sought to be injured. This is 



placed, in great secrecy, in the 
stream of some shadowy bum. 
The belief is that as the body of 
clay wastes away from the action 
of the water, the victim sought to 
be cursed will as surely waste away 
to death. 

It is thought, in Bermuda, that 
the reason why it has been raining 
for several consecutive years dur- 
ing the annual agricultural show, 
is because an old colored woman 
had laid a curse upon it, having, as 
she imagined, ground for com- 
plaint against the promoters there- 
of for some real or fancied injury. 

Among the negroes of the South, 
as well as among the natives of the 
West Indies, there still exists the 
widespread belief of the voodoo 
(q. v.), which is a charm cast upon 
a person or animal, and which is 
always inimical. The person who 
is able to cast the charm is a voo- 
doo doctor. Some voodoo charms 
are cast by incantations, some by 
the evil eye, some by merely wish- 
ing harm to the object intended to 
be injured. No voodoo or voodoo 
doctor is ever credited with power 
to do good. The voodoo man can do 
harm to an enemy, but no benefit 
to his employer, save such indirect 
benefit as may accrue from the en- 
emy's hurt. The favorite voodoo 
charm which is sold by aged 
witches at prices ranging from fifty 
cents to five dollars, according to 
the wealth of the purchaser, is 
composed of a red flannel bag, 
some two inches long and one inch 
wide, which is sewed tightly all 
around, having been filled with fish 
bones, scrapings from the nails of 
a dead person or dead baby's hair, 
and one or two valueless herbs. 
This is worn around the neck bv a 

• 

string, and is supposed to confer 
upon the wearer power to harm 
someone with a thought It is also 



1264 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



believed to protect the wearer 
against evil spirits, and the evil eye. 
(Other superstitions about the voo- 
doo, see under "Voodoo.") 

One of the charms formerly 
most dreaded by the natives of 
Madagascar, was called berika. It 
is said to be most deadly in its ef- 
fects, bringing about the death of 
the victim by bursting his heart, 
and causing him to vomit immense 
quantities of blood. Even the pos- 
sessor of this charm stood in terror 
of it, and none but the most reck- 
less of charm-dealers and sorcerers 
would have anything to do with it 
It was popularly supposed to have 
an inherent liking for blood, and 
that it would at times demand from 
its owner to be allowed to go forth 
to destroy some living thing; at 
one time it would demand a bul- 
lock, at another a sheep or pig, at 
another a fowl, and occasionally its 
ferocity would only be satisfied 
with a human victim. The owner 
was obliged to comply with its de- 
mands and perform the appropriate 
incantations so as to set it at liber- 
ty to proceed on its fatal errand, 
lest it should ttun on him and 
strike him dead. In fact, the charm 
was of so uncertain a temper, so to 
speak, that its owner was never 
sure d his own life, as it might at 
any moment turn upon him and 
destroy him, out of sheer ferocity. 

Another powerful charm is called 
manara-mody. It is supposed to 
follow the perscxi to be injured, and 
on his arrival home, to bring upon 
him a serious illness or cause his 
immediate death. For instance, a 
person goes down from the interior 
to the coast for the purpose of 
trade. In some business transac- 
tion, he unfortunately excites the 
anger of a man with whom he is 
dealing, and who determines to 
seek revenge. For this purpose, he 



buys from a charm-dealer the 
charm called manara-mody. The 
trader, having finished his business 
on the coast, starts homeward, all 
unconscious that his enemy has 
sent the fatal charm after him to 
dog his steps through forest and 
swamp, over hill and valley. At 
length he reaches his home, thank- 
ful to be once more with his fam- 
ily. But alas! the rejoicing is soon 
turned to mourning, for the re- 
morseless charm does its work, and 
smites the victim with sore disease, 
or slays him outright at once. 

Dr. Wyatt, of the Aborigines 
Protection Society, describes the 
Australian practice of ''painting 
the bone," a mode by which the 
natives destroy their victims, as it 
was told him by a member of the 
Adelaide tribe. His informant first 
spread his blanket on the ground 
and bade Dr. Wyatt suppose that a 
man was tmder it, asleep. He then 
retired a few paces, laid himself 
down at full length, crept along 
upon his elbows with the least pos- 
sible noise, and beckoned to him 
to reach him a little stick he had 
prepared to represent the weapon. 
When he had arrived close to the 
blanket, he very carefully lifted up 
the corner of it and said: "Here 
are the head and neck." The stick 
was slowly thrust into the earth (as 
if into the neck, above the collar* 
bone) in a slanting direction; and, 
when it had been made to pene- 
trate about six or eight inches, was 
in the same manner withdrawn, the 
finger and thumb of the left hand 
being ready to close the imaginary 
wound. This was immediately 
done, and, after the orifice had 
been kept closed by the pressure 
for a short time, a little earth was 
taken up and sprinkled upon the 
part, and the native said: "There 
is no blood, no wound to be seen. 



1366 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



East with cone-shells, not for 
beauty, but to keep off the evil eye. 

In East India, it is believed that 
the glance of fascination will be 
averted by gold; hence letters 
from a raja, for instance, are spot- 
ted with gold leaf. 

The ugly figure of a European 
is drawn in caricature on the walls 
of a house in East India, to avert 
the evil eye. 

A remedy for the evil eye is 
"Alyssum," hung up anywhere in 
the house. 

To counteract the spell ol an 
evil eye, Russian girls tie red rib- 
bons around birch trees; Germans 
wear a radish. 

The bad influences from one who 
has the evil eye may be averted by 
sticking an awl in his footprints. 

In Tuscany, the lavender coun- 
teracts the evil eye. 

The Irish think that not only 
their cattle, but also their children, 
are "eye-bitten" if they happen to 
fall sick. 

Ferdinand said, on hearing of the 
insurrection at Naples: "I knew 
some evil would befall me, for I 
passed a jettatore (a person with 
an evil eye) to-day while I was 
hunting." 

It is unlucky to have a person 
gaze steadfastly at you. Do not let 
anyone look at you from head to 
foot, as if "sizing you up" — it will 
bring evil to you. 

• 

In some parts, it is believed that 
the owner of an "evil eye" can de- 
stroy trees by looking at them in- 
tently in the morning. 

The Old Testament cautions us 
not to eat bread with one who has 
the evil eye. (Proverbs, 23rd chap- 
ter.) 



The Jews consider it unlucky to 
say to a person enjo3ring himself, 
"How merry you are!" or to one 
whilst eating, "How fat you are.** 
To do this, indicates that you have 
the evil eye. 

Orientals feared the influence of 
the evil eye so much that not an 
action or a time or a place was left 
unguarded by some kind of an am- 
ulet 

A pair of hcxns g^uard us from 
the evil eye. (Sicilian proverb.) 

A charm to avert the evil eye is 
to sprinkle the patient with '"gold 
and silver water." 

To make a sign of the cross by 
crossing the first and second finger 
will ward off the evil eye. 

A charm to protect against the 
evil eye is to carry a hare's foot, 
says the English peasant 

The Romans believed that the 
look of some people could set the 
seeds ol death in an instant 

It is the custom in France to 
break eggshells to avoid fascina- 
tion. 

A story is related of an unhappy 
Slav who, with the most loving 
heart, was afflicted with the evil 
eye, and at last blinded himself, 
that he might not be the means of 
injury to his children. (Elworthy, 
"The Evil Eye.") 

Shells, bones, and blue beads in 
strings, are worn by Tiu-ks on their 
heads, as well as hung on the ani- 
mals, to ward off the evil eye. 

The dipping of the feet in the 
morning in human urine, is a pre- 
ventive against charms. 

In Proverbs, we read: "Eat not 
thou the bread of him that hath the 
evil eye," a maxim that is just as 
much believed in and observed to- 
day as in the days oi Solomon* 



1268 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Jugs are put on the houses, on 
the roofs, to keep off the evil eye. 
(Albanian.) 

It was firmly believed by all an- 
cients that some malignant influ- 
ence darted from the eyes of en- 
vious or angry perscHis, and so af- 
fected the parts as to penetrate and 
corrupt the bodies of both living 
creatures and inanimate objects. 
"When anyone looks at what is ex- 
cellent with an envious eye, he fills 
the surrounding atmosphere with 
a pernicious quality, and transmits 
his own envenomed exhalations 
into whatever is nearest to him." 
(Elworthy, "The EvU Eye.") 

If a woman, especially a beauty, 
goes visiting and after her return 
is taken sick, she is supposed to 
have been affected by the evil eye. 
To cure her, some relative goes se- 
cretly to the house where she visit- 
ed and cuts a piece of cloth from 
some dress in that house, brings 
it home, and bums it, so that the 
afflicted one can smell the smoke. 
This will cure her of her illness. 
(Turkey.) 

Not very long ago, there lived a 
very well known old woman in 
Scotland, who made an honest live- 
lihood by the sale of "Skaith saw," 
as a charm against the evil eye. 

The Cretans and the people of 
Cyprus had, in ancient times, the 
reputation of being especially en- 
dowed with the faculty of injuring 
others with the evil eye, and the 
same belief continues to this day, 
as recounted by General Cesnola. 
(Elworthy, "The Evil Eye.") 

the Italian ar- 
while American 
Cyprus, 1865 to 
extensive and 
excavations on 
in his work on 
met frequently 



Count Cesnola, 
chaeologist, who, 
consul at Lamaka, 
1877, conducted 
highly successful 
that island, writes, 
Cyprus, that he 



evidences of the existing belief in 
the evil eye. One of his diggers, 
Theocharis, for instance, invariably 
made the sign of the cross before 
entering a cave, to avert the malig- 
nant influences of the evil eye. 

The Arabs believe that a glance 
from a hyena will cause the hunter 
to lose his intellect and to have it 
enter the brain of the animal. 
Hence the Arabic saying: "Ah, 
you have seen a hyena!" which is 
as much as to say: "You have lost 
your brains 1" 

An Arabic variation of the evil 
eye is the charm known as "El 
Khams," the five; which is prac- 
ticed among many tribes of Arabs. 
It consists of extending the four 
fingers and thumb of the right 
hand, palm downward, toward the 
object of resentment, a harsh gut- 
tural sound being made at the same 
time, low down in the throat This 
charm is considered so dangerous 
and deadly that the victim of such 
a demonstration is considered quite 
justified in using any weapon he 
may possess to kill or maim the 
operator of the charm. The only 
thing one can do to ward off this 
charm is to extend the right hand, 
palm outward, toward the operator, 
and say the famous Arab formula 
of exorcism: "Praise God!" 

The belief in the disastrous effect 
of the evil eye is common in Chile, 
and when any illness not under- 
stood afflicts one, it is frequently 
attributed to this cause, and strange 
remedies are resorted to in order 
to counteract it Animals ridden 
by certain persons are also believed 
to become ill and feeble by the ccm- 
tact This is to a certain extent 
correct, but is rather to be account* 
ed for by the irritation from unnec* 
essary use of the whip and spur^ 
which some riders habitually use 



ISJO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



some brown wax, from the candles 
used during the Holy Week serv- 
ice, to the heads of the children or 
animals. Some again hung a sort 
of a seashell called bahbuha round 
the necks of the little ones, or cat- 
tle, to make them impervious to its 
effects. A pair of horns is also 
used by some as a charm to avert 
the evil eye. 

W. W. Story, the American poet 
and author, writes: "In Rome are 
many noted jettatori, one of them 
is a pleasant and most handsome 
man attached to the church, and 
yet, by odd coincidence, wherever 
he goes, he carries ill luck. If he 
goes to a party, the ices do 
not arrive, the music is late, 
the lamps go out, a storm 
comes on, the waiter smashes his 
tray of refreshments, or something 
else is sure to happen. Someone 
said yesterday: 'I was looking out 

of my window when I saw 

coming along. "Phew!" said I, 
making the sign of the cross and 
pointing two fingers, "what ill luck 
will happen now to some poor devil 
who does not see him?'' I watched 
him all down the street, however, 
and nothing occurred; but this 
morning I hear that, after turning 
the comer, he spoke to a poor little 
boy, who was up in a tree gather- 
ing some fruit, and no sooner was 
he out of sight than down fell the 
boy and broke his arm.' " 

Frederick Thomas Elworthy, the 
author of "The Evil Eye," writes: 
"Recently I have in Naples obtain- 
ed a large mother-o'-pearl gobbo 
from a man who was wearing it 
under his waistcoat. I wanted to 
buy it from him, as he was a dealer, 
and sold me several small ones last 
vear, but then he would not sell it. 
Later I met him again, and enquir- 
ed if he still had the gobbo, which 
he immediately produced from un- 



der his waistcoat, but still for sev- 
eral days refused to part with it. 
At last the almighty dollar (or, be- 
ing translated, English gold) pre- 
vailed, but he had no sooner parted 
with it than he exclaimed: "Eper- 
duta la mia fortunal" (I have lost 
my fortune!) 

Among the Neapolitans is a very 
curious amulet called the "sprig of 
rue." There is but one ancient ex- 
ample of this amulet to be found, 
and that is in the Museum at Bo- 
logna, but we may safely give it an 
Etruscan or Phoenician origin. No 
plant had more virtues ascribed to 
it in ancient times than the rue. 
Pliny says that it is the most active 
of ail medicinal plants, good for 
stings of serpents, so much so that 
when weasels are about to attack 
them they first eat it It is also 
good for bites of scorpions, spiders, 
bees, wasps, hornets, mad dogs, 
and the noxious effects of canthar- 
ides and salamanders. He quotes 
Pythagoras, Harpocrates, and Di- 
odes, while Gerard calls it the 
"herb of grace," and Culpepper 
says, "It is an herb of the sun and 
under Leo." The editor of Pliny's 
works tried it, and found nothing 
in it; but at any rate, images of it 
are now worn as amulets by about 
all the babies in Naples and other 
parts of Italy, and the children use 
representations of a sprig of rue for 
protection against the terrible jet- 
tatura. 

Horns, in one form or another, 
are of all objects the most common 
defense against the evil eye, so 
much so that it is fully believed by 
Neapolitans that, in default of a 
horn in some shape, the mere ut- 
terance of the word ccxno or coma, 
is an effectual protection. 

The people of Senegal, Pern, 
Palestine, Holland, Greece, the 
Druses of Lebanon, the Jewesses 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



137a 



of Tunis, the women of South Af- 
rica, the North American Indians, 
the Belgians of old, the Saxons, all 
wore horns on their heads in some 
manner, on head-dresses, or hel- 
mets, to ward off that awful, uni- 
versal, unescapable mystic glance 
that did and does continually harass 
man in all quarters of the globe! 

Whoever wrote Isaiah and the 
Epistle to the Ephesians must have 
been perfectly familiar with the at- 
tachment of horns to the helmet 
for protection, for the horns made 
it the •*helmet of salvation or safe- 
ty." The altar of the Tabernacle, 
as described in Exodus, was horn- 
ed. **At the four comers were four 
projections called horns, made like 
the altar itself, of shittim wood 
overlaid with brass. To them the 
victim was bound when sacrificed. 
The blood was sprinkled on the 
horns." (Smith's Bible Diction- 
ary.) 

Mascagni, the famous Italian 
composer, like so many other Ital- 
ian artists, is said to carry in his 
pockets an extraordinary collection 
of amulets against the superstition 
of the evil glance, the list including 
horns of mother of pearl, ivory, and 
ebony, and corals, some of them 
bearing the effigy of his patron, 
Saint George, besides a goodly 
number of lucky chestnuts. 

Valletta, the author of a work on 
the evil eye, records that a servant 
of the Duke of Briganzio caused a 
falcon to drop down dead. In the 
•'Acts of the Academy of Paris/* it 
is recorded that a dirty old hag, in 
1739, went near and paused before 
a highly polished mirror, which, 
from her glance absorbed so much 
greasy matter that, collected to- 
gether, it was proved to be a very 
powerful poison. Valletta also 
mentions a person who, by looking 
on a block of marble, dashed it to 



pieces, and a certain Titinnia, in 
Rome, who, by her evil eye, caused 
the orator Curio to remain speech- 
less when he was about to make a 
peroration against the senate. 

An amulet in the shape of an 
open hand has been worn as a pro- 
tection since the remotest antiqui- 
ty, in fact, as long as charms and 
amulets were used to ward off the 
evil eye. Over the g^eat gate of 
the Alhambra, where the king or 
the kadi dispensed justice in ori- 
ental fashion, is a large upright 
hand on the keystone of the outer 
Moorish arch, in defiance of the 
strict objection of the Moslem to 
images. The orientals have always 
had a profound dread of the terri- 
ble influence of the evil eye. At 
Morisco, the women wore small 
hands of gold around their necks 
like the Neapolitans, a substitute 
for the classical phallus. 

The arms of Ulster have a large 
uplifted hand. Perhaps the most 
apt and well known illustration of 
the holding up of the hand as a 
powerful gesture is the account in 
Exodus xvii, 2: "And it came to 
pass when Moses held up his hand 
that Israel prevailed; and when he 
let down his hand Amalek prevail- 
ed." Then, because he could not 
hold it up continually, it was held 
up by Aaron and Hur. 

On the g^eat marble columns in 
the church-mosque of St Sophia at 
Constantinople, is a very remark- 
able freak of nature. There is a 
white mark in the dark purple 
marble exactly like a spread-out 
hand; in fact, it is so good a repre- 
sentation that one naturallv fancies 
at first that it is artificial; but on 
close inspection, it is found to be 
the natural marking of the marble. 
It is about the size of a hand, and 
is really a conspicuous object when 
the visitor is conducted to the front 



127' 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of it, as he is sure to be by the 
guides. It is held in the very high- 
est reverence by the people as be- 
ing the hand of the prophet It is 
believed to protect all who go to 
pray near it from the evil eye. If 
this fine column had, as some de- 
clare, a previous existence in an 
ancient temple, who shall say to 
how many generations of men this 
strange piece of nature's art has 
been an object of veneration. 

There was nothing in Italy so 
evil as the eye of the late Pope Pio 
Nono. His blessing was fatal. The 
most devout Catholics, when ask- 
ing his blessing, used to point two 
fingers at him. Ask a Roman 
about the pope's evil eye, and he 
will answer: "They said so, and it 
seems really to be true. Every- 
thing on which he gave his blessing 
proved a fiasco! When he went to 
St. Agnese to hold a great festival, 
down went the floor, and the peo- 
ple were all smashed togetfier. 
Then he visited the column to the 
Madonna in the Piazza di Spag^a, 
and down fell a workman and killed 
himself. Lord C. came in from 
Albano feeling a little unwell; the 
pope sent him his blessing, when 
he died on the spot In fact, end- 
less things confirm the opinion." 

The pope blessed a rosary owned 
by Rachel, the great actress, who 
put it on her arm. She had been 
visiting a sister who was ill but im- 
proving; hardly had she left her, 
very happy in her recovery, when 
a message came that she was dying. 
The actress caught the bracelet 
from her arm, exclaiming: "O 
fatal gift! 'Tis thou that hast en- 
tailed this curse upon me!" Her 
sister died that day. 

In Abyssinia, potters and iron- 
workers were supposed to be espe- 
cially endowed with the evil eye, 
and were not permitted to take 



part in any religious ceremonies, 
no matter how devout Certain 
ailments are still set down to their 
influence, and they are believed to 
have the power of the "loup garou" 
orwere-wolfythat of changing them- 
selves into hyenas and other raven- 
ous beasts, the counterparts of the 
wolves of the North. 

The old world superstition of the 
"evil eye" exists in the Australian 
tribe which calls itself "Dun-ga- 
rah." Its people avoid looking 
into each other's faces, but if one oi 
them sees anyone gazing intently 
upon him, he very sharply at once 
reminds the other of the fact, as 
their idea is that for anyone to gaze 
long upon another will cause sick- 
ness to follow. If the person dies, 
the person who gazed is held re- 
sponsible for it and is killed, even 
vengeance being taken on the 
tribe. Any mysterious death is be- 
lieved to have been caused by some 
one gazing upon the individual, 
thus choking him, and killing him. 

An old woman of the Dun-ga- 
rahs (New South Wales) carries 
about in her bag a dried human 
hand, which she has stained a red 
color. All the blacks are afraid of 
her, and consider her a sorceress. 
The impression of the human hand 
is frequently seen on the rocks 
about here, the trees, walls, and so 
forth. They spread the hand on 
the rock and scrape all about it, so 
as to leave the shape sUghtly rais- 
ed. They then stain this figure of 
the hand with fungus, which makes 
it a dark orange-red color, and 
puts a gloss on the stone which 
prevents its crumbling away. This 
makes the figure of the hand pro- 
ject out of the rock, and all blacks 
visiting the vicinity will put more 
fungus on it, giving it a deeper 
stain and gloss. This red hand is 
a protection from the evil eye, and 



1274 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Lord Sttdely, who became finan- 
cially ruined; Mr. Reuben Sassoon, 
who was also harcThit by financial 
reverses; the Earl of Sefton, who 
has had great family troubles; the 
Duke of Fife, who is afflicted with 
spinal disease; and a l(xig list of his 
especial cronies and companions, 
every one of whom have had 
bad luck or worse, so that the 
friendship of the prince is come to 
be recognized as certain bad luck, 
if not ruin. To quote the article, 
"The only other royal personage in 
history who is accredited with hav- 
ing possessed the evil eye, is 
Charles II. of England, whose 
character and record present so 
many analogies with England's 
heir-apparent, both of them being 
distinguished for a strange mixture 
of levity and common sense, gener- 
osity and selfishness." 

A great mass of historical testi- 
mony assures us that the brazen 
serpent and all such objects as we 
now call amulets, like the grillo at 
Athens, the crocodiles of Seville 
and Venice, were not originally 
worshipped idolatrously, but were 
looked upon as magically endowed 
with the power erf countervailing 
the effect of the malignant eye, the 
fertile source, it was thought, of 
every evil to mankind. 

It is very probable that the "ter- 
aphim" which Rachel stole from 
Laban were really amulets, not the 
kind to be worn, but used as pro- 
tecting objects. We have no rea- 
son to believe that Rachel carried 
them oflf with the object of wor- 
shipping them, but rather to pro- 
tect her household from the evil 
eye. 

"The frontlets between thine 
eyes," mentioned in Exodus, were 
true amulets. One kind of phylac- 
tery was bound upon the bend of 
the left arm and the other on the 



forehead. They were little leather 
boxes containing strips of parch- 
ment, on which were written what 
was called the Tetragrammaton^ 
namely. Exodus xiiL, 2-10; Deut 
vL, 4-9; Exodus xiii., 11-16; Deut. 
xi., 13-21. They were certainly 
worn by all Jews over thirteen 
years of age, at the time of our 
Lord, not only as an article of wor- 
ship, but also as a protection 
against the evil eye. 

Among the ancient Egyptians, 
not only were protecting amulets 
worn by the living, but in that land 
where the idea of a future life 
seemed to absorb so much of the 
care and interest erf the present, 
they placed them in profusion on 
their dead, in order that they might 
be protected from evil spirits and 
the blighting eye, during the dark 
passage from this world to the 
next Maspero says that these 
amulets (speaking of scarabs, a 
kind of beetle held sacred by the 
Egyptians) were placed upon the 
breast of the dead with a written 
prayer that the heart of the person 
whose form the beetle was made to 
represent, would never bear wit- 
ness against the dead in the day of 
judgment. These scarabs and 
mystic eyes were worn equally by 
the living and the dead as amulets 
against evil magic, moreover, the 
mystic eye appears everywhere 
painted on walls. One such of 
especial size and prominence, is to 
be found over the door of one of 
the upper chambers in the temple 
of Denderah, and it is seen con- 
stantly as one of the hieroglyphs. 

Arab amulets at the present day 
bear the figure of the thing against 
which they exert their virtue, and 
all oriental practices in this line 
come down from immemorial anti- 
quity. 

Plutarch, in a remarkable pas- 
sage, declares that the objects that 



1176 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



off the pixies, who might other- 
wise mislead them. 

The frog, which was highly re- 
vered by the ancient Egyptians as 
expressing various supernatural 
properties, is also one of the ani- 
mals believed to have the power of 
the evil eye, and at the same time 
being a powerful protection against 
fascination. Hence amulets with 
the fig^e of a frog were not only 
in use in ancient times, but are to 
this day worn by Italians, Greeks, 
and Turks. 

The Arabs believe that the camel 
is of all animals the most suscepti- 
ble to the evil effects of a malig- 
nant glance, and therefore never 
let a camel journey without its am- 
ulet. The commonest protection 
is a string of coarse blue glass 
beads hung on its neck, and a little 
bag containing words from the 
Koran. These are also used by the 
Arabs for their horses. 

When people are eating, espe- 
cially of dainties, they may swallow 
unawares poison which ''longing 
looks" have conveyed into the 
food. Hence the custom in many 
lands for kings and the wealthier 
classes to eat alone. 

The Zincalis say that it is not ad- 
visable to eat in the presence of a 
woman, for the evil eye cast by a 
woman is far more dangerous than 
when cast by a man. 

The unlearned among the Sar- 
dinians dread being looked at by a 
man of letters. 

The Romans attributed the pos- 
session of the evil eye to the late 
Pope Pius IX., and would at the 
same time, when praying for his 
blessing, fork out two fingers, to 
break the power of his glance. 

One who has not the power of 
the evil eye may acquire it by 



searching in a graveyard till he 
would find a coffin which has a 
knot-hole in it. That hole through 
which the deceased was on the 
lookout, may be used as an eye- 
glass, and whoever is stared at 
through it, will sicken or come to 
misfortune. 

The following are remedies 
against the evil eye: 

The skin of a hyena's forehead. 

The kernel of the fruit of the 
palm tree. 

Spitting in the right shoe before 
it is put on. 

Necklace of jacinth, sapphire or 
carbuncle. 

Sweeping a child's face with the 
branch of a pine tree. 

Giving in a drink the ashes of a 
rope with which a man has been 
hanged. 

Hanging the key of the boose 
over a child's cradle. 

Laying turi dug from a boy's 
grave under a boy's pillow, or turf 
from a girl's grave under a girl's 
pillow. 

Laying coral steeped in a font 
where a child was baptized, in its 
cradle. 

Hanging around its neck fennel 
seeds or bread and cheese. 

Christians in Palestine to-day us< 
palm branches against the evil ey 

Mohammedans in Palestine u& 
at the present day tamarack 
as a charm against the evil eye. 

Blue beads are hung on 
necks of animals and children. 

In order to protect the trees 
plants against the evil eye, 
Syrian farmer will fasten to the 
glass ring of blue color and an 

One possessing the evil eye 
lure you to your downfall. 

Many Egyptians would ra 
eat poison than any of the fat ~ 
that hangs up in the shops. 






1278 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



and Teutons, but among such peo- 
ple as the Turks, Italians, Span- 
iards, as well as the Chinese, Japa- 
nese, Negroes, and Red Indians. 
Thus, in Camiola and Corsica, a 
mother does not care to hear her 
baby praised, or a farmer his crops; 
while even in England, here and 
there sick people still feel uneasy 
at being told they are looking much 
better. 

Nowhere, at the present day, has 
the belief in the evil eye a more real 
power than among the Neapolitans. 
The jettatura is one of the common 
dangers incident to life, and every 
one wears his amulet against it 
These are usually of silver, in the 
form of an antelope horn, a hand 
with the first and little finger dou- 
bled down, a key with a heart in its 
handle, a crescent moon with a 
face in it, or a sprig of rue. Other 
very common forms are the cima- 
ruta, an emblem combined of all 
the foregoing, none of which are 
directly Christian symbols, and the 
cavallo marino ("sea-horse") and 
sirena, the last two being very 
common in Pompeiian paintings. 
The horror of this fatal gift of fas- 
cination, with its blighting influ- 
ence, is deepened by the fact that 
it is exerted upon any object upon 
which the eye may first light, often, 
if not indeed usually, in opposition 
to the will of the person who is 
cursed with it Men now possess it 
more commonly than women — nay, 
the jettatore is often a priest or a 
monk, and it was long a matter of 
common belief that it was an un- 
happy attribute of Pio Nono him- 
self. In ancient times, on the con- 
trary, it was more common in wom- 
en than men, and was possessed 
most often by little old women with 
squint or deep-set eyes, especially 
those who were lean and melan- 
choly, and had double pupils. The 



Neapolitan jettatore is traditional- 
ly a morose and sallow man, eager 
to cast his blighting influence over 
men and women, but most com- 
monly children, and usually he is 
a mean-looking personage, totally 
unlike the portentous figure ideal- 
ized in the Corricolo of Dumas. 
Many of the medieval philosophers 
have seriously discussed the ra- 
tionale of the evil eye, with its re- 
lations to the poisonous rays emit- 
ted by toads and basilisks, and the 
fascination of terror exerted by the 
serpent upon the bird, through 
keeping its eyes fixed steadfastly 
upon it Grimm notes, as one of the 
best means of recognizing a witch, 
that when you look into her eyes, 
you see your image reflected upside 
down, and suggests, that the pe- 
culiar conformation may have had 
something to do with her evil eye. 
At any rate, this baneful property 
is characteristic of witches every- 
where, of none more than in those 
of Teutonic mythology. 

EVIL TOUCH— Some people 
are supposed to be possessed of 
what is called "the evil stroke.** 
This, however, is not half so dan- 
gerous as the evil eye, because you 
can avoid letting them touch you. 

FEAR — All those who bear the 
name of Jesus about them, shall not 
be afraid, nor have the ague. 

How to dispel fear of the dark- 
ness at night, is taught by the Ger- 
man conjurer, Little: Take water 
which is distilled, mix it with man's 
blood, spread it over the face, and 
thou wilt fear nothing. Thou may- 
est go wherever thou wishest 

FEATHER — Turkey feathers 
are considered a barrier to ill luck. 
Everyone should own a turkey 
wing. 

It is said that if a feather is plac — 
ed in the bride's bouquet, withouf 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1279 



the knowledge of the groom, they 
will both be rich. 

It is good luck if a bird sheds a 
feather while flying over your head, 
and still better luck if it falls upon 
you. 

Tubes of the feathers plucked on 
twelfth night should be preserved, 
as a remedy against moths and 
bugs. (German.) 

If the feather from the wing of a 
bird falls to your feet, and if you 
pick it up and keep it, it will keep 
all evil from you. 

The Indians' token of friend- 
ship is a tuft of white feathers. 

If a feather lights on your hair, 
it means an angry day before you. 

In Tahiti, it was believed that if 
you could get your enemy to accept 
a bunch of red feathers, he would 
then be unable to resist you, and 
you would always be successful 
over him. 

It is lucky to carry pigeon's 
feathers in your pocket. It will 
in^vent people from exercising 
their wills over your own. (Ger- 
man.) 

When a patient lies on pigeon- 
feathers in Ireland, the people 
band a horseshoe over the bed or 
place the sick person's shoes face 
downward, to counteract the evil 
influence. 

If you want to keep mist and fog 
oat (rf your garden, hang up eagles' 
feathers in the four comers or in 
the middle. (English.) 

Eagle-feathers are of sovereign 

vaiue among Indian tribes, and in 

most of the pueblos in New Mex- 

^, great, dark, captive eagles are 

Jrept, to furnish the coveted article 

^ most important occasions. If 

^ bird of freedom were suddenly 

<xtortiiiiiated now, the whole Indi- 



an economy would come to a stand- 
still. No witches could be exorcised 
nor sickness cured, nor much of 
anything be accomplished. A pea- 
cock feather is harder to keep in the 
vicinity of Indians than the finest 
horse, these brilliant plumes are 
too tempting. Any white or bright- 
hued plume is a good omen, "good 
medicine," as the Indians would 
put it. 

A feather of a live robin is a 
good charm. 

To find a single feather of the 
fire-bird, means success in all your 
undertakings. 

Dark feathers, especially those 
of the owl, woodpecker, buzzard, 
and raven, are unspeakably accurs- 
ed. Indians will not touch them 
unless they have the "evil road," 
that is, are witches; and any Indian 
found with them in his possession 
will be looked upon at once as in 
league with the evil one. 

FECUNDITY— Seeds of docks 
are worn tied to the left arm of the 
women in Ireland, to make them 
bear children. 

FINDING — ^To find a knife or a 
razor, will bring a disappointment 
(Norman.) 

If you lose a stocking, you will 
receive a present. 

It is lucky to find a fairy shoe; 
but if it is shown to anyone, the 
luck is reversed. (Irish.) 

If you find an arrow, you will be 
very lucky afterwards. 

Find a nail, and someone will at- 
tack your character. 

Never, under any circumstances, 
pick up human hair lying in the 
road, especially a woman's hair. It 
will "hoodoo" you. 

To find a cannon ball or a piece 
of a shell, is a very good omen. 
(German.) 



I980 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



To find a piece of coral where 
coral does not abound, is a very 
good omen. (Swedish.) 

If you find a grain of com in an 
unexpected place and pick it up, 
something very unusual will hap- 
pen to you. 

To find a mouse-nest, foretells 
luck in business. 

The Spanish are delighted if they 
can find anything with a star on it 

If you find a whole bunch of 
keys, you will unlock the bosom 
secret of some acquaintance. 

Pick up all the old buttons that 
lie in your path, as every one will 
bring you a new friend. 

If you find a wig, be careful if 
anyone is sick in your family, for 
it augurs a death. 

If you accidentally find a mush- 
room, it is a sign of long life. 

Finding a bird's nest is a sign 
that your family will be augment^ 

Finding a package of needles is 
a sign that you have friends who 
are deceitful and wish you mischief. 

Finding a nest of snakes is a sign 
that someone is trying to give you 
a bad reputation. 

If anyone finds a penknife, it is 
a sign of infidelity in married life. 

To find an arrowhead is bad luck, 
for it is a sign of contention. 

To find a knife on a bridge, pre- 
dicts misfortune. 

If one happens to pass a hatchet 
or an axe on the ground, lying with 
the edge toward him, it is a sign 
of misfortune. 

To find a pearl-button, is extra 
good luck. 

If a person finds a small key and 
puts it in a pocketbook to carry, he 
will always have money. 

If you are a good finder of lost 
articles, you will prosper. 



If you find a musical instrument, 
it is a sign that you will have sweet 
consolation in trouble. 

To find an Indian arrowhead, is 
good luck. 

To find a whisk-broom is to find 
cleanliness. 

If you find a ribbon which is tied 
in a knot, and you c^>en it, you will 
get a wart. 

If you happen to find a nail, 
make a wish, hammer the nail deep 
into something, and you will ham- 
mer your wish into fact. 

It is lucky to find a yellow rib- 
bon, especially if it is floating on 
water; it presages gold. 

To find anything that is purple, 
is an tmfailing sign of good luck. 

To find a potato in the road, is a 
sign of wealth. 

It is very lucky to find a peanut; 
but very unlucky to find an empty 
peanut shelL 

If you find a silk ribbon, you will 
be distressed. 

Do not pick up rags; they mean 
poverty. 

You will get as many unexpected 
dollars as there are holes in the 
button you find. 

It is very lucky to find a rusty 
nail. Do not pick it up, however, 
but reverse the ends, and let it re- 
main where you found it 

To find postage stamps, is an 
omen of luck. 

To find a shell full of sand, is an 
omen of good luck. 

To find pencils, is lucky. 

If you find money and keep it 
a whole year, it will draw more 
money. 

If you throw away twenty-five 
cancelled postage stamps, tied up 
in a little parcel, you will find 
something of value before night 



Z98S 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



To find anything belonging to a 
baby, signifies that you will be very 
happy. 

To find anything black, signifies 
vexation, disquiet 

To find a lost book, signifies a 
heritage. 

To find a bottle, signifies that 
you will lose a friend 

To find a bouquet, signifies suc- 
cess in any undertaking. 

To find a box, signifies that you 
will bake a cake. 

To find a piece of anything red, 
especially if it be anything wool, 
signifies that you will have luck in 
love. 

To find a button, signifies that 
you will better yourself in mar- 
riage. 

To find a button, signifies that 
you will win a confidence. 

When you find a button, if you 
pick it up and put it in your shoe, 
you can have the next thing you 
•wish for. 

To find a coat-button, is the sig^ 
of the receipt of a letter within 
twenty-four hours. 

To find a white collar-button, 
foretells a lawsuit 

If you find a straw in your cham- 
ber, expect a visitor; if a grain is 
on the straw, a gentleman; if no 
grain, a lady. 

If you find a cane, or a stick, that 
some one has used on the road, 
pick it up and carry it along, signi- 
fies that you will mourn soon. 

To find one or more links of a 
chain in the street, is said to be a 
fortunate omen. 

To find a collar, signifies that 
you will make an enemy. 

To find a comb, sig^fies that 
you will be accused unjustly. 

Never pick up a crutch in the 
street; it is unlucky. 



To find a corkscrew, signifies 
that you will meet an inquisitive 
friend. 

To find a diamond, signifies a 
brief and false happiness. 

If you find a dime, let a left- 
handed, blue-eyed smith engrave 
on it a snake in the act of swallow- 
ing itself tail first, and you will be 
most fortunate in all your transac- 
tions. 

To find an eatable, signifies that 
you will be hungry. 

To find a fish-hook, signifies a 
theft 

To find a fan, signifies cunning 
deceit to be practiced. 

To find a fish-pole, signifies that 
you will lose something. 

To find a fiower in an unlooked- 
for place, signifies great joy. 

To find a lady's garter, if you are 
a male, signifies that your sweet- 
heart is true. 

To find an odd glove, signifies 
great misfortune; do not pick it up. 

To find anything gold, signifies 
good fortune. 

To find anything gray, signifies 
peace, calm, content 

To find a black-bordered or 
black handkerchief, signifies death. 

To find a silk handkerchief, sig- 
nifies that you will lose your laun- 
dry. 

To find a white handkerchief, 
signifies an engagement. 

To find a hair-pin, signifies that 
you will suffer a fall. 

To find a crooked hair-pin, signi- 
fies jealousy on the part of your 
friends. 

To find a horseshoe, signifies 
happiness, bright days to come. 

If you are not thinking of a jour- 
ney and find a key, expect to pack 
your trunk. 



1284 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



If you find a shoe floating on 
water, signifies that you will soon 
be loved. (Gipsy.) 

If you find a pair of cotton stock- 
ings, it is a true sign that your hap- 
piness will be moderate. 

To find a pair of spectacles, sig- 
nifies that you will see something 
pleasant 

To find a spoon, signifies sick- 
ness. 

If you find a stirrup, signifies it 
is a sign of a journey. 

If you find a pair of silk stock- 
ings, signifies that you will get rich. 

To find a stone with an L mark- 
ed on it, signifies splendid luck. 

To find a thimble, signifies a 
change of employment 

To find a ticket to a place of 
amusement, signifies pain. 

To find a rusty nail, signifies do- 
mestic joy. 

To find a veil, signifies approach- 
ing marriage. 

To find a watch, signifies tidings 
of a friend. 

To find anything yellow, signifies 
jealousy of gold. 

When you pick up anything, all 
will go well with you if you say: 
"I do not pick up" (naming the ob- 
ject); **I pick up good luck, which 
may never abandon me." This is 
an incantation of universal applica- 
tion, enabling one to secure a wish 
out of every chance occurrence. 

FIRE — ^A charm to extinguish 
fire: "There went three holy men 
over the land, they met with hellish 
fire. And they said, *Thou shalt 
withdraw and all harm shall slink 
away!"* 

A protecticMi from fire, bums, 
and scalds: A plant of houseleek 
affixed to the roof protects the in- 
mates from scalds and bums and 



the danger of fire as long as it re- 
mains. 

Thiers, the great Frenchman, 
said that some people keep eggs, 
laid on Good Friday, all the year 
around, because they believe that 
they will put out fire if throwa 
upon it. 

FORTUNE TELLER — To 
draw the ace of diamonds, is a sign 
that you will marry a rich man. 

It is unlucky to thank a fortune 
teller, a magician, cm* anycme who 
teaches you anything of the black 
art 

If you are having your fortune 
told, and the fortune teller drops a 
card, have her stop at once, as to 
continue will bring very bad luck 
to you. 

It is considered very lucky to 
hold ccHnmunication with a fortune 
teller cm the eve of any great event 

It is being told of the Empress 
Eugenie that on a late visit to 
Paris, she went "incog." to a fash- 
ionable palmist to have her fortune 
read. As part of the necroman- 
cer's art is not to see his fair peni- 
tents, she had to put her hand 
through a slit in a screen. After 
quite a ciu-sory examination, the 
fortune teller said: "Madame, 
your hand is so extraordinary that 
one of two things must be the 
truth; either my skill must be at 
fault for once, and I see impossible 
events, or you must be the Em- 
press Eugenie, for no other hand 
could tell of such strange vicissi- 
tudes." 

It is a general belief in Greenock 
(Scotland), that if a fortune is read 
by a person who is deaf and dumb, 
and written with a stick on the 
ground, it will certainly come true. 

Gipsy fortune tellers usually bid 
their customers to cross their hand 
with a bit of silver for luck, and to 



1286 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



riches. Hearts, true love. Spades, 
thrift Qubs, poverty. 

In China, fortune-telling is 
generally practiced with divining 
blocks similar to geomancy. Be- 
sides this they are experts at pal- 
mistry, physiognomy, divination by 
nativity, and handwriting. The 
most sldlled professors in these arts 
live in grand style, they have serv- 
ants to usher in their visitors and 
they put on airs of no little im- 
portance. 

Fortune-telling by dominoes: 
Lay them with their faces on the 
table and shufBe them; draw one 
dozen, and read the numbers as 
follows: 

Double 6: Receive a handsome 
sum of money. 

6-5: Going to a place of public 
amusement 

6-4: Lawsuits and trouble which 
can only be avoided by great care. 

6-3: A ride in a carriage. 

6-2: A present of clothing. 

6-1: You will soon perform a 
friendly action. 

6-blank: Guard against scandal 
or you will suffer by your inatten- 
tion. 

Double 5: A new abode to your 
advantage. 

5-4: A fortimate speculation in 
business. 

5-3 : A visit from a superior. 

5-2: A pleasant excursion on 
water. 

5-1 : A love intrigue. 

5-blank: A funeral, but not of a 
relation. 

Double 4: Drinking liquor at a 
distance. 

4-3: A false alarm at your 
house. 

4-2: Beware of thieves and 
swindlers. Ladies take notice of 
this; it means more than it says. 

4-1 : Expect trouble from credi- 
tors. 



4-blank: You will receive a let- 
ter from an angry friend. 

Double 3 : A double wedding, at 
which you will be vexed, and where 
you will lose a friend. 

3-2: Buy no lottery tickets nor 
enter into any game of chance, as 
you will surely lose. 

3-1: A great discovery is at 
hand. 

3-blank: An illegitimate child. 

Double 2: You will have a jeal- 
ous partner. 

2-1: You will soon find some- 
thing to your advantage in the 
street or road. 

2-blank : You will lose mcHiey or 
money's worth. 

Double 1 : The loss of a friend,, 
whom you will miss very much. 

1-blank: You are very closely 
watched by one whom you little 
expect 

Double blank: The worst pre- 
sage in the entire set You will 
meet trouble from a quarter for 
which you are quite unprepared. 

These omens are of value only 
when used at intervals of a weelL 

Fortune- telling by dice: Take 
three dice, shake them well in a 
dice-box with your left hand, and 
cast them on a table on which you 
have previously drawn a circle with 
chalk or pencil Those that fall 
outside of the circle do not count 
Repeat three times. Read your 
omens as follows: 

3: A pleasing surprise. 

4: A disagreeable surprise. 

5: A stranger who wiU prove a 
friend. 

6: Loss of property. 

7: Undeserved scandal. 

8: Merited reproach. 

9: A wedding. 

10: A christening. 

11: A death that contems you. 

12: A speedy letter. 

13: Tears and sighs. 



1988 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



versed, a discontented military 
man. 

Ten: Happiness, triumph; re- 
versed, some slight anxiety. 

Nine: Joy, satisfaction, success; 
reversed, a passing chagrin. 

Eight: A fair person's affec- 
tions; reversed, indifference on 
their part 

Seven: Pleasant thoughts, tran- 
quillity; reversed, ennui, weariness. 

Six: A generous but credulous 
person. 

Five: Troubles caused by un- 
founded jealousy. 

Four: A person not easily won. 

Three: Sorrow caused by a per- 
son's own imprudence. 

Two: Great success, but equal 
care and attention needed to secure 
it 

DIAMONDS. 

Ace: A letter of importance; if 
reversed, it will contain bad news. 

King: A fair man, cunning and 
dangerous; reversed, greatly to be 
feared. 

Queen: An ill-bred, scandal- 
loving woman; reversed, greatly 
to be feared. 

Knave: A tale-bearing servant 
or tmfaithful friend; reversed, will 
cause mischief. 

Ten: Journey or change of resi- 
dence; reversed, will not prove for- 
tunate. 

Nine: Annoyance, delay; re- 
versed, either a family- or love- 
quarrel. 

Eight: Love-making; reversed, 
unsuccessful. 

Seven: Satire, mockery; revers- 
ed, a foolish scandal. 

Six : Early marriage and widow- 
hood. 

Five: Unexpected news. 

Four: Trouble from unfaithful 
friends, a betrayed secret. 

Three: Quarrels, lawsuits, and 
domestic disagreement. 



Two: An engagement against 
the wishes of friends. 

SPADES. 

Ace: Pleasure; reversed, bad 
news. 

King: An envious man, an en- 
emy, or a dishonest lawyer, who is 
to be feared; reversed, impotent 
malice. 

Queen: A widow; reversed, a 
dangerous and malicious woman. 

Knave: A dark, ill-bred young 
man; reversed, he is plotting some 
mischief. 

Ten: Tears, a prison; reversed, 
brief affliction. 

Nine: Tidings of a death; re- 
versed, death of some dear one. 

Eight: Approaching illness; re- 
versed, marriage broken off, or of- 
fer refused. 

Seven: Slight annoyances; re- 
versed, a foolish intrigue. 

Six: Wealth through industry. 

Five: A bad temper requiring 
correcting. 

Four: Sickness. 

Three: A journey. 

Two: A removal. 

The court cards of hearts and 
diamonds usually represent persons 
of fair complexions; clubs and 
spades the opposite. Four aces 
coming together announce danger, 
failure in business, and sometimes 
imprisonment. If one or more of 
them are reversed, the danger is 
lessened. 

Three aces: Good tidings; re- 
versed, folly. 

Two aces: A plot; reversed, it 
will not succeed. 

Four kings: Rewards, dignities, 
honors; reversed, less, but sooner 
received. 

Three kings: A consultation on 
important business, the result of 
which will be highly satisfactory. 

Two kings: A partnership in 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Nine: Crosses. 

Eight: A disappointment. 

Seven: Troubles. 

Six: Eating and drinking. 

Five: Falsehoods and deceit 

Four: Tattle. 

Three: Tears. 

Two: Little space of water. 

SPADES. 

Ace: Travel if point is up; pack- 
age if point is down. 
King: Very dark man. 
Queen: Very dark woman. 
Jack: Dark young man. 
Ten: Sickness at a distance. 
Nine: Anger. 
Eight: Vexation. 
Seven: Unexpected annoyance. 
Six: A quarrel or anxiety. 
Five: A death or drunkenness. 
Four: A sick-bed. 
Three: Sorrow. 
Two: A coffin or an accident. 

To tell your fortune by cards, ask 
any question that can be answered 
by yes or no, and shuffle the cards; 
the first ace you come to, answers 
yotu- question. The red aces are 
yes; the blacks are no. 

FRIENDSHIP— Place two ker- 
nels of com in a skillet and let two 
friends bend over it; if the kernels 
pop decorously in the skillet, the 
two are to remain friends forever. 
If one pops outside of the skillet, 
the one toward whom it pops, will 
be the breaker of the friendship. 
If both pop outside, the separation 
will be mutual. 

If, on Michaelmas day, a maiden 
gathers all the crab apples she can 
find and forms them into various 
initials, and then looks at them 
again at Christmas, the initials 
which she will find most sound will 
be the friend's whom she can trust 

GRAND PENDU— In France, 
it is believed that the card called 



the "grand pendu," that is, the king 
of diamonds, is the most fatal card 
in the pack, and the person who 
draws it in having his fortune told 
by cards, is destined to die by the 
hands of the executioner. 

HORSESHOE— The nafl of a 
horseshoe will bring luck. (Bel- 
gium.) 

It is unlucky to lose a horseshoe,, 
but you may avert the danger by 
tying up a lock of your hair. 

"Lucky Dr. James" attributed 
the success of his fever-powder to 
the appropriate finding of a horse- 
shoe in "just the nick of time.'* 

In some parts of France, it is be- 
lieved that an old horseshoe put 
under the mattress will cure the 
toothache. 

An ass's shoe nailed to the door 
will bring you good luck, because 
this animal was in the stable when 
Christ was bom, and has ever since 
been blessed. 

Nelson, the great English ad- 
miral, was of a superstitious turn, 
and had great faith in the luck of 
a horseshoe; one was nailed to the 
mast of the ship "Victory." 

In the West of England, the 
story is told of a farmer who con- 
sulted a witch doctor about the ill- 
ness of his cattle, which refused to 
yield to treatment He was told 
that it was because the horseshoes 
affixed to the farm buildings were 
arranged point downward instead 
of up. He reversed the horseshoes,, 
and strange to say, the cattle re- 
covered. 

One of the reasons why a horse- 
shoe is considered a lucky object is 
based on the legend that there once 
lived a saint who was also an artist^ 
and painted pictures of the other 
saints that were miraculous, inas- 
much as the head, when finished. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tional adaptation of the horseshoe- 
foim in its superstitious symbolism. 

The following is a very popular 
legend connected with the horse- 
shoe, supposed to indicate the ori- 
gin of the horseshoe's power to 
keep away evil spirits. One day the 
devil came to St Dunstan, who was 
known for his skill in shoeing 
horses, and asked him to shoe his 
single hoof. The saint, knowing 
well who his customer was, tied him 
tightly to the wall, and proceeded 
with his work; but put the devil to 
so much torture and pains that he 
cried for mercy. Ever since, the 
devil shuns a place where a horse- 
shoe is nailed over the door, or on 
the door-step. 

INCUBI— The people of Dem- 
erara believe in Incubi, who take 
off their skins, and have one in par- 
ticular called the swan-maiden, 
which has the qualities of a vampire. 
They fly through the air and suck 
the blood of children in the night 
If you can find the skin and throw 
down before it an odd number of 
grains of com, the owner must 
pick them up two at a time before 
she can resume her skin, and as 
she cannot make odd even, she is 
caught 

INVISIBILITY— In Germany, 
the luck-flower makes its possessor 
invisible, but it must be found by 
accident 

In Iceland is a "raven-stone," 
which renders the possessor invis- 
ible. 

To catch the seed of the fern as 
it fell on St. John's night, would 
confer on the person who caught it 
invisibility. 

Hemlock eaten will cause you to 
become invisible. 

The cock has a stone in its giz- 
zard that will render the owner in- 
visible. 



Whoever possesses a fairy cap* 
can at all times make himself in- 
visible. 

The helmet of Perseus, in Greek 
mythology, renders the wearer in- 
visible. This was lost among tht 
caves of Hades, and he who ever 
finds it can also possess the winged 
sandals and magic wallet of the 
god. 

There is a superstition among 
the Southern negroes that a partic- 
ular bone in the tail of a perfectly 
black cat, when carried by any per- 
son, renders them invisible. The 
animal must be placed in a pot 
alive, and boiled. 

A mystic mantle ccMiferring in- 
visibility, is one of the things fully 
believed in by the American In- 
dians. It is made of deerskin, 
painted with signs, symbols, and 
sacred emblems. It is supposed to 
enable them to pass with impunity 
through the country and even 
through the camp of their enemies. 
The symbols show the rain-cloudy 
the serpent, lightning, the winds, 
and the four cardinal points. 

If you wish to become invisible, 
get a raven's heart, split it open 
with a black-hafted knife, make 
three cuts, and place a black bean 
in each cut; then plant it, and when 
one of the beans come up, put it 
in your mouth and say: 

"By virtue of Satan's heart. 
And by strength of my great art, 
I desire to be invisible." 

and you will be invisible as long 
as you keep the bean in your 
mouth. 

Gyg€s, whose magic ring ren- 
dered him invisible when he turned 
it inside, bethought him that it 
would be the means of ascending 
the throne of Lydia and making 
the queen his wife. He succeede 
in his designs, having killed th 
king Candaules, her husband. Th 




1394 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ening or defeating love, as aiding 
women in labor and in other ways. 
One of the torments with which 
witchcraft worried men, was the 
knot, by which a man was withheld 
so that he could not work his will 
with a woman. It was called, in 
the Latin of the times. Nodus, and 
Obligamentum, and appears in the 
glossaries translated by the Saxons 
into lyb, drug. (John G. Bourke, 
The Medicine Men of the Apache.) 

To make a "ligatura," is pro- 
nounced "detestable" by Theodo- 
rus. Archbishop of. Canterbury, in 
668. The knot is still known in 
France, and is a resort of ill will. 
Then is given the adventure of 
Hrut, prince of Iceland, and his 
bride, Princess of Norway, by 
whom a "knot" was duly tied to 
preserve his fidelity during his ab- 
sence. To-day, we speak of tying 
the hymeneal knot, for the same 
purpose. (Saxon Leechdoms.) 

A knot tied in a cord among the 
ancient Northern nations, seems to 
have been the symbol of love, faith, 
and friendship, pointing out the in- 
dissoluble tie of affection and duty. 
The ancient Runic inscriptions are 
in the form of a knot 

Among the ancient Danes, was 
the peculiar knot, a mutual present 
between the lover and his mistress, 
which, being considered as the 
emblem of plighted fidelity, is 
therefore called a true-love knot, a 
name which is not derived from the 
words "true" and "love," as one 
would suppose, but from the Dan- 
ish verb trulofa, fidem do, "I 
plight my troth or faith." (Brand's 
Popular Antiquities.) 

Charmed belts are commonly 
worn in Lancashire for the cure of 
rheumatism. 

A cord around the loins is worn 
to ward off toothache. 



In Btumah, a cord is hung 
around the neck of a patient who 
is "possessed," while the evil spirit 
is being thrashed out of him. 

Marcellus commended for sore 
eyes that a man should tie as many 
knots in unwrought flax as there 
were letters in his name, pronounc- 
ing each letter as he worked; this 
he was to tie around his neck. 

To prevent nosebleed, people 
are even now told to wear a skein 
of scarlet silk thread around the 
neck, tied with nine knots down 
the front; if the patient is a man, 
the silk must be put on and the 
knots tied by a woman; and if the 
patient is a woman, these good 
services are periormed by a man. 

A cord with nine knots in it is 
esteemed a sovereign remedy for 
whooping cough in Worcester- 
shire, England. 

"On the 2nd of May, fearing evil 
spirits and witches, Scotch farmers 
used to tie red thread on their 
wives and their cows, saying these 
prevented miscarriages and pre- 
served the milk." (Forlong, "Riv- 
ers of Life.") 

Camden, in his "Ancient and 
Modem Manners of the Irish," 
says that "they are observed to 
present their lovers with bracelets 
of women's hair, knotted and twist- 
ed, whether in reference to the 
cestus of Venus I know not." This 
idea of the resemblance between 
the girdle of Venus and maiden's 
hair, may be worth consideration. 
On the same page, Brande quotes, 
in his "Popular Antiquities," from 
Beaumont and Fletcher: 

"Bracelets of our lovers* hair, 
Which they on our arms shall twist** 

Also garters of the woman was 
frequently worn by the lover. 

"Knots" are still made and used 



129^ 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tomed manner, by which they be- 
lieve it is armed against all sickness 
and ill accidents. (Pinkerton's 
Voyages to the Congo.) 

The Mateb, or baptismal cord, is 
de rig^eur and worn when nothing 
else is. It formed the only cloth- 
ing of the young at Seramba, but 
was frequently added to with amu- 
lets, sure safeguards against sor- 
cery. (Winstanley, Abyssinia.) 

The Abyssinian wears a cord of 
blue silk, to show that he has been 
baptized, and no Abyssinian is 
quite respectable without one. 

Some of the Australians preserve 
the hair of a dead man, to make a 
magic medicine of, and it is spun 
into a cord and hangs from the 
head of the warrior in two ends be- 
hind. (Smith's Aborigines of Vic- 
toria.) 

Among the Carriers of British 
North America, the lads, as soon as 
they come to the age of puberty, tie 
cords lined with swan's down 
around each leg a little below the 
knee, which they wear during one 
year, and then they are considered 
as men. (Harmon's Journal.) 

Lapland witches confessed that 
while they fastened three knots in 
a linen towel in the name of the 
devil and had spit on them, they 
called the name of him they doom- 
ed to destruction. This was one of 
the "sorcery cords" by which so 
much evil was supposed to be done. 
(Leems, Account of Danish Lap- 
land.) 

Scheffer describes the Lapland- 
ers as having a cord tied with knots 
for the raising of the wind; Brand 
says the same of the Finlanders of 
Norway, of the priestesses of the 
Island of Sena, on the coast of 
Gaul, in the time of the Emperor 
Claudius, the witches of the Isle of 
Man, and others. Macbeth, speak- 



ing to the witches, says: 'Though 
you untie the winds and let ibem 
fight against the churches; though 
the yesty waves confound and 
swallow navigation up." 

Mr. Astle informs us that the 
first Chinese letters were knots 
formed on cords. (Higgin's Ana- 
calypsis.) 

The Mahometans believe that at 
the day of judgment Jesus Christ 
and Mahomet are to meet outside 
of Jerusalem, holding a tightly 
stretched cord betwen them, upon 
which all souls must walk. This 
probably preserves a trace of the 
"medicine" cord of former use. 
(Father Dandini's Voyage to 
Mount Libanus, in Pinkerton's 
Voyages.) 

Hagennaar relates that he saw 
men wearing ropes with knots in 
them flung over their shoulders, 
whose eyes turned around in their 
heads, and who were called Jam- 
maboos, or conjurers and exorcists. 
(Carron's Account of Japan.) 

Folk medicine in all regions is 
still relying upon the potency of 
mystical cords and girdles to facil- 
itate labor. 

Among the American Indians, 
the father of the expected child 
takes his cord or girdle off, and 
knotting it around the mother, 
says: "I have tied it and I will un- 
tie it," and takes his departure. 

Henry, in his History of Britain, 
tells us that among certain Britons 
when a birth was attended with dif 
ficulty, they put certain girdle 
made for the purpose about th ' 
women, which they imagined gav-' 
immediate and effectual reli 
Such girdles were kept with gre 
care until very lately, among tl 




families of the Highlands of Sec 

land. They were impressed 

several mystical figures, and t ^ 



I39B 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



you." The power resided in the 
knots. (Thomas Wright, "Sorcery 
and Magic") 

When Marduky an Assyrian god, 
wishes to comfort a dying man, his 
father Hea says: 

"Take a woman's linen kerchief. 
Bind it round thy left hand: loosfe it 

from thy left hand; 
Knot it with seven knots: do so twice. 
Sprinkle it with bright wine: 
Bind it round the head of the sick man. 
Bind it round his hands and feet like 

manacles and fetters. 
Sit round on his bed. 
Sprinkle holy water over him. 
He shall hear the voice of Hea, 
Davkina shall protect him I 
And Marduk eldest Son of Heaven 

shall find him a happy habitation." 

Lenormant speaks of the Chal- 
dean use of magic knots, the effi- 
cacy of which was so firmly be- 
lieved in, even up to the Middle 
Ages. 

Magic cords with knots were still 
very common among the Nabath- 
ean sorcerers of the Lower Eu- 
phrates in the fourteenth century, 
and were probably derived from 
the ancient Chaldeans. 

The Jewish phylactery was tied 
in a knot, but more generally knots 
are found in use to enchant or dis- 
enchant. Thus in an ancient Baby- 
lonian charm, we have: "Mero- 
dack, the Son of Hea, the prince, 
with his holy hands cut the knots." 
That is to say, he takes off the evil 
influence of die knots. 

Witches sought, in Scotland, to 
compass evil by tying knots, and 
could supply themselves with milk 
from a neighbor's cow by getting 
some of the hair from the tail, 
twisting it into a rope and tying it 
in knots. 

Upon the underclothes of a witch 
burned at St. Andrews in 1572, was 
discovered a cloth tied in knots, 
and when this was taken from her. 



she exclaimed: "Now I have no 
hope for myself!" 

So late as the beginning of the 
last century, two persons were sen- 
tenced to capital punishment for 
stealing a *'charm of knots," made 
by a woman as a device against the 
welfare of Spalding of Ashintilly. 

The Navajo Indians have a med- 
icine cord of one, two, three, or 
four stripes, in which they put the 
greatest faith. These cords are or- 
namented with shells, petrified 
wood, rock crystal, eagle-down, 
claws of the hawk or eaglet, claws 
of the bear, rattles of the rattle- 
snake, buckskin bags of hodden tin, 
circles of buckskin in which are en- 
closed pieces of twig^ of trees that 
have been struck by lightning, 
small fragments of the abalone- 
shell from the Pacific coast, and 
much other sacred paraphernalia 
of a similar kind. They are used in 
dances for war, calling up of ghosts 
and spirits, and every medicine 
man of any consequence would ap- 
pear with one hanging over his 
right shoulder. These cords will 
protect a man on the war-path, 
and it is fully believed that no bul- 
let can pierce a person who wears 
one. The wearer can tell who stole 
his ponies or other property from 
him or his friends, can help the 
crops, and cure the sick. If the 
circle attached be placed on the 
head, it will cure any ache; while 
the cross on another will prevent a 
man from going astray, no matter 
where he may be. A careful peru- 
sal of the subject convinces Cap- 
tain John G. Bourke, author o£ 
"The Apache Medicine Men," tha.^ 
this sacred and magic cord is a su.x~ 
vival of other cords found in 
ages and all parts of the world. 

In India, in a family 
among the Chakmas of Ben 
around the whole sacrificial p 





1500 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the Gallic shore'' as the place 
where are heard "'the tearful cries 
of fleeting ghosts; the natives see 
their pallid forms and ghostly fig- 
ures moving on to their last 
abode." The traditions of Brittany 
still bear traces of this belief. 

Places where murder or suicide 
was committed, or where people 
were executed, are haunted; par- 
ticularly the isolated spots or hills 
where gallows stand or stood are 
avoided and considered with super- 
stitious awe. 

The fishermen relate that by a 
bridge in Rendsburg, a whimper- 
ing is often heard in the water that 
is like a young child crying; some- 
times, too, small flames dart up, 
which are always a sign that some- 
one will perish there. 

The body of Pontius Pilate was 
buried in a marsh two leagues from 
Vienne, and the people imagined 
that at night they heard shrieks 
and groans coming from the place. 
They also believed the neighbor- 
hood of the body to be the cause of 
violent thunder and lightning, 
which were frequent at Vienne. 

In the district of Carhaix, is a 
mountain called St. Michael, whith- 
er, it is believed, all demons cast 
from the bodies of men, are ban- 
ished. If anyone sets his foot at 
night within the circle they inhabit, 
he will begin to run, and will not 
cease for an instant all the night 
long. 

Who visits the cavern of thirteen 
pillars (or old Scotch dungeon of 
thirteen pillars) and does not count 
the pillars therein, will be confined 
there before he dies. 

A particular spot on the summit 
of Cader Idris, in North Wales, is 
believed to have been the scene of 
many fairy revels, and is marked 



with a circle of stones, that no hu- 
man hand ever carried there. 

At the time of the first Punic 
war, Africa was looked upcm as a 
land of monsters; it had serpents 
large enough to stop armies; it had 
headless men. Sicily had its Cy- 
clops, giants, enchantresses; gold- 
en apples grew in Spain; the mouth 
of hell was on the shores of the 
Euxine! (Draper, "The Intellec- 
tual Development ot Europe.") 

In Kerry, Wales, exists the su- 
perstition that if a person passed 
over Trefeen Bridge after mid- 
night, he or she would be sure to 
see three ladies sitting on the rail- 
ing, dressed in green silk. (Mule.) 

In Lurleyburg, on the Rhine, 
there dwelt once a maid so beauti- 
ful that she tiuned mad all who 
looked at her. Despairing hus- 
bands of the gravest cast commit- 
ted suicide after beholding her. 
Artists made her the subject of 
their paintings, and poets sang her 
praise. She was seated on a rock 
over a dangerous current in the 
Rhine, combing her golden hair 
with a golden comb, and singing 
beautiful songs, thus bewitching 
sailors and fishermen, who would 
stare up to her in admiration, for- 
getting to steer their boats away^ 
from the dangerous rapids and hid- 
den rocks, and perish. 

Near Saragossa, there is a fortr 
called *Tear Fortress." It is 
bogie place conjured up by fe 
which vanishes as it is boldly an 
courageously approached. "If ^: 
child disappeared or any cattl 
were carried off, the frightene 
peasants said, The lord of F 
Fortress has taken them.' If a 
broke out anywhere, it was 
lord of Fear Fortress that lit 
The origin of all accidents, mis 
and disasters was traced to 





1302 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of Oberon. If he catches them out 
with this badge of their calling on 
them, he whisks them off to a place 
where he turns them into a ma* 
chine, which grinds them out 
youthful again; but they are not for 
earth, they must be nurses to the 
fairies. 

There is a common superstition 
in the valley of Nottinghamshire, 
where a village is said to have been 
swallowed up by an earthquake. It 
has been the custom for the people 
to assemble in this valley, on 
Christmas morning, and listen to 
the fancied ringing of the church- 
bells underground 

"Monkculm is a hamlet in the 
parish of Silverton, whose name 
expresseth to whom it belonged, 
and the river it adjoineth. Hayne 
also, in regard to which there is an 
observation had by tradition of a 
pool in that barton, whereof they 
say it was never emptied but there 
fell some great storm or violent 
' weather ere it was finished, which 
some gentlemen of good worth 
would lately make proof of: think- 
ing it but a frivolous relation. For 
their better proceeding, on a fair 
morning in the summer time, they 
timely prepared themselves and 
their people, and to work they go, 
and by three in the afternoon they 
had near finished their work, when 
suddenly there came such a violent 
tempest of thunder and lightning, 
and great rain, that they were en- 
forced to leave off and seek shelter, 
even when they were jesting at 
their old neighbors that maintained 
the sundry trials thereof, which 
they also found true." 

The islands of Guernsey, Jersey, 
Aldemey, Sark, Herm Jethon, etc., 
are oi course surrounded by water, 
and though geologists show, and 
very clearly too, that in prehistoric 
times they were all joined, the 



character of island having aris- 
en from the encroachment of the 
sea, the common people do not be- 
lieve this, and have many stories 
in regard to it One of them is tdd 
of the hermit of Herm, who walked 
across three miles of water in order 
to be present at the consecration 
of St Sampson's church in the 
year 1111. This is, of course, held 
by the natives as miracle story; yet 
it may have been possible for Um 
at that time to wade across through 
shallow water, and therefore the 
sceptic may explain it as an easy 
and natural matter. 

Hutchinson tells us that in Eden 
Hall were some old-fashioned 
apartments in which was kept the 
fairy crystal-cup that had once be- 
longed to the fairies of St Cuth- 
bert's well, which is situated near 
by. The butler, going to draw some 
water one moonlight night, saw 
them dancing, and grasped this 
marvelous cup; and although the 
fairies tried to save it, they could 
not do so. He carried it to the 
house, and it became a 'Vessel of 
luck" to the family. As he went in^ 
however, the fairies flew away» 
singing: 

'*If that glass either break or fall, 
Farewdl to the luck of Eden HalL" 

Near Varta, in Bohemia, is a hill 
upon which sits a marble woman, 
Sybilla, mounted on a marble 
horse, and her hand raised to heav- 
en. When she sinks into the 
ground, so that not even the end of 
her finger will be visible, her proph 
ecy will be fulfilled; and eve 
now she is with the sand as high 
the horse's breast. She was a wis 
woman and prophecied that muc 
misery was to come to Bohemi 
that there would be wars, famine? 
and plagues, but that the wor?- 
time would come when the fath 
could not understand the son. 






xy>4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ter. The people are natives long 
descended. 

It has been said that Block Isl- 
and is quaint and peculiar, and the 
statement may be added that, being 
a miniature world of itself, it has 
adhered to the habits and customs 
of 150 years ago. Probably no 
other nook in the country so 
abounds in legendary lore; no- 
where else has superstition retain- 
ed its hold so late and so tenacious- 
ly. Each stormy point of land is 
invested with traditions of pirates 
or mythical shipwrecks, and each 
gloomy valley is associated with 
grisly specters of witchcraft 

The native Block Islanders, who 
are ninety per cent of all the in- 
habitants, are reticent in their in- 
tercourse with strangers and recoil 
with taciturn suspicion from the 
idle curiosity that seeks to investi- 
gate their folklore. 

It is like going back to the spin- 
ning and apple-roasting circles of 
150 or 200 years ago to listen to 
white haired farmers' wives or griz- 
zled fishermen reciting in low tones 
the witchcraft or legendary tales of 
the island. In their fancy and be- 
lief. Captain Kidd and his phan- 
tom crew still pay random visits to 
wind-swept Sandy Point, where 
they buried treasures, coming un- 
der the full moon in a spectral boat, 
impelled by broken surf billows. 
Goblins tenant the black, rush-bor- 
dered sides of inland pools, and 
from his latticed window the awe- 
struck cottager and his family dis- 
cern in the deepening twilight the 
phantom ship, the ghost of the Pal- 
atine, rushing in spectral flames 
eastward over Block Island Sound. 

Until fifty years ago, the island- 
ers dug peat in the deep fens 
among wild hollows on the west 
side, and it was about their grow- 
ing peat fires at night in the winter 
time they narrated tales of witch 



lore, shuddering in the shadowy 
chimney comer, or recited the 
strange, wild legends of the island, 
"The Phantom Ship," "The Wait- 
ing Child," "The Buccaneers' 
Gold," and so on. 

Moreover, superstition still 
thrives here, with its strange fan- 
cies and creations, begotten of the 
sobbing night wind, the moaning 
of the surt; but the islanders are 
not garrulous, and they look as- 
kance at the stranger that flippant- 
ly presumes to break down their 
native reserve with questiomngs. 

The Blanic Hill in Bohemia, in 
the district of Vlasim, is the subject 
of many legends among the peo- 
ple, not only ol its neighborhood^ 
but of the whole country. It is be- 
lieved that there is a large cave un- 
der the hill, where a great number 
of knights are sleeping in their ar- 
mor, with their leader, St Wenzes- 
laus, a Bohemian duke of the mnth 
centtuy; or, according to others^ 
with Zdenek of Zasmak. There 
they are waiting for the time when 
the worst fate will befall Bohemia. 
At that time the big old oak up<m 
the top of the hill will grow green 
and the old dry spring will give 
water. The knights will awaken, 
the hill will be opened, they will fall 
out against the enemy. General 
prosperity will be the result in Bo- 
hemia. Many distressed persons 
were so happy as to find the en- 
trance to the cave at certain times, 
and having found one of the 
knights waking, were relieved of 
their distress. In literature, the 
legend of the knights of Blanic ap- 
pears in 1799. Klicpera has dram- 
atized it, and many poems have 
been written about it 

There is an underground Stam- 
boul, consisting of great cisterms 
and caves, supported by long 
and clusters of columns. Th 



jyoS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



they inserted one stone so cleverly 
that it could be easily removed 
from the outside and the treasure 
stolen by night. But on one oc- 
casion, when Agamedes was caught 
in the trap laid by Hyrieus to dis- 
cover the thief, Trophonius, to save 
himself from being betrayed as his 
brother's accomplice, cut off the 
head of Agamedes. Being pur- 
sued, however, by the king, he was 
swallowed up in the earth at Leba- 
dea, and by command of Apollo, a 
cult and an oracle were dedicated 
to him as Zeus Trophonius. 

The oracle was situated in a sub- 
terranean chamber, into which, 
after various preparatory rites, in- 
cluding the nocturnal sacrifice of a 
ram and the invocation of Aga- 
medes, the inquirers descended, to 
receive, under circumstances of a 
mysterious nature, a variety of rev- 
elations, which were afterwards 
taken down from their lips and 
duly interpreted. The descent into 
the cave, and the sights which 
there met the eye, were so awe- 
inspiring, that the popular belief 
was that no one who visited the 
cave ever smiled again; and it was 
proverbially said of persons of 
grave and serious aspect, that they 
had been in the cave of Tropho- 
nius. (Seyffert's Dictionary of 
Classical Antiquities.) 

It is a curious fact that Windsor 
Castle should be one of the only 
great palaces in Europe which is 
not supposed to be haunted, espe- 
cially when it is borne in mind that 
it has been the residence of the 
most cruel and bloodthirsty of 
English kings. Hampton Court is 
haunted; so is the Tower, the lat- 
ter by a most undoubted ghost, 
which has been on the walk for 
centuries. Whitehall was haunted 
by the headless specter of Charles 
I., as long as there was anything 
to haunt there; in St. James' Pal- 



ace, Queen Caroline of Anspach» 
wife of George II., wanders at 
night in the throne-room, throw- 
ing her shadowy hands over her 
head, uttering moans of deep dis- 
tress, in an attitude of entreaty. At 
the Hofburg, or Imperial Palace of 
Vienna, the dread specter of the 
White Lady roams around every 
time a misfortune is about to over- 
take the family. It was last seen 
on the eve of the Prince Rudolfs 
tragical death. At the Imperial 
Palace of Berlin, a gigantic street 
sweeper, carrying a broom, a 
ghostly looking affair, appears a 
week before the death of any mem- 
ber of the Hohenzollem race. In 
the Winter Palace at St Peters- 
burg, it is a beautiful lady clothed 
in snowy draperies and crovmed 
with white roses, who is the death 
messenger of the Romanoffs; while 
according to tradition, a little man 
dressed in scarlet haunted the Tuil- 
eries until the day when the Re- 
public was proclaimed in France 
and the torches of the Commune 
reduced the grand old pile to ruin 
and ashes. The superb old Castle 
of Heidelberg is visited at midnight 
on the vigil of St. John, by a whole 
procession of shadowy figures, 
dressed in the fashion prevailing 
under the reign of Emperor Fred- 
erick Barbarossa, and it is asserted 
that their advent is invariably her- 
alded by strains of the sweetest and 
most enthralling music. (From 
Marquise De Fontenoy's "Revela- 
tion of High Life in European 
Palaces.") 

Robert Machim, son of a mer- 
chant residing in Bristol, loved and 
was beloved by a lady of noble 
family, who were opposed to their 
daughter marrying anyone not of 
noble birth. He was therefore cast 
into prison, and was kept there un- 
til the daughter was given in mar- 
riage to a wealthy baron. This oc- 



I308 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Australia: At one time, the land 
extended southwards as far as the 
eye could see from the site of the 
township of Port MacDonnell. A 
splendid forest (rf evergreen trees, 
including a wattle from which ooz- 
ed a profusion of delicious gum, a 
rich carpet of beautiful flowers and 
grass grew upon it A man of 
great height, fearful in his anger 
and a terror to trespassers on this 
favored ground, was the owner; 
one hot summer's day, whilst walk- 
ing through his land, he saw at the 
foot of the wattle tree a basket full 
of gum. His anger rose, and in his 
rage, in a voice like thunder, he 
cried out, "Who is robbing me of 
my food?" Looking up, he saw 
a woman concealed amongst the 
boughs, and in a loud voice com- 
manded her to come down. 

Trembling, she obeyed, and 
pleaded for her life; he was relent- 
less, and told her he would drown 
her for robbing him. He seated 
himself upon the ground, extended 
his right leg toward Cape North- 
umberland, and his left toward 
Green Point, raised his arms above 
his head, and in a great voice called 
upon the sea to come and drown 
the woman. The sea advanced 
and covered his beautiful land, and 
destroyed the offending woman. It 
returned no more to its former bed, 
and thus formed the present coast 
of MacDonnell Bay. (Legend of 
the Boonandik tribe. Mount Gaur- 
bier, Australia.) 

At the northern comer of Rosses 
is a little promontory of sand, rocks, 
and grass; a mournful, haunted 
place. No wise peasant would 
fall asleep under its low cliff, for 
he who sleeps here may wake "sil- 
ly," the "good people" having car- 
ried off his soul. There is no more 
ready short cut to the dim king- 
dom than this plovery headland. 



for covered and smothered now 
from sight by mounds of sand, a 
long cave goes thither, "full of gold 
and silver, and the most beautiful 
parlors and drawing-rooms," Once, 
before the sand covered it, a dog 
strayed in and was heard yelping 
vainly deep underground in a fort 
far inland. ' These forts or raths, 
low circular ditches made before 
history began, cover all Rosses and 
all Columbkill. The one where the 
dog yelped has, like most of the 
others, an underground bee-hive 
chamber in the midst Once when 
I was poking about there, an un- 
usually intelligent and "reading" 
peasant who had come with me and 
waited outside, knelt down by the 
opening and whispered in a timid 
voice: "Are you all right, sir?" 
He feared I had been carried oflF 
like the dog. No wonder he was 
afraid, for the fort has long been 
circled by ill-boding rumors. It is 
on the ridge (rf a small hill, on 
whose northern slope lie a few cot- 
tages. One night, a farmer's 
young son came from one of them 
and saw the fort all flaming, and 
ran toward it The glamor fell on 
him, and he sprang onto a fence 
cross-legged and commenced beat- 
ing it with a stick, for he imagined 
the fence was a horse, and that all 
night long he went on a wonderful 
ride through the country. In the 
morning, he was still beating the 
fence, and they carried him hom 
where he remained a simpleton fo 
three years before he came to him 
self again. A little later, a farme 
tried to level the fort His co 
and horses died and all manner ( 
misfortune came to him, and 
he himself was led home and 1 
useless, "his head on his knees 
the fire to his dying day." 

A few hundred yards south 
(rf the northern angle of 
another angle, having also its 





J 



I3XO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of three persons, man, woman, and 
child. Their exposure and efforts 
to remove them was met by such 
protests from the Indians of the ex- 
ploring party and others in that 
section of the country, that their 
consent was not obtained for their 
removal, until the governor of the 
department declared that the na- 
tional government would build a 
mausoleum over them at the capi- 
tal, and annually invite all the In- 
dians to a grand memorial feast. 
For they all believed that in his oc- 
casional appearing, he has, by his 
gestures, promised them that he 
will come again before long, to ral- 
ly and lead them as he did their an- 
cestors, to many victories, and de- 
velop them again into a mighty 
people. Thus it is more than prob- 
able that the remains of the savage 
host who made Christopher Co- 
lumbus welcome, have been seen 
by these European travelers. No 
doubt, the one hundred and fifty 
men who accompanied the great 
discoverer on his last voyage, re- 
turned to Europe deeply impressed 
with the Amerriques, the only peo- 
ple seen by them, natives of the 
newly discovered world who wore 
habitually heavy ornaments and 
charms of brightly burnished gold; 
these mariners most probably often 
and enthusiastically repeated in 
Europe the name Amerrique, 
until it became familiar there to 
designate the newly discovered 
lands, known only as the '*New 
World"; but thereafter as Amer- 
ica. At present the Amerriques 
are few in numbers and appear to 
be dying off with unaccountable 
rapidity, although they are free 
from oppression and not afHicted, 
so far as known, by any deadly 
epidemic. 

"They will die in freedom uncon- 
quered by any other people, but 
Uieir name, America, will live long 



after their existence and tribe or 
nation has become only an incident 
in anthropology, a name unsullied 
by subjection, but brilliant on free- 
dom's shield, from man's early his- 
tory through thousands of centu- 
ries, and to continue a synonym 
symbol and sacred name to free- 
men's sons and daughters until the 
earth is wandering dark and cold 
without a living tongue to lisp a 
name." 

LOSING — If an article is lost, 
its owner can find it by whistling 
for it 

If you lose anything, instantly 
throw away something, and you 
will find the lost article. 

A sportsman is said to have lost 
a ring on the moor. Next season 
he found it in a peat which he 
broke up and threw on a fire in a 
cottage. 

A lady lost a ring, and it was 
found next year by her servant in 
a potato which she was peeling. 

To drop a button on a bridge, 
foretells an unlucky journey. 

If you lose a key or a bunch of 
keys, look well that someone or 
some act does not bring you to 
shame. 

If a highly prized relic is lost, 
great trouble will follow the loser 
until it is found. 

If you lose anything, say over 
and over, "Satan, I will obey you,'* 
and he will find it for you. (Persia.) 

If an article is lost, close the eyes, 
turn around three times, and throw 
a pebble in the air; the direction in 
which it falls will be toward the lost 
object 

An article may be twice lost and 
recovered, but a thing three times 
lost is gone forever. 

If you lose an article, spit in your 
palm and blow upon it, and the 



I3I3 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



Orielo was an Egyptian robber 
and magician, who lived under the 
mouth of the Nile. Should his 
head be cut from his body, he 
could replace it, as his life con- 
sisted in one hair. 

If you wish to converse with the 
dead, dig a pit with your nails and 
pour into it the blood of a coal- 
black ewe, which has previously 
been torn piecemeal. 

Jourdain, the wizard, told the 
Duke of Somerset if he wished to 
live, to avoid '*where castles 
mounted stand." The duke died in 
an ale-house called "The Castle," 
in St Albans. 

Magicians claim that no word is 
efficacious in magic unless it is first 
animated with the word of God. 

"To sit upon the wizard's grave 
On which no sunbeam ever shines 
So superstitious creed divines." 
(Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel) 

Valivoni, an old magician, of the 
time of Agrippa, says: "If you 
take euphorbium, bdellium, gum 
ammonaic, the roots of both helle- 
bores, the loadstone, and a little 
sulphur, and incorporate them al- 
together with the blood of a hart, 
the blood of an elephant, and the 
blood of a black cat, and sprinkle it 
near the papers to be removed, 
that it unseals them and brings 
them to your presence, or just 
where you desire." 

Hecate, the Greek goddess, pre- 
sided over magic and enchant- 
ments, and was generally known as 
having the head of a horse, a dog, 
or a bear. Sometimes she is rep- 
resented as having three heads and 
three bodies, turned in three differ- 
ent ways. This probably signifies 
her clairvoyance. 

The Moors had conjurers called 
Adelites, who foretold the fortune 
of the people by means of the flight 
of birds, and other omens and 



prognostications. The air, winds, 
and substances that were believed 
to come from the atmosphere, were 
their material instructors in the art 
of divination. 

A learned Dominican friar of the 
thirteenth centtu-y, named Albertus 
Magnus, was bom in Suabia. He 
was a man of a most curious and 
inquisitive turn of mind, and a wide 
knowledge of the physical sciences, 
which gave rise to an accusation 
brought against him that he was a 
magician. He labored to find the 
philosopher's stone, and he made a 
machine in the shape of a man 
which was an oracle to him, and 
explained to him all the difficulties 
he proposed. He wrote twenty- 
one volumes in folio, on various 
subjects, scientific, philosophical 
and theological. 

A wizard told King Edward IV. 
that after him would reign one 
whose first initial would be G. The 
king thought the person meant 
was his brother George, but it was 
the Duke of Gloucester. 

Old authors, distinguished for 
sense and talent, record with great 
seriousness that the devil once de- 
livered a course of lectures on 
magic at Salamanca, habited in a 
professor's gown and wig. 

The magicians used to catch and 
secure spirits between two glasses 
like flies. These were compelled 
by the owner to do for him what- 
ever was in their power, as to make 
him invisible, give him power over 
others, compel riches to come to 
him, cure wounds, and the like. 

The Laplanders have a ''celestial 
wand," resembling the wand of the 
Median magi. The gods them- 
selves found their only protection 
from certain enchantments in this 
wand. Wainamoinen, one of the 
heroes of Northern mythology, be- 



ISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Hecate was a cruel and infernal 
deity of the Greeks, presiding over 
magic and nocturnal incantation. 
She was represented in a hideous 
aspect, her head surrounded by ser- 
pents, and howling dogs around 
her. 

The Australian natives stand in 
awe of foreign scM'cerers, whom 
they think are able to come into 
their camp, and, after securing a 
man to a tree, have the power to 
remove his insides and fill him with 
grass. Their own sorcerers pre- 
tend to be able to restore the man 
to his natural condition. 

All through the Bible is recorded 
the belief of the Jews in the actual 
powers of evil spirits, and the pow- 
er of the "black art" to give riches, 
power, and luxury without the nec- 
essary labor to obtain them. The 
"books of magic" burnt in Paul's 
days at Ephesus, were supposed to 
be worth eighty thousand dollars 
of our money. 

The three most powerful divina- 
tions are by fire, water, and earth 
or clay. These are the three great 
wonderful powers; the power that 
ascends, like an aspiration to heav- 
en, pure and purifying, that is fire; 
the power that falls from heaven, 
infinitely beneficent to all manner 
of life, that is water; and the power 
that lies in our mother earth and 
has the mystery of the dead within 
it, that is clay. From before the 
times of the Chaldean soothsayers, 
these three powers have been used 
in divination. 

"Bevil Blizard" was well known 
and his fame spread through all the 
neighboring villages of Oxenton, 
England, where he lived, died, and 
was buried, but was not content to 
rest in his grave. He frequently 
appeared, and was last seen by 
one Anne Tustin, at the Oxenton 
church-gate. She was a good body 



and not given to romance. Innu- 
merable strange stories are told of 
him. On one occasion, when hay- 
making, he suddenly exclaimed: 
"My hen roost is being robbed," 
and putting down the scythe to go 
and catch the thief, the scythe went 
on mowing by itself, as if still in the 
hands of Bevil Blizard. 

A magic brooch, which was at 
the same time an amulet, was made 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and belonged to a Highland chief, 
Maclean of Lochbuy, in the Isle of 
Mull, being formed of silver from 
his own estate. It is circular in 
form, scolloped, and surrounded 
by small upright obelisks, each set 
with a pearl at t(^. In the center 
is a round crystalline ball, consid- 
ered a magical gem. It was used 
to read the future fate of the wear- 
er. (Ten Thousand Wonderful 
Things.) 

"Take an adder's skin, and auri- 
pigmentum, and greeke pitch of 
reuponticum, and the waxe of 
new bees, and the fat or greace of 
an asse, and breake them all, and 
put them all in a dull seething pot 
full of water, and make it to seethe 
at a slow fire, and after let it waxe 
cold, and make a taper, and euery 
man that shall see light of it, shall 
seeme headless." (The Secreetes 
of Nature, set foorth by Albertus 
Magnus in Latine, newly translated 
into English. Imprinted at Lon- 
don by me Wyllyam Copland.) 
[No date.] 

The American Indians believe 
that the tribal "medicine" is sacred 
and that no man could look upon 
the contents of the bag and live. 
The medicine man who made it, 
would sooner die than tell what is 
in it No greater calamity could 
befall the tribe than to lose this 
bag of ashes. It contains a god, 
and that god holds the fortunes of 



I3i6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tinual occurrence; but these prac- 
tices have, of course, been strictly 
repressed by our civilized govern- 
ment Practice as a male or female 
diviner, or a rain doctor, or as a 
lightning doctor, is now forbidden 
by law. (Natal Statutes, 19, 1891.) 
All practice oi selling love charms 
and the like is now punishable. 

In 1627, one John Dee raised 
himself at an early age in LxHidon 
to a great reputation for magic. 
He had a mirror formed of a black 
polished stone, in which an assist- 
ant looked under his influence, and 
was able to see visions, tell for- 
tunes, and foreshow events. He 
was said to call up spirits, who 
showed themselves in this pear- 
shaped mirror. Dr. Dee consid- 
ered this stone as very precious. 
His assistant's name was Kelly, 
and Butler mentions him in his 
"Hudibras." 

"Kelly did all his feats upon 
The devil's looking-glass or stone. 
When playing with him at bopeep. 
He solved all problems ne'er so deepT 

In Abyssinia, potters and iron- 
workers were not only supposed to 
be especially endowed with the evil 
eye, which excluded them from all 
religious ceremonies and made 
them responsible for certain ail- 
ments, but they were also believed 
to have the power of the were-wolf, 
namely, that of changing them- 
selves into hyenas and other raven- 
ous beasts, the counterparts of the 
wolves of the North. Nathaniel 
Pearce, an old African traveler, de- 
clares that a friend of his had seen 
one of these transformations, and 
that the peculiar ear-rings worn by 
the descendants of the Budas had 
frequently been seen by himself in 
the ears of hyenas that had been 
entrapped. This agrees with the 
account of Herodotus, who said 
they "declared they could change 
themselves into wolves for one day 



(I 



<t 



in the year," in his time, but he did 
not believe it 

In India, it is very firmly believ- 
ed that certain persons can change 
themselves into tigers and again 
resume their natural shape at pleas* 
ure. 

Vivien, the mistress of eld Mer- 
lin, the great enchanter of King 
Arthur's time, in a soft dalliance in 
the wood, coaxed his secret of wav- 
ing arms and other ceremonies by 
which he enchanted people, from 
the love-stricken old man. No 
sooner than she knew it, she tried 
it, and on him! Dunlop, in his 
History of Prose Fiction," says: 
At length, this renowned magician 
disappeared entirely from England. 
His voice alone was heard in a for- 
est, where he was enclosed in a 
bush of buckthorn, he having been 
entrapped in this awkward resi- 
dence by means of a charm he had 
communicated to his mistress 
Vivien, who, not believing on the 
spell, had tried it on her lover. She 
had failed to learn the counter- 
charm of release. The lady was 
sorry for the accident, but there 
was no extracting her admirer 
from his thorny covering. And so 
there he still lives, tied up in the 
tree, a melancholy figure, his arms 
extended as if in pleading, but no- 
body knows the precious wch^ 
that would release him." 

The manufacture of mystical 
writings is a very ancient art, so 
also is the teaching of how to 
choose propitious days. Much 
light is thrown on the art by a very 
remarkable papyrus in the British 
Museum (No. XLVI. Greek) of 
about the second century. Several 
spells are given in this document 
for various purposes, amongst 
which is one for producing an im- 
mediate vision of the god evoked 
by the operator. Various charms 



I3i8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The medicine men rely greatly 
upon pieces of crystal in finding 
lost ponies and other property, and 
declare that they can see every- 
thing they wish by gazing intently 
upon the crystal. 

A beautiful and mystic young 
enchantress, prophetess, and priest- 
ess lived among the ancestors of 
the Amerriques, of Nicaragua, to 
whom they gave allegiance, and 
whose mandates they obeyed. To 
her shrine, the descendants of that 
tribe and several of the few scat- 
tered remnants of the Sumos, Ten- 
cos, and Mosquitos, still give their 
hearty devotion. She frequently 
materialized and visited the Amer- 
riques, even until the Spaniards oc- 
cupied some parts of that country. 
Her appearance was unheralded, 
and happened usually at some pic- 
turesque grove in the forest, dur- 
ing the early springtime, when al- 
most every tree and bush and vine 
were developing bright, varicol- 
ored buds, leaves, fronds, or flow- 
ers, as if by magic, under the influ- 
ence of a genial semi-tropic cli- 
mate, until such groves had be- 
come a most attractive and beauti- 
ful bouquet The Indians first be- 
came aware of each of her visits by 
the movements of delegations from 
other divisions of the animal king- 
dom toward the grove where she 
was to be found. She exhibited in 
many ways great power over all 
kinds of insects, reptiles, birds, and 
animals, and retained a number of 
each, convenient to the residence 
of her materialized form, for use as 
servants, guards, messengers; she 
also retained and fed on the most 
delicious food a number of old men 
and women, as assistants in her 
wonder-working ceremonies. She 
exhorted the elder Indians to ad- 
here strictly to the old forms of 
worship of their ancestors, and 



urged them to teach their descend- 
ants the cult of the noble ones 
who had preceded them. They 
were also commanded to give ex- 
amples of strategy, endurance, and 
bravery to the young men. She 
restored to health and strength the 
infirm and aged who, in her pres- 
ence, passed daily through the cer- 
emonies of her nagualistic rites or 
Elusinian-like mysteries. Sudden- 
ly the beloved priestess become of- 
fended because the fathers began 
to wear rosaries, and she never 
again returned. She took with her 
the old man and woman whom she 
had transformed into handsome, 
youthful forms, each with large, 
expanded wings, robed gorgeously 
in beautiful tiger- and deer-skins, 
and decorated profusely with nu- 
merous brilliant plumes of birds, 
abundant then and now in the ter- 
ritory in the east-central moun- 
tainous districts, where the Amer- 
riques exist as vagrants, rude agri- 
culturists, or gold miners. 

The Rev. James Macdonald con- 
tributed an interesting paper on 
"Bantu Customs and Legends,** 
collected by himself in South Af- 
rica, to the English magazine, "By- 
gones." Some of the native doc- 
tors in South Africa carry their 
conceit of themselves so far as to 
send messages like the following 
to persons who they know would 
not believe them. One Masellulie 
despatched a messenger during a 
thunderstorm to a missionary to 
say that he hoped the missionary 
would not be offended "because 
your cow has been killed by light- 
ning that I have made." 

The doctors have unlimited pow- 
er over men's lives and property. 
Among the tribes farther inland, 
trial by ordeal is commonly prac- 
ticed by them. This may consist 
of a poison-bowl, when the dose is 



1330 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ed, he made a pact with the dev9 
(who assumed the name of Mephis- 
topheles, and the appearance of a 
little gray monk), that if he might 
indulge his propensities freely for 
twenty-four years, he would, at the 
end of that period, consign to the 
devil both body and soul. 

The compact terminated in 1550, 
when Faust disappeared. His 
sweetheart was Margherita (Mar- 
garet), whom he seduced, and his 
faithful servant was Wagner. The 
stories told about him are legion. 
According to some legends, he was 
an old man when he made the con- 
tract with the devil, signing it with 
his blood, and thereupon regaining 
youth and strength. The devil had 
to be, during the term agreed upon, 
his obedient servant, fulfilling any 
wish that he may have. He was 
said to have been riding through 
the air on a beer-barrel; using his 
mantle as a means of rapid transpor- 
tation; causing wine to spout from 
a table; and numerous other won- 
derful feats. The character of 
Faust is a favorite subject in liter- 
ature and art (Cf. Goethe's mas- 
terpiece; Marlowe's tragedy; op- 
eras by Gounod, Boito, Spohr, etc.) 

The Maoris believe in the power 
of incantations, and tell how Hin- 
auri, being teased with jealousy by 
two women, uttered one so power- 
ful that the two plagues fell dead 
to the ground, with the soles of 
their feet projecting upward. Then 
Hinauri was at ease about her hus- 
band, who thereafter belonged to 
her alone. Some time later, how- 
ever, her brother-in-law fell in love 
with her, and in order to put his 
brother out of the way, he again, 
by one of these powerful incanta- 
tions, threw him into an enchanted 
sleep, from which he awoke chang- 
ed into a dog. But Hinauri, 
though at first not recognizing her 
husband in that form, received him 



in their home, after she had learned 
from a sorcerer who he was. 

Not very long ago, a curious 
case was before the Paris courts. 
The accused was an alleged sor- 
cerer named Bernard, and he was 
charged with transferring by 
sleight of hand, some jewels from 
a case to his pocket at the Bon 
March& It was also alleged that 
he professed to have scientific rela- 
tions with the devil. The first wit- 
ness was one Boulicot, a farmer, 
who was persuaded that Satan had 
taken up his abode in his home- 
stead, because calves wept and the 
eggs laid by hens exploded like 
bombs. He had never seen imps 
issue from the addled eggs, but his 
wife and the maids were nearly 
sure they had seen them, in the 
gloaming, dance about the house 
where the hatching went on. 
A noise as if of clanking chains 
was heard at night Bernard was 
applied to, and offered to chase the 
devil and his imps for the sum of 
£8. Boulicot admits that the 
noises ceased, and that all the 
calves save one — and it has since 
died — ^left off weeping. Two other 
rustics, husband and wife, believed 
that they were subjects of the 
devil's malevolence. Satan drag- 
ged them out of their bed in the 
dead of night, beat them black and 
blue, and left them more dead than 
alive. They naturally went to Ber- 
nard. He began by giving them 
drugs, to take which made them 
violently ill at once, convulsing 
them, and acting as an emetic. 
When this medicine had taken its 
full effect, he handed the wife a tal- 
isman, which was never to be 
touched. The simple couple paid 
Bernard 1,300 francs for his differ- 
ent services. An item in his bill 
was "12 francs 50 for vicars, 250 
francs for grand vicars, and 500 
francs for Bishop of Moulins," 




ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the epoch of the conquest (about 
1550) to Christianity, in that sum- 
mary way which the Spaniards de- 
lighted in. If they would not be 
baptized, they were hanged or 
drowned; and once baptized, they 
were flogged if they did not attend 
mass, and burned if they slid back 
to id(^-worship. To this day the 
belief in sorcerers, witchcraft, and 
magic is as strong as ever it was, 
and in various instances the very 
same rites are observed as those 
which we know from the early 
fathers obtained before the con- 
quest. 

The diviner is called "h'men," a 
male personal form of the verb 
men, to understand, to do. He is 
the one who knows and who ac- 
complishes. His main instrument 
is a clear stone, transparent crystal. 
This is a quartz crystal, or other 
translucent stone, which has been 
duly sanctified by burning before 
it gum copal as an incense, and by 
the solemn recital of certain magic 
formulas in an archaic dialect 
passed down from the wise an- 
cients. It is thus endowed with the 
power to reflect the past and the fu- 
ture, and the soothsayer gazes into 
its clear depths and sees where lost 
articles may be recovered, learns 
what is happening to the absent, 
and by whose witchery sickness 
and disaster have come upon those 
who call on his skill. There is 
scarcely a village in Yucatan with- 
out one of these wondrous stones. 

These wise men have g^at in- 
fluence over the growing crops and 
perform "field mass" in the corn- 
fields. This is a ceremony in which 
a fowl is killed and cooked as a 
sacrifice to the gods of rain and fer- 
tility. In it is a strange mixture of 
heathen and Christian superstition, 
which is the outcome of three cen- 
turies of so-called Christian in- 
struction. 



A power, universally attributed 
to the magicians, is that of turning 
themselves into beasts. This is an 
unquestioned belief all through 
Central America. Father Baeza 
relates that one of these old sor- 
cerers declared in his dying con- 
fession that he had repeatedly turn- 
ed himself into various wild beasts. 
The English priest, Thomas Gage^ 
who had a church in Guatemala, 
about 1630, tells with all serious- 
ness a number of such instances. 
Even in our own days, the learned 
Abb6 Brasseur de Bourbourg is 
not entirely satisfied that animal 
magnetism and such trickery can 
account for the mysteries of nagu- 
alism. The sacred books of the 
Kiches, a tribe living in Guatemala,, 
related to the Ma3ras, ascribe this 
power to one .of their most cele- 
brated kings. As an illustration,, 
the passage is worth quoting: 
"Truly this Gucumatz became a 
wonderful king. Every seven days 
he ascended to the sl^ and every 
seven days he followed the path to 
the abode of the dead; every seven 
days he put on the nature of a ser- 
pent and he became truly a ser- 
pent; every seven days he put on 
the nature of an eagle and a tiger 
and became truly an eagle and a 
tiger; every seven days he put on 
the nature of coagulated blood and 
then he was nothing else but coag- 
ulated blood." 

Men and women alike possessed 
this power. This is shown in a cu- 
rious little native story heard by 
Dr. Berendt in the wilds of Yuca- 
tan, from a native woman, who told 
it to prove the value of salt as a 
counter-charm to these mysterious 
beings. The Doctor wrote it down 
with scrupulous fidelity: 

"A man married with a woman^ 
nor did he know her as a witch. 
One day he said to her, 'Mix two 
measures of salt' She mixed 



1324 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



"I loose the hobgoblin at mid- 
night, and command him to draw 
chairs and roll barrels along the 
street, and wring the neck of any- 
one who dares look out cA the win- 
dow at him. 

"I teach the composition of the 
charms, seals and spells of the 
magic looking-glasses. 

'*I teach the use of the enchanted 
figures. 

"I teach how to find the mistle- 
toe of the New Year. 

"I teach the wanderer to find en- 
chanted herbs. 

"I teach the gamester the mag- 
netic plaster which holds his 
money. 

"I send the goblins, the shod 
mule, the hags, the nightbats, the 
scrags, the breaknecks, the black 
men, the white women, the phan- 
tasms, the apparitions, the seven 
crows, the busy brains, the shad- 
ows, in fine, I am the Devil of Cau- 
vert, the Son errant, the grand 

Huntsman of Fontainebleau for- 
est" 

MISCELLANEOUSCHARMS 
AND OMENS— To see anything 
move and click like a telegraph- 
machine, signifies that the person 
who notices it will soon have news. 

To clinch luck, stick a pin into 
the first tree you come to. 

To carry a lock of a blind wom- 
an's hair, is said to bring good luck. 

It is good luck to wear next to 
the heart a hair taken from a lion's 
tail or mane. 

To watch for anyone to come, is 
a sign that he will not come. 

A ring made of a sea-horse's 
teeth, will prevent cramps. 

A lawyer with a caul in his pos- 
session, will be rendered eloquent. 

The amulets of the Tasmanians 
prevent witchcraft and other evils. 



The Grecian athletes wore am- 
ulets, to ensure them victory in the 
gladiatorial conflicts. 

A ring engraved representing a 
human head, with an elephant's 
trunk holding a trident, was an am- 
ulet against the perils of the sea. 

A jaw-bone or skull of an animal 
is worn in Tasmania as a protecticHi 
from danger. 

The Greeks thought that prayers 
written in rolls and worn as amu- 
lets, would protect from man and 
beast 

The cup of Djemschid revealed 
knowledge to all who gazed into it 
(Arabian.) 

The utterances of mad men, of 
children, and women, will never 
fail to come to pass. (Hindu.) 

Some people consider it a lucky 
amulet, to carry or keep pennies 
that have been taken from the eye 
of a corpse. 

Pope Adrian is reported to have 
constantly worn an amulet the in- 
gredients of which were: Dried 
toad, arsenic, pearl, coral, hyacinth, 
and hagacanth. 

To have the left arm and hand 
of a woman who died in childbirth, 
is to possess a lucky talisman. 
(Mexican.) 

There is a magic virtue as an 
amulet in the Hindu woman's nose- 
ring, bracelet, and knotted string. 
The nose-ring has especial res 
paid to it, and for a stranger eve 
to mention it, is a breach of deli 
cacy. 

It is unlucky to pay money foi 
charms, as they will lose all thei 
power. 

Good luck is not to be repeat 

If an illegitimate person tries 
charm, he or she will neutralize i 
power. 





I3S6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



talismanic belief; witness the avidi- 
ty with which the caul of an infant 
is sought after to preserve from 
danger by water; as also the cele- 
brated romance of "The Talisman," 
by Sir Walter Scott; the intense in- 
terest of which arises from the nar- 
ration of a singular instance of the 
faith formerly reposed in talismanic 
agency. It is now well known that 
when Napoleon went to Egypt, he 
was there presented with a talisman 
by a learned Eastern magician, 
the effect of which was to pro- 
tect and defend him from sudden 
attacks, assassinations, and all man- 
ner of hurts from firearms. 

Make garters of hare-skin, sew 
motherwort in them, wear them on 
the legs, and you can run so fast 
as to beat horses. 

The following charm is found in 
Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (I., 3): 

'Thrice to thine and thrice to mine 
And thrice again to make up nine. 
Peace! The charm's wound up!" 

The most curious paper-weight 
in the world is said to belong to the 
Prince of Wales, and is the mum- 
mified hand of the daughter of 
Pharoah. He keeps it for luck. 

A certain farmhouse in Dorset- 
shire carefully preserves a human 
skull. The people believe that if 
the skull is taken away, the house 
will be disturbed by supernatural 
noises, and the person who took it 
will die. 

Some people think that mutter- 
ing a certain formula or spell will 
stop a runaway horse, make a 
watch-dog silent, staunch blood, 
drive back fire and make it con- 
stune itself. 

Bourne speaks of "dancing 
charms," or those which are to be 
kept in a dancing position, as ear- 
rings, or rings made of the bone 
of an ostrich. 



Some tribes of Indians esteem 
an arrow that has been shot into a 
human being as a charm, or as they 
call it, "a medicine." 

Favorite jewels, or some ancient 
amulet, or a handkerchief that once 
belonged to a dear friend who was 
dead, were considered by the 
French to bring success. 

The sputtering or crackling of a 
lamp was regarded as a propitious 
omen by the ancient Greeks. 

Brothers kill and eat their sis- 
ter, from whose bones a bamboo 
grows. Every night, the spirit of 
the girl comes out of the tree, and 
the king catches and marries her. 

To kill a girl seven years old and 
drink her blood, is a charm against 
evil influences. 

An old saying is: Never flatter 
yourself, for when you think you 
are all right, you will at once fall 
through with everything. 

There is an old German proph- 
ecy that the ones you go about with 
when young, will be the ones 
you will be travelling with when 
old. 

If you search a negro's pocket 
in the South, you will be as apt to 
find a rabbit's foot in it as a razor. 

If you are looking for some one 
and, thinking you see him, exclaim: 
"Here he is!" when he is not in 
sight, he will be angry when he 
does come. 

Say, "One, two, three, good luck 
for me," when you know you have 
said or done something unlucky. 
It breaks the spell. 

The Romans believed that every 
occurrence or appearance beheld 
on the right hand was to be consid- 
ered as an omen of good luck, bui 
all those on the left, as bad. 

In Ireland, if the stacks are n 
circled each night by the noisel 



FOLKLORE. AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



»3«7 



Imuh-owI, a blight will fall upon 
next season's crops. 

The Totonacs made a dough of 
first fruits and the blood of infants, 
of which men and women partook 
every six months, to give them 
health and long life. 

Indians believe it good luck to 
keep as many scalps as they can 
procure. 

To rid yourself of bad luck, 
throw a penny over your shoulder, 
and the one who picks it up will 
get the bad luck. 

Among the Ashantees, certain 
families eat certain meats, and 
<lChers wear certain colors, for luck. 

Dr. Samuel Johnson would go 
back half a mile if he remembered 
that he had omitted to touch any 
one of the lamp-posts on his daily 
walk. 

It is lucky for a New Zealander 
to wear the teeth of his enemy 
•round his neck. 

Mail-sacks that have been in an 
accident, are considered lucky to 
have on a train. 

If you suffer privations in early 
life, you are sure to make up for it 
in later years. If you are rich as 
m child, you will not always be so. 
Every one must once wear the 
l^atchen apron. 

The seventh son was formerly 
^^midered to be endowed with pre- 
^^inent wisdom. 

It is said that if you grasp a 
fs^iidfiil of mold from any ruin and 
0t^d any object in it, you will not 
^fje for a year. 

1/ you make anything for ^ny- 
tKHty and drop it while making, it is 
M Bign that it will suit the person 
for wrlicMn it is intended. 

^o »«n or give away a medidne- 
^^9 OX* to touch or examine an- 



other's medicine-bag, is considered 
very unlucky among Indians. 

The Arabs carry about them 
photographs of the Koran, which 
they place upon their breast to 
prevent sickness, misfortune, and 
witchcraft 

A person who wishes to be lucky 
should never speak of himself in 
the third person. 

To carry the knuckle-bone of a 
ham, will bring good luck. 

The people of Perugia wear ar- 
rowheads as lucky channs. 

Ill-gotten gains thrive not till 
the third heir. 

Unlucky at play, lucky in love. 

If you lie upon roses when 
young, you will lie upon thorns 
when old. 

Queen Victoria firmly believes 
that objects made by blind people 
are lucky. 

If you would have good luck 
throughout the day, baffle the evil 
genius by saying the following 
words immediately after rising in 
the morning: "Let this be my 
lucky day; let my enemies fail." 

One extreme fellows another. If 
you sing all day to-day, to-morrow 
you will probably cry. 

It is lucky to carry the tip of a 
dried beef-tongue in yotu* pocket. 

To own any rope on which a 
person hanged himself or was 
hung, brings luck. 

If you want to have good luck 
and wealth, keep the talismanic 
word ''S-A-V-E" about your per- 
son. 

When you desire that a friend 
shall have good lucjk'in any under- 
taking, walk around him or her 
three times, in the direction qf tht 
sun. 

The bone of an executed crim- 



-..: * 






1398 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



inal, if carried in the pocket, will 
ward off violence. 

It will bring you good luck in 
whatever you undertake, if you 
carry a bat's liver as a talisman. 
If you let it go out of yotu* posses- 
sion, it breaks the charm, and no 
second one will have the same vir- 
tue. 

It is said good luck and bad luck 
comes in waves, one following the 
other. This may have given rise 
to the adage: "It never rains but 
it poiu-sl" 

The Incas, when taking posses- 
sicMi of land, threw a stone, shot an 
arrow, or hurled a firebrand to 
each of the cardinal points. This 
insured peace in possession. 

Touch an ill-formed person or a 
tight-laced girl with the end of a 
walking stick, and it will bring the 
best of luck. 

If one has good luck, he must 
not tell how he got it, or it will 
turn to bad luck. 

DcMi't try to hear conversation 
not intended for you, as eaves- 
droppers never hear any good 
atHMit themselves. 

If you hide a lucky bean and let 
no one know where it is, you will 
be lucky for a year. 

If you carry the lucky bone 
taken from the head of a sheep, 
you will be protected from adverse 
influences. 

Do not clean a stable, sell milk, 
or fetch water, after dusk. 

Take a rubber ball and bounce it 
as many times as you can without 
missing. Begin with your own age 
as you count, and when you miss, 
it shows when you will either die 
or marry. 

If you are a postal clerk and car- 
ry in your pocket a piece of mail- 



sack that has been in a wreck, yoa 
mil never be in a wreck your^lL 

In the Bible, Moses gives us the 
sign of the bush burning without 
being consumed. 

Wonder-dollars, with cabalistic 
designs, are considered a protec- 
tion against sickness, bad lock, and 

defeat 

The people of Benin, West Af- 
rica, think to possess die head of 
a dead man is to have a hacky 
charm. 

The Dahomeyans purchase cl 
the Moors a piece of parchment 
having a sentence of the Koran in- 
scribed thereon, and it is kq^ in 
their apartments for lock. 



The Milanesians have a 
taboa A mother-in-law will not 
go along the sand behind her son- 
in-law, until the tide has washed 
out his footsteps. 

When you look at a dirty sweep- 
er in India, look him in the Imc; 
but when you look at a BnboBUk 
look at his feet first 

The ancient Egyptians wore C^ 
inders with hieroglyphs engraved 
upon them, about the neck, so tint 
they might be lucky in all dieir vh 

dertakings. 

When one admires anytimig in 
Egypt very much and esqxesses it, 
the owner instantly blesses it in die 
name of the prophet, else ill tack 
will follow. 

The Chinese character meanoig 
happiness, written on red paper in 
black ink, and pasted on the door- 
posts, is sure to bring happiness to 
the inmates. 

A printed list of the paltry arti- 
cles the Prophet left at his deceasCpK 
such as rosaries, staff, etc, kept i 
the house in Egypt, will ward 
evil 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1399 



To obtain what you wish from 
another, lay a swallow's tongue un- 
der your own, and then kiss the 
persmi. (Swinemiinde, Germany.) 

To drop an amulet, is a sign of 
death* 

He who has about him a string 
with which a rupture was tied up, 
can lift the heaviest load without 
danger. (Norman.) 

The letter from an Indian raja 
is spotted with gold leaf as a pre- 
servative, partly to avert the glance 
of fascination, and partly because 
gold is a scarer of demons. 

Always say, for good luck, ''With 
God and the Czar's permission,*' 
when you have any important thing 
to transact (Russia.) 

Dried human skulls wrapped in 
banana leaves and hung on the 
wall, or depending from the roof 
of every well-regulated Dyak fam- 
fly, bring luck and prosperity. 

The Emperor Domitian bought 
of a merchant a talisman consisting 
of three sentences of advice, for 
which he paid the good round sum 
of a thousand florins. 

An Turkish women carry about 
them some magic word or phrase, 
written on pa^r, and enclosed in 
a little case. To lose this talisman, 
is very unlucky. 

It is lucky for the Chinese to 
have a bit of paper with "god of 
wealth" written on it These are 
posted on the wall, for luck. 

The last thing that touches the 
body of a man who was hanged, 
brings luck to the possessor. 

If a quill is thrown over the 
house and falls into a basin, you 
will have a silver spoon. 

"Strmigfat is the line of doty; 
Owed IS the line of beaaty. 
Follow the first and yon will see. 
TV second following after tbee.*^ 



A Scotch proverb says: ^Frdts 
follow them 'at freits follow." 
(Freits are superstitious notions or 
beliefs with respect to any action 
or event, as a good or a bad omen.) 

A Hindu would never carry any- 
thing out of his house in the morn- 
ing tmtil he had anointed the door- 
posts with cow-dressing. 

One who carries on his person 
a bullet that has once struck a per- 
son, is in no danger of sudden 
death. 

When so much as speaking of 
your good health or fortune, tap 
the back of your hand or forearm 
three times, to avert the bad omen. 

New Zealand natives highly 
prize an amulet made of green 
stone, in the uncouth image of a 
man, and worn around the neck. 
It is called a "Hectiki,'* Tiki being 
the "creator of man." 

Many Indians will not allow 
themselves to be viewed through 
field-glasses, as they imagine their 
nakedness is exposed, nothwith- 
standing their clothing. 

When you are camping out in a 
mining country, and you are so 
lucky as to find a lost wayfarer, you 
will discover gold. 

If a person was talked of and, 
while something was being said 
of him, he entered the room, it was 
a sign that he was very hot-tem- 
pered, easy to get mad. (Western 
Norway.) 

Idleness is the root of all evil. 
(Sicilian and German proverb.) 

Keep a dove made of an egg- 
shell over the table, to remind you 
of the Holy Ghost and bring you 
a blessing. 

A horse-tooth, put by stealth 
into someone's pocket, will pre- 
serve him from witchcraft and 
toothache. (Belgium.) 



I530 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



A boy brought to King Arthur's 
court a mantle which no one could 
wear who was unfaithful in love, 
false in domestic life, or traitorous 
to the king. If any such put it on, 
it puckered up or tumbled to 
pieces. 

When Tiberius was making his 
first expedition and leading the 
army through Macedonia to Syria, 
the altars which had been formerly 
consecrated at Phillippi by the vic- 
torious legions, blazed suddenly 
with spontaneous fires. 

The carr}'ing away of chaff by 
the wind is> in the Scripttu-es, a 
sign of the destruction of the wick- 
ed 

Never gaze on a creature that is 
being killed, as it makes it die 
hard. 

If amulets consecrated and worn 
on the body are given to anyone 
else, that person will thereby re- 
ceive power over the former wear- 
er. (Bohemia.) 

Incantations, witch-charms, and 
devotion to unseen powers, are all 
prevalent among the Shetlanders. 

"As coal is black, so are my 
prospects dark and gloomy," is one 
way for the Indians to express 
their forebodings. 

To speak evil of his ancestors, 
will bring evil on the speaker. 
(Madagascar.) 

Tickle a girl with a straw on the 
face or hands. The first thing she 
says after it, will be the first thing 
she will say after being married. 
(New England.) 

Go to the wood-pile and say: 

"Johnnie with your fingers and Willie 
with your toes," 

and something will come out of 
the wood-pile and tear off all your 
clothes. (Gilsum, N. H.) 



When two persons meet and» 
having the same thought, give it 
expression, it is a sign that at that 
very moment a soul is delivered 
from purgatory. (Belgium.) 

The Iroquois Indians wore amu- 
lets suspended from their necks 
and ears, to ward off sorcery and 
witchcraft 

It is a common saying in Glou- 
cestershire, England, that running 
water breaks spells. 

The women of Albania make 
balls of rags and stitch them 
through and through assiduously, 
thus "sewing up the plague, snakes, 
and sickness!" 

When an Indian woman has 
a son sick somewhere away from 
home, or if he has been killed on 
the way home, her breasts will be- 
come very painful. 

Laughing before sunrise causes 
tears at evening. (Ancient Syra- 
cuse saying.) 

Oblong boxes containing little 
pieces of wood wrapped in white 
paper, are kept, in East India» as 
charms against evil. 

Ancient coins are used in China 
as amulets, for protection against 
evil spirits. 

It is not customary among th 
Chinese in this country to 
amulets or charms, except the jad 
wristlet, which is regarded by som 
as giving strength to the 
One that has been recovered fror 
a grave is most highly valued, 
thought to furnish protection to tl 
wearer against evil spirits. 






If animals and weapons sh 
be found to speak, the king woiz: 
die. (Hindu.) 

All those who wear the me= 



of the Blessed Virgin will di»-. 
happy death. 



x3Sa 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



him the news of a legacy. Labor 
turns out at six o'clock, and with 
busy pen or ringing hammer, lays 
the foundation for a competency. 
Luck whines. Labor whistles. Luck 
relies on chance. Labor relies on 
character." (Cobden.) 

The old gentlemen of the senate 
from the Southern state oi Arkan- 
sas and the silver state (A Colorado, 
are now anxiously looking for 
some portent in the skies favora- 
ble to Bryan. They have had 
some favorable signs lately. They 
have treasured the stopping of a 
clock in a railroad shop in Indiana 
at sixteen minutes to one as indica- 
tive of their success. They were 
delighted for two whole days over 
that Michigan potato which had 
sixteen small ones growing from 
the main vegetable. They distinct- 
ly see the hand of Providence in 
the fact that all the blades oi a cer- 
tain second crop of oats in Michi- 
gan had the letter "B** distinctly 
stamped upon them. (N. Y. Her- 
ald, Oct, 1896.) 



"Dawntee be like old Solomon Wise, 

'Lof tu go tu beyd and lof tu rise; 

Cuz then yull zune be 

Out tu elbaws out tu toes, 

Out ov money an' out ov cloase." 

"Bucky, bucky biddy bene. 
Is the way now fair and clean? 
Is the goose gone to nest. 
And the fox gone to rest? 
Shall I come away?" 

These curious lines are said by 
Devonshire children, when they go 
through any passage in the dark; 
they are meant to be addressed to 
Puck or Robin Goodfellow, as a 
method of asking permission to 
trace the way. 

If a person always keeps saying 
over every trifling annoyance or 
disappointment, "Oh, 'tis just my 
luck!" such person will never be 
lucky. To think you are lucky 
and successful, is to make yourself 



so. Think persistently of success 
and deny the possibility of evil» and 
no matter how unlucky you have 
been, your luck will change. 

The Chinese introduced betvreen 
the shells of the pearl oyster, lead 
images, which the animal covered 
with nacre or the pearly substance 
familiar to us, and after a time they 
were recovered and superstitiously 
held as a protection from all eviL 

In the Highlands of Scotland, a 
large crystal of a figure somewhat 
oval was kept by the priests to 
work charms by. Water poured 
upon it is at this day given to cattle 
against diseases. The stones are 
now preserved by the oldest and 
most superstitious in the country; 
they were once common in Ireland. 

A certain burglar had a talisman 
in which he had perfect confidence. 
It was the shod hoof of a donkey. 
So great was his faith, that he has 
been known to turn back from 
"biu-gling" because he found he 
had forgotten to take it for his pro- 
tection. 

The way to make a 'liand of 
glory" is to get the hand of a man 
who has been hanged, and prepare 
it in the following manner: Wrap 
the hand in a winding-sheet and 
squeeze out all the blood. Pickle 
it with saltpetre, salt, and pepper. 
Dry it in an oven heated with ferns. 
Next make a candle with the fat 
of a hanged man, virgin-wax, and 
Lapland sesame. This hand hold- 
ing this candle will cause anyone 
who looks at it to lose the power 
of motion as if he were dead. 

In India, people believed in 
amulet whose peculiar virtue w%^ 
such that when it fell to the grou^*^^ j 
no one could pick it up but '^^■^he 
father or mother of the person "^^^i^hc 
dropped it. If another persor^.^^^ gtt 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



^333 



tempted to pick it up, it turned to 
a serpent and bit them. 

To find the unlucky one among 
a number of people, count "Onery, 
twory» zachery zen, hoUowbone, 
crackerbone» willberry, waxstone, 
tollaway, tan"; the one on whom 
falls the last word, is the unlucky 
one. Another count for the same 
purpose, is: "Izort, twozort, zig- 
zort, zal, bobtail, a domineeker, tee, 
taw, tal, virgum Mary, halem, sca- 
lem, zinktum, zanktum, buck, spur, 
Tom, drive the nail, good old 
man.** 

"Fate steals along with silent tread, 
Found oftenest in what least we dread; 
Frown in the storm with angry brow 
Bat in the sunshine strikes the blow." 

(Cowper.) 

In some parts of France, it is 
usual to tap the forearm thrice in 
order to avert a bad omen, when a 
person has been speaking of his or 
her good health or good fortune. 

If you boast of a thing, you are 
tore to lose it This is what was 
meant by "cursing by loud praise," 
the same as "damning with faint 
praise." 

It is lucky to carry a hoodoo-bag 
containing the hind-leg of a grave- 
vard rabbit, seven hairs from the 
bead of a black baby, lizard's 
teeth, and twenty grains of earth, 
taken from a grave at midnight, 
under a piece of skin of a black 
snake. 

In Greece in ancient times, to be 
the possessor of a Gorgon's face, 
was to be provided with a charm 
against ills; many hundred of these 
bees worked in thin gold and in- 
tended to be stitched on garments, 
were found in a tomb of a priestess 
of Demeter in Kertch. 

It happens very often that when 
yoo are speaking of any person, he 
she will appear; or, as the prov- 
go: "Speaking about the fox. 



he will appear behind the hedge"; 
'Speak of an angel, and you hear 
the rustling of its wings"; "Speak 
of the devil, and you will see his 
hoofs and horns." 

"St«re I said my prayers, rose on my 

right side, 
Washed my hands and eyes, put on my 

girdle last; 
Sure I met no splay-foot baker. 
Nor hare did cross me, nor no bearded 

witch. 
Nor other ominous sign." 

(Shakespeare.) 

The Scythians and Thracians 
threw every evening a white pebble 
into an urn, if the day had been an 
agreeable one; and a black pebble, 
if it had not; so that, after their 
death, their relatives could count 
the pebbles and see whether the 
life had been happy or unhappy. 

If you boast of never having had 
a certain misfortune occur to you, 
it will soon happen, unless you rap 
your knuckles at once on wood or 
underneath the table three times, 
or say, "I do not mean to boast." 
If you congratulate yourself on 
your good health or upon any other 
blessing, that blessing will leave 
you, sometimes as soon as twenty- 
four hours. It is always unfortu- 
nate, to praise your own luck. It at 
once deserts you. Nothing has as 
yet been found to counteract this 
law, for it b a law. 

Sick people will drink, with per- 
fect faith in its potency, water in 
which a piece of paper armed with 
words from the Koran, is soaking; 
and little bags with equally effica- 
cious scraps, are worn at the throat 
as charms. 

Among the familiar Turkish su- 
perstitions in daily use, is the cus- 
tom of leaving some small defect 
or unfinished part in every work, 
some slight irregularity in design 
or pattern, as it is unlucky and evil 
for man to assume the power of 



1534 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



bringing anything to perfection, as 
perfection is an attribute of the Al- 
mighty. 

"He that will not when he may, 
When he will he shall have nay." 

"Who seeks and will not take when 

once 'tis offered. 
Shall never find it more." 
(Shakespeare, Antony and Qeopatra, 

il. 2.) 

There used to be a magic powder 
called "sympathy powder," which 
is frequently alluded to in old 
works, about 300 years ago. **I 
have sympathy powder about me, 
and if you will give me your hand 
while the blood is warm, it will cure 
it immediately." (Sedley.) 

Every Indian who has come of 
age, has some especial, personal 
way of propitiating the evil one, 
and their superstitions are remark- 
ably individual; as one man will 
not allow certain meats to be cook- 
ed for him, while another thinks 
it is no bad luck for him; or one 
t man will not allow a loaded weap- 
on in his lodge, as being tmlucky, 
while the other has no such idea. 
One of the reasons why the Indian 
is so stolid and will not make a sign 
even under torture, is because he 
believes if he cries out, the charm 
of luck which comes with bearing 
pain silently will be broken, and he 
will lose his good luck. To bear 
it without a murmur, placates his 
evil divinity. 

Among the Tasmanians, a girdle 
of human hair, with a netted string 
from the root of the bulrush, is the 
most efficacious charm. 

The scrapings from a bone and 
a skull are great protections from 
evil in Tasmania. 

Spurgeon's definition of luck 
was: "I never had any faith in 
luck, except to believe that good 
luck will carry a man over a ditch 
if he jumps well, and will put a bit 



of bacon in his pot if he looks after 
his garden and keeps a pig." 

In the Middle Ages, people 
seemed to fall to the depths of 
ignorance, and believed that some 
could sail ships in the air for the 
purpose of collecting treasures that 
had flown up in the clouds, and so 
deeply rooted was this idea among 
the pec^le, that in 833, Agobert, 
the bishop of Lyons, had the great- 
est difficulty in rescuing from the 
fury of the mob, three men and a 
woman who were supposed to fall 
to the earth from such a ship. 

In the Isle of Man, an inscription 
was found under a cross, which the 
priest wrote out for the pec^le. It 
read : "Fear God, obey the Priest- 
hood, do by your neighbor as you 
would have him do by you. Who- 
ever has this about him shall be 
successful in all business, defended 
from witchcraft, evil tongues, and 
all eff(Hts of the devil or his agents, 
and a woman wearing this upon her 
bosom, if she expects a little child, 
shall by no means be disappoint- 
ed." 

"There is a tide in the affairs of men 
Which, taken at the flood, lead on to 

fortune; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries." 
(Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, iv., 3.) 

"Rabbi Jochannan and Rabbi 
Simeon Ben Lachish were anxious 
about a friend Rabbi Samuel, 
hundred miles distant on the E 
phrates. Whilst talking eamestl 
together on this subject in Pal 
tine, they passed a school ; and the 
paused to listen; it was a chil 
reading the first book of Samue 
and the words which they cau 
were these — *And Samuel 





These words they received hum 
and sorrowfully as a Bath-col 
the daughter voice; and the n 
horseman from the East brou 
word accordingly that Rabbi Sa 




1336 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



^^ffVf >t would bring good fortune 
to repeat to himself the twenty- 
four letters of the alphabet before 
he spokt a word. 

It is unlucky for the scepter to 
fall out of the hand of a piece of 
statuary representing noble or 
royal persons. It has frequently 
happened, and always been follow- 
ed by disaster to the house. 

The credulous Hindu notes care- 
fully every occurrence in the morn- 
ing, for the sights that meet his 
eye, the sounds that greet his ear, 
and the living creatures which 
cross his path, forebode much of 
the success or failure of the day's 
undertakings. 

Lord Bacon believed that, if a 
man wore a *'planet-seal," it would 
give him aid in his love affairs, pro- 
tection at sea and battle, and make 
him courageous. 

In the Roman Catholic church, 
a cake of wax is stamped with the 
figure of a lamb supporting the 
banner of the cross. It is conse- 
crated by the pope, and is supposed 
to possess great virtues, in being a 
safeguard, a cure, to ward off evil, 
and save from sorrow. It is called 
the "Agnus Dei" ("Lamb of God"). 

A fetich, like a sharp instnmient, 
if unskilfully used, or if applied 
otherwise than in strict accordance 
with the advice of the priest, may 
be the ruin of the very man who 
has procured it for the destruction 
of someone else. 

If a man, while wearing a fetich, 
has some wonderful escape from 
danger, or has some good luck in 
trade, he always attributes it to the 
influence of the charm he wears, 
and values it accordingly. 

The approaching doom of Calig- 
ula was indicated by many pre- 
sages. The capitol at Capua was 



struck by lightning upon the ides 
of March; as was also the apart- 
ment of the chief porter of Palati- 
um at Rome. Some construed the 
latter event as a presage that the 
master was in danger from his own 
guards, who indeed afterwards as- 
sassinated him. The other was re- 
garded as a sign that an illustrious 
person would be cut off, as had oc- 
curred in the case of Julius Caesar. 

The Duke of Alva thought it a 
good omen to build a bridge for his 
enemies. Count de Tartillan said 
it was so lucky he would make a 
bridge of gold for his flying ene- 
mies. Louis XI. said: "One 
should not spare a bridge (A silver 
to chase his enemy/' so fortunate 
did he believe it 

On gem talismans of Egypt, the 
intention of the amulet is frequent- 
ly fully expressed, as "Nika o ca- 
pattic ton o oonon," "Baffle the evil 
eye, O Serapisl" the bust of Sera- 
pis, the sun-god, being engraved 
thereon. The king of Cyprus, hav- 
ing asked the god of his nature, 
Serapis replied: 

"A god I am such as I show to thee: 
The starry heavens my head, my tmnk 

the Sea, 
Earth forms my feet, mine ears the Air 

supplies. 
The Sun's far-darting, brilliant rays, my 

eyes." 

A few days before Tiberius left- 
Rhodes, an eagle, a bird that 
never seen in that country 
perched on the top of his house 
and the day before he received in 
telligence of the permission grant 
ed him to return to Rome, as h^ 
was changing his dress, it appearei^ 
to be all on fire. (Suetonius.) 




A girl will have as many 
after marriage as she has "hold 
given her before marriage, 
holder is a stuffed square of pate 
work or cloth, intended for rais 
hot kettles from the fire, or 




1338 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



that would work against the en- 
emy. 

If, in the morning, there is a 
plain print of a foot leading from 
the door, a death in the family may 
be expected. But if a strange foot- 
print leads to the door, a birth will 
occur. 

The ignohuit natives of Africa 
have had for ages the idea that any 
instrument which has caused death 
to a human being, is possessed of 
supernatural powers, which can be 
utilized by the possessor. Hence 
their desire to procure swords, 
rope, pieces of the scaffold, etc 

When Achilles was tormented 
and sad for the loss of his dear 
friend Patroclus, his mother Thetis 
brought him a most elaborate and 
curious buckler made by Vulcan, 
in which were engraven sun, moon, 
stars, planets, sea, land, men fight- 
ing, women scolding, hills, dales, 
towns, castles, which so diverted 
and healed his mind that he arose, 
himself again. 

Ulrich Jahn, the German author- 
ity on amulets, says: "There are 
little tortoises made of bronze, of 
precious stones and of amber, 
sometimes with other amulets 
hang^g on a necklace so that the 
meaning of the tortoise as an amu- 
let cannot be doubted." The appli- 
cation of tortoises on amulets is 
based on the ancient belief, authen- 
ticated by Pliny, that the tortoise is 
a most efficient remedy for many 
diseases; in fact, Pliny enumerates 
no less than sixty-six remedies in 
which the tortoise plays a promi- 
nent part 

It is believed by all faithful Ma- 
hometans that God has a written 
table called the "preserved table," 
of every event past, present, and 
to come, from the beginning of the 
world to the end of it Each event, 



no matter how minute or unimpor- 
tant, comes along in its regular 
order. Nothing is omitted, and 
everything happens as written in 
the "preserved table," the "book of 
fate." 

In Natal, a charm used to be 
made by boiling sorrel with mealies 
(maize), or mixing it with mealie- 
porridge and boiled pumpkin. The 
mixture was churned until it froth- 
ed, and was drunk off by the per- 
son to be acted upon. It had the 
immediate effect of an emetic, and 
it is supposed that the evil spirit 
went forth too. This charm was 
used for catching wildcats, enticing 
persons to love, and for making 
witch-doctors. 

The Chinese have sacred fruits, 
as green nutmeg, two slices of 
cocoanut,some saponaceous leaves, 
slippery elm, and sassafras, arrang- 
ed into little packets. These are 
made fresh every day and eaten, 
to secure good luck. 

The ordinary amulets of the Si- 
amese are composed of gold and 
silver beads, strung on a thread that 
has been blessed by the "bonze," or 
priest, or of small metallic plates 
on which mysterious characters are 
engraved, 

Charles the Great, as Platina 
writes, had three fair silver tables, 
in one of which superficies was a 
large map of Constantinople, in the 
second Rome, and in the third an 
exquisite description of the whole 
world; and so much delight he took 
in them that they would drive away 
his humors and keep him in a state 
of health. 

In Braganza, Portugal, it is a 
good omen to carry a coin with a 
cross on it, for they say, if one dies 
suddenly, it is not only an evidence 
that the person is a Christian and 
may be buried in holy ground, but 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



XS39 



it also serves for St Peter at 
heaven's gates. A person wearing 
such a coin can enter, even if he 
or she did not receive the last sac- 
rament 

A paper with the following 
charm was found on the body of a 
man named Jackson, a smuggler 
and a murderer, who died in Chich- 
ester gaol in 1749, and who car- 
ried it in a linen purse: 

"Yc three Holy kings, 
Caspar, Melchior, Balthasar, 
Pray for us now and in the hour of our 
death." 

These papers, having touched the 
heads of the three kings of Co- 
logne, were supposed to preserve 
travelers from accidents on the 
roads, falling sickness, fevers and 
sudden death. 

The luck of Eden Hall : Hutch- 
inson, in his "History of Cumber- 
land," speaking of Eden Hall, says: 
"In this house, are some old fash- 
ioned apartments. An old painted 
drinking glass, called the **Luck of 
Eden Hall/' is preserved with great 
care. In the garden, near to the 
house, is a well of excellent spring 
water, called St Cuthbert's well. 
The glass is supposed to have been 
a sacred chalice, but the legendary 
tale is, that the butler, going to 
draw water, surprised a company 
of fairies, who were amusing them- 
selves upon the green near the 
well. He seized the glass which 
was standing upon its margin ; they 
tried to get it from him, but after 
an ineffectual struggle flew away, 
singing: 

If that glass either break or fall. 
Farewell the luck of Eden hall. 

A pocketbook which the unfor- 
tunate Duke of Monmouth kept 
carefully as an amulet, was taken 
from him at the time of his arrest, 
and is now in the British Museum. 
It contains spells, charms, and con- 



jurations written by the duke partly 
in an abbreviated form, also some 
astrological rules in French for 
finding out anything required, to- 
gether with an explanatory wheel, 
dated 1680. 

If you ever have an opportunity, 
do not fail to study the wonderful 
Persian amulets with gold inscrip- 
tions inlaid or carved upon them, 
usually the name of Allah, or a sen- 
tence from the Koran or Persian 
poet It is lucky to even look upon 
them. 

A ring with a council of ravens, 
prophetic birds, or crows engraved 
on it, was an amulet of conjugal 
fidelity. 

Cato one morning met a friend 
who seemed to be in trouble, and 
who said he was afraid some evil 
was about to happen to him, for 
when he woke up in the morning, 
he saw a mouse gnawing his shoe. 
"Calm yourself," replied Cato. 
"The prodigy would indeed have 
been frightful if the shoe had been 
gnawing the mouse I" 

"How superstitiously we mind oar evilsf 
The throwing down of salt or crossing 

of a hare, 
Bleeding at nose, the stumbling of a 

horse. 
Or singing of a cricket are of power 
To daunt whole man in us I" 

A charm and spell to place in the 
garments of evil-doers : 

"Whoever thou art that meanest me ill. 
As the river of Jordan did, stand thou 

still. 
When our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Was baptiaxd therein, in the name of 

the Father and the Holy Ghost." 

An old woman in Wales died at 
the age of one hundred and twenty. 
As she was dying, she bequeathed 
to Queen Elizabeth a gold piece 
the size of an '*angel," and said that 
as long as she wore the charm she 
could not die. The queen, who 
was very superstitious, gladly ac- 



I340 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



cepted the charm and hung it about 
her neck; but is said to have lost it 
later. 

A charm against the evil effects 
of a drink that is forespoken or be- 
witched: 

"Three bitters thou hast bitten, 
The heart, ill eye, ill tongue; 
Three bitters shall be thy boots, 
A' God's namel 
Fiv€ Pater nosters, five aves, and a 

creed, 
In worship of the five wounds of our 

Lord." 

We read in the old French 
chronicles that Gonderband, King 
of Burgundy in the fifth century, 
sought as an amulet St Sergius' 
thumb, which, being fastened to 
the arm of a certain king in the 
East, had made him always victori- 
ous; not succeeding in this, he by 
force obtained a piece of the saint's 
finger. 

L. T. L. K. H. B. K. N. K. pro- 
nounced in the name of the Father, 
the Son and the Holy Ghost, is a 
charm, and whoever wears it needs 
have no fear of thieves, murderers, 
swords or firearms, nor injury 
from storm, fire, water or the evil 
one. 

Park, in his "Travels in the In- 
terior of Africa," speaks of amulets 
called "Saphies," which are prayers 
or sentences from the Koran, 
which the Mohammedan priests 
write on scraps of paper. Some 
wear them as a protection from the 
bite of snakes or alligators, and on 
such occasions, snake's skin or skin 
of alligator is wrapped up with the 
writing. The "saphie" is tied 
around the ankle. 

Thumb-rings have always been 
used as "mascots" for luck, and not 
only by the uneducated or super- 
stitious! A massive gold ring was 
found upon the thumb of the skel- 
eton of the Bishop of Chichester, 
who died in 1169; and the recum- 



bent effigy of Bishop Oldham in 
Elxeter cadiedral, is remarkable for 
the pressed thumbs being enclosed 
by a single ring. 

The learned Dr. Warburton is 
evidently wrong when he assig^ns 
the origin of magical amulets to the 
age of the Ptolemies, which was 
not more than three hundred years 
before Christ; for Galen tells us 
that the Egryptian king Nechepsus, 
who lived six hundred years before 
the Christian era, had written that 
a green jasper, cut into the form of 
a dragon surrounded with rays, if 
applied externally, would strength- 
en the stomach and organs of di- 
gestion. We have, moreover, the 
authority of the Scriptures in sup- 
port of this opinion, as the ear- 
rings which Jacob buried under the 
oak of Sechem, as related in Gene- 
sis, are nothing else but amulets. 

The Winnebagoes believe in a 
magic animal, and Little Hill, one 
of file chiefs, has made a drawing 
of it He is of the upper Missis- 
sippi. He says that the animal is 
seldom seen; that it is only seen by 
medicine men after long fasting. 
He has a piece of bone which he 
asserts was taken from this animaL 
He considers it a potent medicine, 
and uses it by scraping or filing a 
small piece into water. He has 
also a small piece of copper, which 
he uses in the same manner, and 
entertains like belief in its sover- 
eign virtues. (Mallery, "Picture 
Writing of the American Indians.") 

The Apache Indians, both men 
and women, wear amulets which 
are called tzi-dalta, bits of wood 
taken from a tree riven by light- 
ning, and cut very thin into the 
rude semblance of a man. The 
owner of this inestimable treastu^ 
prays to it in all times of trouble^, 
learns from it where his stol 
ponies are, finds out which way 




1342 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



A ring studded with diamonds 
and pearls hangs suspended by a 
silken cord around the neck of a 
statue in one of the most frequent- 
ed parks in Madrid. It is safer 
there than in one of the strongest 
rooms^of the Bank of England. 
Thousands of people pass it every 
day and admire its beauty, but the 
greatest thief in Spain hesitates to 
touch it. It is believed to deal out 
death to whom it belongs. The 
ring was especially made for the 
late King Alfonso XII., who gave 
it to his cousin Mercedes on 
the day of their betrothal. She 
died. Upon her death, it passed 
into the possession of the king's 
grandmother, Queen Christina. 
Three months afterwards she died. 
The king passed on the deadly 
band of gold to his sister. She died 
a month after she received it The 
king then placed it in his own cas- 
ket of precious relics, and he lived 
less than a year. 

Wolf-fish teeth and other grind- 
ing teeth, called "Bufonite" or 
"toad stones," were formerly much 
esteemed for their imaginary vir- 
tues, and were set in gold and worn 
as rings. Thomas Lupton tells us 
that "you shall know whether the 
ad-stone be the right or perfect 
stone or not. Hold the stone be- 
fore the toad, so that he may see 
it; and, if it be a right and true 
stone, the toad will leap toward it, 
and make as though he would 
snatch it, he envieth so much that 
man should have that stone." (The 
bufonite is a roundish tooth of a 
fossil fish, found in the oolite for- 
mation.) 

It was a general belief among 
the mountain dwellers of the 
Basque provinces of Spain, that the 
left hand of a child, severed during 
sleep, and wrapped around with 
the child's own curls, became a val- 



uable amulet which would deliver 
them from every kind of danger, 
and with which philters of different 
properties could be made. This 
rude belief still exists in the moun- 
tains of Rongal, although examples 
are unknown of this cruel mutila- 
tion ever having been affected un- 
less by the artifice of gipsies or 
Jews. It was also believed that the 
blood of children was useful for 
invigorating the weak bodies of 
women. (Marianda Monteiro, Leg- 
ends of the Basque People.) 

In 1892, Mr. William Smith, a 
grocer at Naples, while in the 
course of cleaning his house, took 
down from the valance-board an 
object which he handed to Mr. 
Rolfe, knowing he took an interest 
in such things. It consisted of an 
ordinary Neapolitan green lemon, 
into which twenty-four clout-head- 
ed nails and half a dozen wire nails 
were stuck, the nails being secured 
by a twisted string around their 
heads. Many stories are current of 
witches using such things for in- 
cantation. The man declared that 
after the thing was made by the 
witches, they put it in a brazier and 
danced around it naked, thus giv- 
ing it its deadly power. 

Among the Arabs, the amulet, 
"El Hazeem," generally takes the 
form of a small leather pouch, tied 
just above the elbow. It is said 
to insure the wearer from evil spir- 
its, or bad or vicious thoughts. Its 
use is confined to boys and youths^ 
before they are yet old enough tc^ 
have formed their character. The^ 
pouch contains a few slips from th 
Koran. After being once sewn up 
the pouch is never opened, as tha 
would dissipate the charm. An 
other form o^ the hazeem is an iro 
ring, welded on just above th 
right elbow. This is worn b 
adults, and in contrast to the chi 




1344 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



orig^inate with one who has had a 
vision of dream, in which the mys- 
tery object was manifested. There 
are mysterious bags and sacred 
stone arrows, clubs, and the like, 
all possessing supernatural power 
to s^ide, g^ard, render invulnera- 
ble, or cast "bad" medicine on an 
enemy. In some of the bags are 
sacred stones, which the warriors 
rub over themselves before going 
to war, to prevent their being killed 
or wounded. 

The Iowa Indians claim to have 
a mysterious object by which they 
try men or make them swear to 
speak the truth. This mysterious 
iron or stone had not been gazed 
upon within the recollection of any 
man living in 1848. It was wrap- 
ped in seven skins. No woman 
was allowed to even see the outer 
covering, and Mr. Hamilton was 
told he would die if he looked at 
it High rocks are supposed by 
the low^ to be the dwelling place 
of the gods. They also think that 
human beings may become gods 
and are thus like the Mormons. 

There is a distinct branch of the 
science of portents and predictions 
in India, called *'Cheshta," which is 
so old as to be almost beyond the 
records of history. It is the inter- 
pretation of casual words, appear- 
ances, actions, and incidents, to 
predict something of note which 
will occur in the future. History 
tells us that belief in Cheshta has 
been universal, and that some of 
the greatest men of the world 
were guided by it, receiving its in- 
dications as coming from a higher 
intelligence; just as to this day al- 
most everybody not only believes 
more or less in current or tradi- 
tional signs and omens of some 
kind or another, but very frequent- 
ly construes certain occurrences to 
be of some particular significance 
in his individual case. 



"Good luck is the gayest of all gay girls. 
Long in one place she will not stay. 
Back from her brow she strokes her 

curls 
Kisses you quick and flies away. 
But Madam bad luck soberly comes 
And stays: no fancy has she for flitting: 
Snatches of true love songs she hums 
And sits by your bed and brings her 

knitting." 
Gohn Hay [From the German.]) 

"In the most high and palmy state of 

Rome 
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell. 
The graves stood tenantless and the 

sheeted dead 
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman 

streets. 
As stars with trains of fire and dews of 

blood. 
Disasters in the sun; and the moist star 
Upon whose influence Neptune's empire 

stands 
Was sick almost to doomsday with 

eclipse; 
And even the like precurse of fierce 

events, 
As harbingers preceding still the fates 
And prologue to the om«n coming on. 
Have heaven and earth together demon- 
strated 
Unto our climatures and countrymen." 
(Shakespeare, Hamlet, .L, i.) 

The pagans (A Madagascar be- 
lieve in charms, and few people 
surpass them in credulity of ghosts, 
witches and apparitions. Almost 
everything is a g^d. A book is a 
god; a deceased human being 
is a god; velvet is the son of 
god, and silk is god in the highest. 
They think lying and cheating very- 
light offenses compared to step- 
ping on a grave, and would not do^ 
it for any money, as it would bringf' 
them such bad luck. They will 
run after a fowl or a wildcat, fo 
bad luck would result, 
clan has its idols, and every famil 
its charm. It is an evil omen, if 
stranger approaches their house 
and no stranger should be permi 
ted to see their idol. If it is take — 
out, it is placed in a covering of r 
cloth and elevated on a pole, a 
the people are not permitted 
gaze upon it, as that would ma 






1346 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The appearance of the "bloody 
hand" on armorial bearings is as- 
cribed to the fact that some an- 
cestor of the person on whose 
shield it appears had committed 
some dreadful murder, and he and 
his ancestors were compelled to 
bear it as a punishment for the 
deed. The Herberts, of Powis 
Castle, in Montgomeryshire, have 
on their carriages the emblem 
of a bloody hand, with which 
is connected the legend that 
one of their ancestors had com- 
mitted some great crime; but 
every generation was allowed to 
paint it one shade darker, and 
when in course of years it became 
the same color as the rest of the 
carriage, then the punishment was 
to end. It is said that at different 
times members of the family tried 
to paint this ominous emblem out, 
but every time when the coachman 
went into the coach-house on the 
following morning, there it was 
again, as fresh and red as ever. 

A fetich is a material thing, 
either living or dead, which is made 
the object of superstitious worship. 
It is a sorcery, a charm, often 
casually selected and believed in by 
those of the lowest mental endow- 
ment 

The Egyptians carried claws, 
fangs, roots, and stones, called 
fetiches, as a preventive of ill luck. 

Urganda war-fetiches consisted 
of dead lizards, bits of wood, hides, 
nails of dead people, claws of ani- 
mals and beaks of birds. 

The Jews believed that the phy- 
lacteries would avert all evil and 
drive away demons. Phylacteries 
are charms or amulets consisting 
of scrolls upon which Scripture- 
texts were inscribed. They were 
enclosed in black calfskin cases, 
which had thongs for binding them 



on the forehead or around the left 
arm. 

The phylactery worn by the Jew- 
ish priest was considered not only 
as a remembrancer of God, but also 
as a protection against demons. 

The Hebrew word for talisman,, 
magan, signifies a paper or other 
material, drawn or engraved with 
the letters composing the sacred 
name of Jehovah, and improperly 
applied to astrological representa- 
tions, because, like the letters 
composing the "incommunicable 
name," they were supposed to be a 
preventive of sickness and danger 
from tempest, fire, lightning, and 
sudden death. The Hindus use the 
word aum or om as the representa- 
tive of what they say cannot be 
pronounced, and it has the same 
efficacy. 

The Hebrew talisman : "It over- 
flowed, he did cast darts, Shadai is 
all sufficient, his hand is strong, he 
is the preserver of my life in all its 
variations," will keep one from all 
evil. 

If you wish to own a stick which 
will preserve you from robbers and 
wild beasts, take a thick and 
straight branch of elder and, after 
extracting the pith, put a ferrule 
on the end. Then substitute for 
the pith, the eyes of a wolf, the 
tongue and the heart of a dog, 
three green lizards, and the hearts 
of three swallows, all of them re- 
duced to powder by the heat of the 
sun between two papers sprinkled 
with saltpetre. On the top of this 
powder place seven leaves of ver- 
vain, gathered on the eve of St- 
John the Baptist, together with th^ 
stone of divers colors (opal), whicfo 
is found in the nest of the lapwing" 
and then put whatever kind of 
knob or handle on the stick yo 
may fancy. Whatever you strik 
with this stick becomes powerless 




I54S 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



have been possessed by the legend- 
ary Rustem. It is called Mer- 
zoum, and has the reputation of 
making conspirators immediately 
confess. When the shah's brother 
was accused of treason some years 
since, the star was shown him, and, 
terrified and overcome by remorse, 
he avowed his iniquities. 

The next important talisman is a 
cube (A amber, which fell from 
heaven in Mohammed's time. It is 
supposed to render the shah invul- 
nerable, and he wears it about his 
neck. 

Another is a little box of gold, 
set in emeralds, and blessed by the 
Prophet. It renders the royal fam- 
ily invisible as long as they are 
celibates. The shah had, however, 
numerous wives before it came 
into his possession. 

Another is a diamond set in one 
of his scimitars, which renders its 
possessor invincible; and there is 
also a dagger with the same prop- 
erty, but it is ordained that those 
who use it should perish by it It 
is, therefore, carefully shut up in a 
sandalwood box, on which is en- 
graved a verse of the Koran. 

Petrarch, the Italian poet, men- 
tions a curious superstition which 
he witnessed during a visit to Co- 
logne. To the banks of the Rhine 
came large numbers of comely, ele- 
gantly dressed women, crowned 
with flowers, wearing cheerful 
countenances, and gcwng to the 
edge of the river, bathed their 
hands and arms in its flowing wa- 
ters. While doing this, they repeat- 
ed certain harmonious phrases. 
Thus impending calamities were 
washed away and blessings substi- 
tuted by these ablutions. This cer- 
emony was annually renewed. 

There is a little drawing or 
image among the Indians, called 
Muzzin-ne-neen ; the same name is 



applicable to the little fig^es of a 
man or woman, and is sometimes 
rudely traced on birch bark or in 
other instances carefully carved in 
wood. These little images are 
greatly used by all the Algonquin 
tribes. Their use is magic, and 
not confined to bunting, but ex- 
tends to the making of love, and 
the gratification of revenge and all 
malignant passions. It is a prevail- 
ing belief that the necromancers or 
those acquainted with the hidden 
powers of their "wusks," can, by 
practicing upon the muzzin-ne- 
neen, exercise an unlimited con- 
trol over the body and mind of the 
person represented. Many a sim- 
ple Indian girl gives to some crafty 
old squaw her most valued orna- 
ments, or whatever property she 
may possess, to purchase the love 
of the man she is most anxious to 
please. The old woman, in a case 
of this kind, commonly makes up 
a little image of stained wood and 
rags, to which she gives the name 
of the person whose inclinations 
she is expected to control; and to 
the heart and eyes, or to some 
other part of this, she from time to 
time applies her medicines, or pro- 
fesses to have done so, as she may 
find it necessary to dupe her em- 
ployer. To gratify revenge, the 
image is pricked with pins, as in 
the old Salem witch days, or the 
mouth is blackened, to indicate the 
near approach of death. There is 
an evident similarity, almost iden- 
tity, of these practices with those 
of Europe in the Middle Ages. 

In Italy, amulets are worn n 
so much to protect against evil, ^ 
for good luck, and as such in^ 
dentally worked against malefic ^ 
fluences. 

Professor Bellucci, of Penx'^ 
has a large collection of Italian ^ __ 
ulets, many of which were obtai-^^^ined 




uot 
as 
id- 
ia- 

gia, 
am- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



S349 



from drarches and shrines where 
they had been offered by the peas- 
ants as their most precious posses- 
sion. Others were discovered in 
the foundations of buildings, where 
they had been placed to preserve 
the structure against thunder. 

The collection comprises many 
chipped arrow-points, correspond- 
ing with those of prehistoric times. 
They are set in a rim of silver or 
iron with a ring, or inclosed in a 
little bag, often with other amulets, 
for suspension from the neck. The 
ancient flints from the wheel-lock 
guns of the fifteenth, sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries also serve as 
safeguards against thunder. 

Also "wart money," which re- 
moves warts, one specimen of 
which is an old Byzantine piece and 
the other a modem Neapolitan 
coin. Keys appear to be regarded 
as especially efficacious as charms, 
and in addition to the practical keys 
of iron, miniature keys are manu- 
factured in silver, to which particu- 
lar virtues are attributed. 

In addition to the contemporary 
Italian amulets, Prcrfessor Bellucd 
has formed a large collection of 
early and prehistoric charms from 
various sites in Italy. Many of his 
recent amulets appear to find their 
prototypes in these relics of Rome 
and Etruria. 

A large number of stones in the 
collection were used against wiz- 
ards, of which one at least was re- 
garded as also efficacious against 
the evil eye. Also many serpent- 
stones, as a protection against ani- 
nnl bites; kidney-6tones (jadeite 
pebbles), as charms against pains 
in the loins; blood-stones, to stop 
bleeding; milk-stones, as an aid to 
the secretion of milk; thunder- 
itones, etc., etc., are to be found in 
his interesting collection. 

A most valuable collection oi 

jnerican and foreign amulets. 



gems, charms, implements of divi- 
nation, objects used in religious 
ceremonies, etc., etc., in this coun- 
try, is Professor Maxwell Som- 
merville's collection in the Archae- 
ological Museum of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pL 

From "Folk Prayers," by S. Bar- 
mg Gould, in the "Sunday Maga- 
zine," Dec, 1894, we cull the fol- 
lowing: A charm prayer is called 
the "white paternoster," and it is 
complained of in White's "Way to 
the True Church," London, 1G24, 
as "a mass of prodigious igno- 
rance" used by his parishioners. 

"White paternoster! St Peter's brother. 
What hast i' th' ooe hand? White book 

leaves. 
What hast i' th' tother hand? Heaven 

gate keys. 
Open heaven gates and strike hell gates. 
And let every crysan child creep to Its 

mother. 
White paternoster. Amen.** 

These white paternosters are in 
use in France and England, among 
the peasantry. 

"Pat^r d'habitude. 

Our Saviour salute usf 

He is at our head, he is at oar feet 

He is now and he is after. 

He is in the bed where I lie. 

Five angels there I find. 

Three at bottom two at head; 

And the mother of God in the oridstl 

She bids roe sleep so sound. 

Never fear nor flames nor fire. 

Nor any sudden death at alL 

I take our Saviour as my father. 

The Virgin Mary as my mother. 

St. John for my cousin, 

St. Michael for my sponsor. 

There are god-parents four. 

Whatever haps, whatever befalls. 

I shall go to Paradise.'' 

The "Qercy Prayer" is called the 
"Barbe-Dieu." It runs thus: ''Tlie 
Barbe of God. Who knows it and 
savs it not will lose his soul. There 
behind thee lies a plank, a little 
plank, that's long, not broad. The 
elect pass over it. The lost fall 
from it and cry and groan, falling 
into the abyss of hell. Learn the 



1350 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Barbe of God at seven years old. 
There is no time for repentance 
when parted are body and soul." 
This is a "dirge-prayer-charm," 
like the Lykewake dirge found in 
Aubrey's MSS., and first published 
by Sir Walter Scott 

The painting of a hand on the 
houses in Algiers, Tunis, and other 
oriental countries, is not wholly a 
Jewish custom, but is common to 
the natives of all. It is always an 
emblem of good luck, and in Syria, 
also in Naples, is a charm against 
the "evU eye." 

Hands arranged in the form of a 
branch are merely an aesthetic 
form of the charm. The reason the 
Jews paint hands on their walls at 
the time of the passover is because 
at that season of the year their 
houses are renovated inside and 
out, and the hand will protect them 
from adverse influences. The hand 
charm is used by the Phoenicians, 
and that it occurs on votive altars 
at Carthage is not surprising, as it 
is common in neighboring towns 
and cities. Hands are painted on 
the walls of St Sophia at Constan- 
tinople, and they are frequent all 
over India. They are even found 
in some parts of Ireland, showing 
a very diffused belief in the effica- 
cy of this human emblem to push 
away and combat trouble and evil. 

A^side from the hand, or some- 
times in connection therewith, 
there seems also the phallus to 
have been used as a safeguard 
against the evil eye, and three 
grouped together and carved on 
the comers of buildings are fre- 
quently seen in the Sabine terri- 
tory of Zerni. 

Sculptured phalluses have been 
found in Pompeii, which were 
either worshipped as an emblem of 
fecundity, or else, like those above 
mentioned, were used as talismans 



towardoffeviL Phallus is a figure 
of the male generative organ, used, 
especially in the Orient, as a re- 
ligious symbol of the generative 
power of nature. In ancient 
Greece, it was borne in the Bacchic 
processions; in old Rome, where it 
was a symbol of Priapus, the god 
of fecundity, it was erected in his 
honor, in gardens, fields, and vine- 
yards. 

One of the most remarkable 
charms now or very lately in use in 
Lanarkshire, for the cure of illness 
in cattle, is a talisman of g^eat an- 
tiquity, still preserved at Lee, a 
gentleman's house in that country, 
and popularly known as the "Lee 
Penny." The following account of 
this ancient talisman is given in the 
Picture of Scotland, by R. Cham- 
bers: 

''Simon Locard oi Lee accom- 
panied the good Sir James Doug- 
las to Palestine (in the fourteenUi 
century), bearing the heart oi King 
Robert Bruce enclosed in a lock^ 
case, on which ^account his name 
was changed to Lockhart, and he 
obtained for his armorial bearings 
a heart attached to a lock. Engag- 
ing in the wars of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, this hero, who, at the death 
of Douglas in Spain, became the 
leader of the mission, had the good 
fortune to make a Saracen of rank 
his prisoner. The lady of the war- 
rior came to pay his ransom, and 
was counting out the money, when 
she happened to drop from her 
purse a small jewel, which she im — -, 
mediately hastened to pick up wi 
an air of careful solicitude, 
hart eagerly inquired the nature ^ 
the jewel, and learning that it 
a medicatory talisman, refused 
deliver up his captive, until it 
added to the sum previously sti. 
lated. The lady was obliged^ 
comply, and Simon brougta. 




th 
of 



to 



u- 
to 
it 



i^Sa 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



cause. In this, as in all similar 
traditions, the testimony is defec- 
tive, every circumstance unfavora- 
ble to the superstition being sup- 
pressed (Chambers' Informati(Xi 
for the People.) 

The medicine sack or bag of the 
Apache medicine man contains the 
"hoddentin," or powdered tule, 
which closely resembles the "bul- 
lae" of the Romans. In the dances 
for the benefit of the sick, this sa- 
cred and magical powder is sprin- 
kled in the form of a cross on the 
breast, then in a circle around his 
couch, then upon the heads of the 
chanters and their sympathizing 
friends, and lastly upon their own 
heads and in their mouths. They 
put a pinch of it on their tongues, 
when worn out with fatigue, to re- 
store strength. When one has 
been wounded, they throw some of 
the powder in front of the wounded 
man's horse as he goes, so it will 
be easier for him. 

"When Apaches go on the war- 
path, hunt, or plant, they always 
throw a pinch of hoddentin to the 
sun, saying: 'With the favor of the 
sun I am going out to fight, hunt, 
or plant,' as the case may be, 'and 
I want the sun to help me.' " 

When an Apache dies, hodden- 
tin is sprinkled upon the corpse. 
The very first thing an Apache 
does is to blow a little pinch of the 
powder to the dawn in the morn- 
ing when he wakes. He worships 
both dawn and darkness, as well as 
the sun, moon, and several of the 
planets. 

The Navajo, Tusayan, Pueblo, 
Zuni, and other Indians, all use the 
yellow powder with its healing, 
curing, worshipping qualities, and 
its power to strengthen the tired 
and weary, help the headache and 
otherwise bring good fortune and 
luck to the people. At the corona- 



tions of their kings, the Aztecs had 
a sacred unction and a holy water 
drawn from a sacred spring, and 
about his neck a small gnourd con- 
taining a certain powder, which is 
esteemed a strong preventive of 
disease, sorcery and treason. 

Tanner relates that among the 
Ojibways, the two best hunters ol 
the band had each a little leather 
sack of medicine, consisting of cer- 
tain roots pounded fine and mixed 
with red paint, to be applied to the 
little images of the animals he 
wished to kill. These would 
the animal to sight 

The use o( sacred powders 
among the American Indians 
seems to be one with that of many 
different countries in all ages. The 
employment of "hoddentin" by the 
Apache, and "kunque" by the Ztxai, 
is about the same as came from 
Asiatic countries and found its way 
into Europe. Among the rustics 
of Great Britain, down to a very 
recent period, there were in use 
certain love-powders, the composi- 
tion of which is not known, a small 
quantity of which had to be sprin- 
kled on the food of the beloved. 

The magic powder called "ugan- 
ga," used as the great weapon of 
divination of the medicine men of 
some (A the African tribes, as men- 
tioned by Speke, must be identical 
with that spoken of by Cameron, 
who was traveling with a caravan 
in which the principal man was a 
half-breed Portuguese, named Al- 
vez. "On our making our entry, ^ 
Alvez was mobbed by the women, ^ 
who shrieked and yelled in honors, 
of the event and pelted him wi 
flour. This was in welcome." 

When witches, in Spain, entere*, 
people's houses, they threw a po 
der on the faces of the inmat 
who were thrown thereby into 
deep a slumber that nothing co^^%^^ 
wake them until the witches w ""^ircr^ 



t/es 
so 



1554 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



A young married lady says that 
if you will wear your husband's hat 
for ten minutes in the morning, you 
will have your own way all day. 

It is a sign of good luck to have 
a blind person bless you. 

To be blessed by a dying person, 
is also a very good sign. 

Abstain from killing any living 
thing, if you wish the best of luck. 

Be careful not to tread upon in- 
sects in the road or set fire to for- 
ests, lest you take a life and your 
luck go out with it 

It is good luck to wring your 
hands on entering a new place. 

It is lucky to attend literary ex- 
aminations on the day called Kap 
Tsze. (Chinese.) 

To see the bare hinder part of 
a person in bathing. (English.) 

To hang an egg in the house. 
(Gipsy.) 

To throw the tongs after a per- 
son going out on business. 

If a person leaving the City of 
Washington sees (the shadow of) 
the Statue of Liberty kiss Wash- 
ington's monument, he will have 
the best of luck. 

The Swedes think it unlucky to 
find two straws crossed. 

It is an ill omen to hear an "O, 
myr'oran"Oh, dearr 

It is considered unlucky for a 
g^own person to mark on the 
ground. You will fall out with 
your lover. 

It is bad luck for a lady to pow- 
der with another lady's powder- 
rag. 

A proud eye, an open purse, and 
a light wife, breeds mischief to the 
first, misery to the second, and 
horns to the third. 

It is very bad luck to step on the 
spot where anyone has fallen and 
broken his or her neck. 



It is an ill omen to have a neg^o 
for the first comer to the house in 
the morning. 

It is an ill omen to have dealings 
with a man who has power to kilL 

To pass an3rthing that you might 
pick up, is against your luck. 

It is bad luck to speak to a man 
on the stairs. 

If court-plaster will not adhere 
readily, it is a sign of coming pov- 
erty. 

If you ever possess a skeleton, 
never give it away; it is unlucky. 

It is a bad omen for father and 
mother to want to live in a hoteL 

It is bad luck to have a crutch 
fall across your way. 

It is bad luck to quarrel with a 
hunchback. 

It is unlucky to awaken anyone 
suddenly. The soul might not get 
back in time. (Burmese.) 

It is unlucky to receive pay for 
food from a deaf mute. (Cape 
Breton.) 

It is unlucky to speak of boiling 
water. 

It is unlucky to speak 61 the liv- 
er. (Chinese.) 

It is unlucky to measure a per- 
son in bed. 

Things hard to procure bring 
evil upon the possessor. 

The Malabrians consider it un- 
lucky to even so much as glance at 
an oil-mill. 

He who passes under a hempe 
rope will die a violent death, o 
commit murder. 

It is unlucky to whistle aft 
dark. 

It is unlucky for friends to wat*^ 
a train out of sight. 

It is a direful omen for any kr= 
of a crown to fall from any 
head. 





1356 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



In the South of France, it is con- 
sidered unlucky if a young woman 
hands a young man a smutty pea, 
for it tells him she is tired of his 
company. 

In China, it is an (Hnen of ill luck 
to see a porpoise or a person of evil 
disposition. 

A blackamoor is considered an 
unlucky "first-foot" A "first-foot" 
is the first foot that comes in the 
house of a morning. 

There is not a greater sign or 
omen of misfortune than to pre- 
sume of good. 

If a person cannot get the idea 
of deep dark water out of his head, 
it is a sign that he will hear of a 
death within twenty-four hours. 

The barbarians in the West In- 
dies believe that if you give any- 
thing away and take it back again, 
you will get a stye. 

The Arabs give the name of 
"'Kades" to a bad omen, such as 
seeing a deer descending a moun- 
tain, or seeing it going behind the 
beholden 

For a child to bring a collector 
at Marangu any natural history 
specimen, was thought to be un- 
lucky, and it was done in the dark 
and secretly, as they think that 
such things are materials for sor- 
cery. (Report of Smithsonian In- 
stitution.) 

If you find sand under the table, 
some dreadful accident will happen 
to a near relative. (Luxembourg.) 

In Natal, it is thought unlucky to 
talk of the death of a sick person, 
or the possibility of an accident 
happening to a person traveling. 

If a woman strides over a car- 
rier's pole, the skin on the carrier's 
neck will come off the next time 
he uses the pole. (Malagasy Super- 
stition.) 



To say while eating, "How fat 
you are!" is extremely unlucky, as 
a sudden blight may fall upon the 
person, and he will perish. (Spain.) 

If a person is diverting himself 
and having a "good time," it is very 
unlucky if somebody else exclaims: 
"How merry you are!" for he will 
at once have a misfortune. (Spain.) 

It is unlucky to kill any living 
thing until you have especially 
washed your face. 

If you dally about in the morn- 
ing on a busy day, you will want 
the hours at night 

It is unlucky to get back 
anything that has been stolen. 
(Scotch.) 

If the signs are bad, take the ad- 
vice of the old manmiy, who said: 
"Honey, that was a bad sign, and 
you must go right off and do a 
kindness to someone, and den de 
bad luck will all be turned to good, 
sure." 

Never cross under an elevated 
railroad when a train is gcnng over 
it; it is unlucky. 

Do not leave the room back- 
ward. If you do, you will curse 
your parent before sundown. 

An old Scotch superstition is to 
the effect that it is unlucky for a 
Graham to wear green; few a Bruce 
to kill a spider; and for a St Qair 
to cross the Ord cxi Monday. 

In Madagascar, it is unlucky to 
keep cats, goats, or pigs; to receive 
a single article of any kind, a pres- 
ent must always be given in pairs; 
to sit on another person's bed; to 
brush another person with your 
clothes-brush; to use another per- 
son's eating utensils. It is also un- 
lucky not to be buried after death, 
because one would be doomed to 
wander with or become a wildcat, 
owl or bat. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1357 



The "pope's nose" of a fowl must 
not be eaten except by the most 
elderly or distinguished person 
present A son must not sit on a 
chair while his father is sitting on 
the ground. . He must not walk in 
front of him or use a spoon before 
him. All these things bring bad 
]uck« (Madagascar.) 

A peak of any kind pointing at 
you, your house, your grave, or 
anything else, as the peak of a tem- 
ple, house, or even the top of a hill, 
casting a peaked shadow, is very 
unpropitious, and the evil accruing 
therefrom must be warded off by 
many different charms. (China.) 

The reason why it is believed to 
be unlucky to pass under a ladder, 
is because, in old times, convicts 
who were condemned to death 
were made to pass under a ladder; 
while those who were not con- 
demned to death passed outside. 

The superstition that it is un- 
lucky to look back when starting 
an>'where, is supposed to have 
originated with Lot's wife, who 
was turned into a pillar of salt for 
looking back, in disobedience of 
the command. 

Pamell was superstitious. He 
would beg^n no new business on 
Friday, he started if anyone offered 
to help him to salt, and he would 
drink no wine at table unless the 
decanter came around from right 
to left. He was also afraid of the 
number thirteen. 

To sleep on the wrong side of a 
mat* or to cut anything with the 
back of a knife, is to lay oneself 
open to evil influences, and one is 
especially liable to be deceived or 
plotted against by others. (Mada- 
gascar.) 

In Transylvania, it is unlucky to 
pick up anything that anyone has 



dropped, without spitting on it 
three times. 

To speak the name of one who 
is a miser in the morning; to speak 
the name of a place called after a 
miser in the morning; to mention 
an owl or to meet one in the morn- 
ing; to mention an ass, a bear, a 
snake, or meet one in the morning; 
to see the face of a low-caste the 
first thing in the morning; to meet 
a jackal crossing the path from left 
to right; for one to call out to a 
traveler when starting; for one to 
put a question to a traveler when 
starting; for anyone to cough as 
travelers start; are unlucky omens 
among the Hindus. 

To strike the plate one is eating 
off; to stand while eating; to hand 
food to anyone behind the back; 
to eat grains of rice which have 
been used for weighing money; to 
pound in an empty mortar; for a 
child to make a strumming noise 
with his lips, will each and every 
one cause a famine. (Madagascar.) 

The following lines are from 
Withers' "Abuses Whipt and 
Stript," 1613: 

"For worthless matters some are won- 
drous sad: — 
Whom if I call not vain I must term 

mad. 
If that their noses bleed some certain 

drops 
And then again upon a sudden stops. 
Or, if the babbling fowl we call a jay,^ 
A squirrel, or a hare but cross their way. 
Or, if the salt falls toward them at table 
Or any suchlike superstitious babel 
Their mirth is spoiled, because they 

hold it true. 
That some mischance must thereupon 
ensue." 

MONSTERS, GIANTS, 
DWARFS, ETC.— Caligorant was 
an Eg>'ptian giant and cannibal, 
who ensnared travelers with an in- 
visible net. 

Orion was a wonderful giant of 
great beauty, who cleared the isl- 



I35B 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



and of Chios of all wild beasts. 
(Greek.) 

Pacolet, a dwarf, rides an en- 
chanted wooden horse. Therefore 
to say, "You ride like Pacolet," 
means "you ride very fast." 

Dwarfs of the mountain are lit- 
tle elfish beings with boys' faces, 
g^cen clothing, and caps. Their 
favorite food is raisins. They are 
well-disposed little fellows though, 
and their knockings indicate where 
the richest veins of ore lie. (Ger- 
man.) 

It was believed in St Augus- 
tine's time, that there were giants 
formerly inhabiting the earth, and 
he says that he saw the tooth of a 
man so large that it "would have 
made a hundred of his own or any 
other man's that lived in his time." 

* The Lemean Hydra, a mon- 
strous water-serpent which was 

.slain by Hercules* had seven heads 
according to Apollodorus, fifty ac- 
cording to Simonides, and one hun- 
dred according to Diodorus. 

The belief is strong in Sweden 
that a g^ant has two hats; if he 
wears one, it renders him invisi- 
ble; if he wears the other, things 
invisible to him will become visible. 

Giants were believed to be cre- 
ated to destroy wild beasts and pro- 
tect the dwarfs. 

In 945, while a cyclone visited 
Paris, monsters armed with battle- 
axes are said to have dropped from 
the skies, and rushing into a 
church, tore down the pulpit, which 
they used as a battering-ram to de- 
stroy a neighboring house. 

Error was a huge monster, the 
upper part the form of a woman, 
the lower part a dragon-tail with a 
venomous sting. 

Among the strange fabulous 
people spoken of in the Sanscrit 



language, are the Kamapravara- 
nas, people who have their ears for 
their covering. 

If a child falls into the hands of 
the little brown dwarfs of the Isl- 
and of Rugen, it must serve them 
for fifty years. 

The dwarf Alberich belong^ to 
the cAd German m3rthology. He is 
the guardian of the Niebelungen 
hoard. 

Mariette, in his "Outlines of 
Egyptian History," tells of an 
Egyptian giant who was "nine cu- 
bits high" and who reigned cme 
hundred years. 

The Gorgons were monsters in 
Greek mythology, frequently plac- 
ed side by side with furies, and rep- 
resented as horrid old women with 
snakes instead of hair, who could 
change anyone into stones whom 
they looked upon« 

King Arthur once fought a giant 
and killed him, but he had to cut 
off his legs first to reach his head. 

Adopis are, in fcdklore of British 
Guiana, little men of the woods, 
with great power and without 
thumbs. If you see one in the 
bush, cover your thumbs or he will 
tear them off. 

The people of Demerara believe 
in a female spirit or monster, called 
"Long Bubbles," a woman who 
thrashes people with the right 
breast, which can be elongated at 
her pleasure to form a whip. 

The Bohemians believe living 
persons can be "ghouls" or vam- 
pires, and by association can draw 
the blood from your veins and then 
choke you, and not let you find rest 
even in your grave. 

The Greeks believe that the owl 
goes before and gives warning of 
the coming oi a vampire. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1359 



In Crete is a legend that a mon- 
ster swallowed up nine youths, and 
the deliverance by their father 
forms one of the subjects of folk- 
song. 

Celtic folklore tells of Oscar, son 
of Ossian, having been gobbled up 
by a monster, but having cut his 
way out again with his sword. 

In the Old Testament are ac- 
counts of the Anakim, a race of 
giants, dwelling in southern Pales- 
tine. They were surrounded by 
legends and called ''the dead, the 
giants, the phantoms, and the he- 
rocs." A plain to the southwest of 
Jerusalem bore their name, and 
they were confounded with the Ti- 
tanic races buried underneath the 



The Centaurs were monsters of 
Greek mjrthology, horses with the 
body, head, and arms of a man. 
They were terrible warriors, able 
to run with great speed and shoot 
their arrows with wonderful skill. 

When Noah built his ark, there 
lived a giant named Hurtali. He 
was too big to get into the ark, but 
he was almost too big to be 
drowned. So when it was launch- 
ed with all its cargo on the stormy 
flood, he sat on it astride, as chil- 
dren do on a hobby horse, and so 
was saved, to be the head of the 
giant family of old times. 

The mbulu is a fabulous creature 
firmly believed in by the Kaffirs. 
It can assume the human form, but 
it cannot part with its tail. One of 
its peculiarities is that it never 
speaks the truth when it can possi- 
bly tell a falsehood. 

According to an old romance, 
Bevis of Hampton conquered a 
giant named Ascapart His effigy 
may be seen on the city gates of 
Southampton, in England. He 
is said to have been thirty feet high. 



and to have carried Sir Bevis, his 
wife, and his horse under his arm. 
Allusions to him occur in Shake- 
speare, Drayton, and other Eliza- 
bethan writers. 

"Each man an Ascapart, of strength to 

toss. 
For quoits, both Temple-bar and Char- 



ing-cross. 



(Pope.) 



In the ancient days of France, 
Rabelais tells of the death oi Gar- 
gantua's wife, Badebek, the mother 
of Pantagruel, whose birth was the 
cause of her death; which is not to 
be wondered at, since he came into 
the world accompanied by eighty- 
one sellers of salt, each leading a 
mule by a halter; nine dromeda- 
ries laden with ham and smoked 
tongues; seven camels laden with 
eels; besides twenty-five wagons 
full of leeks, garlic, onions, and 
shallots. 

In Sicily exists a curious super- 
stition about a dwarfs fair. In the 
space of time which elapses be- 
tween the introit and the lesson, 
dwarfs are supposed to hold a fair 
sprung up by magic in a field near 
at hand, at which every conceiva- 
ble good thing is scAd at ridiculous- 
ly low prices. The whole afFair 
lasts only a few minutes, for as 
soon as the priest begins to read 
the lesson, everything vanishes into 
thin air. Those who come sud- 
denly into some great good fortune, 
are believed to have been fortunate 
enough to attend the dwarf's fair, 
and bought their luck with a trifle. 

In many of the old fairy stories 
and myths, an escaping hero or 
heroine flying from a dragon or a 
monster, throws behind some arti- 
cle which turns into a forest and 
stops the pursuer, or into a lake, or 
into a fire, or a mountain. These 
magic changes symbolize the effect 
of sacrifice. If we give away some- 
thing of our own, perhaps it will 



1360 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



come back to us in some other 
form. "Cast your bread upon the 
waters." (Andrew Lang, Custom 
and Myth.) 

In old Norse mjrthology, there 
was a dwarf who lived in the river 
in the form of a pike. He was 
caught by Loki and forced to give 
up all his treasure, but on the last 
ring of all his jewels he placed an 
everlasting curse of destructi(Mi to 
everyone who should ever wear it 
His treasure came to be known as 
"the Niebelung hoard," from the 
name of its possessors. 

Andhaka was a mcmster of Indi- 
an mythology, having a thousand 
arms and heads, two thousand eyes 
and feet, and called Andhaka be- 
cause he walked like a blind man, 
though he saw well. Siva slew him 
when he tried to carry oflF the tree 
of paradise from heaven. 

Grendel was a terrible man-eat- 
ing m(Hister of supernatural pow- 
ers, in Anglo-Saxon legend. He 
was slain by Beowulf, a Swedish 
hero. 

The Phorcids, or Gorgons, were 
three terrible daughters of Phcw- 
cus, "the old man of the sea," who 
had in common but one eye and one 
tooth, which they used alternately. 
They dwelt at the uttermost end 
of the earth, where neither sun nor 
moon beheld them. Their hair 
consisted of venomous vipers, and 
anyone who beheld their terrible 
gaze would be transformed to 
stone. They represent the climax 
of all that Greek imagination has 
created of the horrible and repul- 
sive. 

In the mountain, an old giant 
was lying sick and dying. His 
wife, yet frisky, had been out on 
some errand, and in the fields she 
had found man, a new species, as 
yet unknown to her, occupied in 



tilling the soil. She picked them 
togeUier with their beasts of bur- 
den, implement, and so f6rth» into 
her apron and took them to her 
husband, saying: "Just look at 
these weaklings I have found!" 
But the g^nt answered: **Weak 
now! but strong enough to rule 
the land after us; let them go!" 
So she let them go, and now where 
are the giants? (Swedish folk- 
lore.) 

The fable in regard to the lignite 
and fossil bones of cetaceans or 
whales found abundantly in the 
tertiary clay of Gay Head, Martha's 
Vineyard, is very interesting. The 
Wampanoag Indians supposed that 
the blackened wood of lignite 
marked the spot where the g^iant 
Manshope broiled the whale on a 
fire made of the largest trees, which 
he pulled up by the roots. 

In Roman mythology, we find 
a giant and son of Vulcan living 
near the spot on which Rome was 
built He stole from Hercules 
some of the cattle of Geryon, drag- 
ging them into his cave under the 
Aventine backwards, so that their 
footsteps would not show the direc- 
tion in which they had gone. But 
he did not calculate that they would 
low, which Hercules heard, and 
thus tracing them, found the mon- 
strous thief and slew him. 

The giant Nor, in Scandinavian 
mythology, is the father of night, 
and dwells in Utgard, the circle of 
rocks that hemmed in the ocean 
which was supposed to encompass 
the world. Utgard is the home of 
the giants. Utgard-Lok is the de- 
mon of the infernal regions. 

The idols and images of clay 
found about old ruins in Mexico 
are believed by the Indians to be 
dwaris and imps, who have the 
power to sour tht pleasures of life. 



i 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1361 



The come to life at sunset, and ap- 
pear as very small, naked men, 
with a hat on the head. They are 
swift of foot, and can run back- 
ward just as well as forward. Their 
touch produces sickness, especially 
chills and fever. There is another 
malevolent creature called ''Little 
Boy," who hangs around the woods 
and causes smallpox. 

There is a monster in Basque 
land called Basso-jaun, the '*lord 
of the woods." The superstition 
depicts it as a horrible monster in 
a human form, having nails long 
and hard as those of a wild boar, 
and being covered with hair. It 
is supposed to reside in the deepest 
part of the woods, but occasionally 
it appears at the mouth of caverns 
and mountain torrents. It is the 
terror of all who must go into the 
woods. 

The Kudan is a creature of Japa- 
nese folklore, with the face of a 
man and the body of a bull. It is 
usually bom of a cow, and its ap- 
pearance is taken as an omen that 
something unusual is going to hap- 
pen. The Kudan always tells the 
truth, so in letters and documents 
it is customary to use the phrase, 
"on the truth of the Kudan." 

There exists in North Wales a 
legend, according to which an ex- 
traordinary being which passes for 
a vampire, formerly haunted the 
recesses of Snowdon. If unfortu- 
nately any young people ventured 
near his retreat, he threw himself 
immediately upon them and killed 
them by drinking their blood to the 
last drop. According to the leg- 
end, the life of the monster was 
lengthened by the number oi years 
which each of his victims would 
have lived if he had not killed them, 
so that he would have lived forever 
if some one had not discovered that 
the only means of exterminating 



him consisted in lodging a ball of 
silver in his head. 

In 1828, several burying-grounds 
were found in White county, Ten- 
nessee, U. S., in the town of Sparta, 
wherein very small people had 
been deposited in tombs and coffins 
of stone. The greatest length of 
the skeletons was nineteen inches. 
The bones were strong and well 
set, and the whole frames well 
formed. Some of the people had 
appeared to live to a great age» 
their teeth being worn smooth and 
short, while others were full and 
long. They were all buried with 
their heads to the east, in regular 
order. One of these skeletons had 
about its neck ninety-four pearl 
beads. 

Theseus was the national hero of 
Attica. He was a cousin of Her- 
cules, whose exploits he emulated 
by killing monsters and robbers. 
He killed the Minotaur, and read- 
ily found his way out of the Laby- 
rinth by means of a ball of thread 
which Ariadne gave him, one of 
which he had fastened at the en- 
trance and let it trail after him. 
He aided a friend to attempt to ab- 
duct Proserpine from the palace of 
Pluto. They failed, and Theseus 
was confined in Tartarus, but at last 
released. His life is, like that of 
Hercules, supposed to be half his- 
torical and half mythical. 

Castle Rushen, on the Isle of 
Man, has long been famous in the 
estimation of the natives, for its 
subterraneous passages, and there 
are individuals amongst them who 
still believe that they lead to a 
beautiful country underground, in- 
habited by giants. Many attempts, 
they say, have been made to ex- 
plore these passages, but they have 
been generally unsuccessful. Once, 
however, a number banded them- 
selves together, and, having armed 



I3$s 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



themselves and provided torches, 
they descended After proceeding 
some way, they came across an old 
man of g^eat size, with a long 
beard, and blind, sitting on a rock 
as if fixed there. He, hearing them 
approach, inquired of them as to 
the state of the island, and at last 
asked one to put fcHth his hand, on 
which one o( them presented him 
with a ploughshare, when the old 
giant squeezed the iron together 
with the greatest ease, exclaiming 
at the same time, '*There are yet 
men in the Isle of Man." 

It is believed by the Jews that 
when Goliath saw little David, the 
sight seemed so ridiculous that he 
tl^ew back his head and laughed 
By so doing, he threw his brazen 
helmet away from his temples, at 
which moment David threw the 
stone and struck him in the fore- 
head He fell stunned, not dead; 
and David ran and cut his head off 
with the giant's own swcM-d 

Chimaera was a terrible fire- 
breathing monster that had the 
head of a lion, the body of a goat, 
with a goat's head in the middle, 
and the hind part ending with a 
snake's or dragon's head. It has 
become proverbial in almost every 
language to designate something 
imaginary or impossible. 

The Greek Lamia, a vampire or 
female monster, who had the face 
and breast of a woman and the rest 
of the body like that of a serpent, 
like the Bulgarian Samodiva, is 
often represented as marrying a 
human husband, though in popular 
estimation they make such poor 
housewives that the expression 
"she sweeps like a Lamia" has be- 
come proverbial. Mermaid brides 
are a common feature in Western 
folklore. In Celtic story, Thomas 
the Rhymer is said to have been 
the son of a mermaid 



Among the Basques, they have a 
tradition that the giant Tartaro was 
a one-eyed creature, who, although 
very strong, was always conquered 
if he attacked a man. He was not 
to be rid of his deformity until a 
young girl should marry Um. One 
day he asked a girl to be his bride 
and sent her a talking ring. As 
soon as she put it on her finger the 
ring began to chatter with all its 
might, and she was so frightened 
that she flung it into a large pond, 
where, in despair of anything go- 
ing well with him, Tartaro drowned 
himself. 

There is a Bohemian legend of 
"strong Ctibor," the shepherd of 
Riesenburg. In the meadow, his 
master caught him canying a huge 
tree on his shoulder. When he was 
asked where he got it, he confessed 
that he had stolen it from the for- 
est His master, pleased with his 
candor, not only forgave him, but 
told him to come to the fortress and 
he would give him as much food 
as he could carry. Ctibor was so 
greedy that he took his wife's nine- 
ell feather-bed cover and went to 
the fortress, where they filled it 
with peas and ham. llie knight 
liked him on account of his 
strength and frankness, and when 
there was a tournament in Prague, 
he took him along. Ctibor over- 
came a certain German knight 
whom no one else could conquer, 
and on that account was knighted 
by the king. 

The following is a legend of the 
Hudson Bay Eskimos: "Between 
two men there existed keen rivalry. 
Each asserted himself to be the 
stronger, and endeavored to prove 
himself superior to the other. One 
declared his ability to {orm an isl- 
and where there had none pre- 
viously existed, and flung a stone 
into the sea so large that it became 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



i3fy 



an island. The other with his foot 
pushed it so hard that it landed on 
the top of another island lying be- 
yond. The mark of the footprint 
is visible to this day, and that place 
is now known as Tukik Tok. 

Thanase Vaghia was a Greek 
lieutenant of the tyrant Ali Pasha 
of loannina. When all his other 
officers had refused to massacre 
the men of Gardiki, eight hundred 
in number, entrapped by falsehood 
and treachery in the courtyard of 
the Khan of Valier6, this man of- 
fered to begin the butchery. For 
this deed, the Greeks believe his 
body, after death, could not decom- 
pose, but walked the earth as a 
vampire, in company with his vic- 
tims and the vizier Ali. 

Longfellow, in one of his private 
letters to his friend Samuel Ward, 
called his feeling of sadness some- 
thing that was like the '*old man of 
the sea." He alluded to a monster 
in the ''Arabian Nights,'* who was 
encountered by Sinbad the Sailor, 
in his fifth voyage. This old man 
made Sinbad take him on his shoul- 
ders and carry him about, but at 
last the sailor got him intoxicated, 
and dropping him, made his escape. 
The allusion was made by the poet 
a short time after the tragical death 
of his beautiful wife, who was 
burned to death. 

The Roman poet Ovid tells of a 
curious monster of a man, whose 
appetite was insatiable. He spent 
all his estate in the purchase of 
food, and nothing was left but his 
daughter, so he sold her to buy 
food for his voracious maw. After 
a time, being reduced to nothing, 
he was obliged to eat his own flesh 
rather than to go hungry. 

If you desire to secure the drake 
and make him give up a part of 
that which he is carrying with him. 



two persons must place their legs 
across each other's in silence, or 
draw off the fourth wheel of a 
wagon and then hasten to get un- 
der a roof, else it will go badly. 
(German.) 

The Sphinx was once a mon- 
strous being near Thebes, in 
Egypt, with the head of a woman, 
the body of a lion, and the wings 
of a bird, who put forth riddles to 
every passer-by, and devoured all 
who could not answer them. Oedi- 
pus solved the one proposed to 
him, and in her chagrin she de- 
stroyed herself by turning herself 
into stone. 

Argus was a monster, in Greek 
mythology, who had a hundred 
eyes. When Mercury, the gods' 
messenger, killed him, Juno set his 
eyes in the tail of the peacock, 
which was her favorite bird. Juno 
had set Argus to watch lo, of 
whom she was jealous. Hence Ar- 
gus-eyed means jealously watch- 
ful. 

The Greeks believe in vampires, 
and the bare possibility of becom- 
ing a vampire after death, fills them 
with horror. Yet a contrary view 
is taken in the following popular 
verse : 

**0 friend may'est thoa live forever 1 
But if death be thy doom 
May'est thou Vampire become, 

Thou'lt enjoy then, this fair world twice 
over." 

The belief that a dead person de- 
lights in the blood of a human vic- 
tim is frequently met with in classic 
authors. The phantasm of Achilles 
is represented by Euripides as ap- 
pearing in golden armor at his 
tomb, and as being appeased by the 
sacrifice of a young virgin, whose 
blood he drank. 

The "Black Dwarf' is a malig- 
nant fairy of Scotch folklore, being 
the cause of much mischief done 



13^ 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



in the neighborhood where he liv- 
ed. He is the principal character 
of a novel by Sir Walter Scott 

According to Persian belief, hell 
is guarded by the giant Zohak. He 
was the fifth king of the Pishdadian 
d3rnasty. Zohak had murdered his 
predecessor, and invented flaying 
men alive and killing them by cru- 
cifixion. The devil kissed him on 
the shoulders, and immediately two 
serpents grew out of his neck and 
fed constantly upon him. He was 
dethroned by the famous black- 
smith of Ispahan, and then appcnnt- 
ed by the devil to keep hellgate. 

Saint Veronica, whose day is the 
4th of February, was the woman 
who handed the Saviour a cloth 
when he was on his way to Calvary. 
He wiped his brow with it, and the 
impression of his features remain- 
ed indelibly impressed on the hand- 
kerchiei The emperor Vespasian, 
who heard of its miraculous proper- 
ties, sent for it, and was cured from 
'a severe illness by looking at it 
For centuries the handkerchief was 
preserved in a church and shown 
to the people on the anniversary of 
her commemoration. 

Hercules was the most celebrat- 
ed hero of antiquity, and a proto- 
type of athletes. He was supposed 
to have been bom at Thebes. 
While he was an infant in the cra- 
dle, he strangled two serpents sent 
by Juno to destroy him. When a 
young man, two beautiful forms ap- 
peared to him and asked him to 
make a choice. One was Virtue 
and the other Pleasure. He chose 
Virtue, and was soon renowned for 
his exploits. Having consulted the 
oracle of Apollo, he was directed 
to serve Eurystheus for twelve 
years, when he should become a 
god. His master, envious of him, 
set twelve tasks to be performed, 
called the "Twelve Labors of Her- 



cules." Having performed them, 
he was conveyed by a cloud to 
Olympos, and rewarded with im- 
mortality. He was afterward wor- 
shipped by all the Greeks* 

Rustam, a Persian hero, became^ 
on the first day of his life, as large 
as a child a year old, and ten wet 
nurses were required to provide 
him with milk. While a mere child 
he killed a raging elephant, and as 
a youth, found a spring in a burn- 
ing desert, killed a dragon eighty 
feet long, slew an enchantress, and 
finally slew the famous white de- 
mon. The poet Onuu- Khayyam 
alludes to him in the following 
verses: 

Let Zal and Rnstam thnnder as they 

will. 
And Hatim call to sapper, heed not you! 

With me along this strip of herbage, 
strewn. 

That just divides the desert from the 
sown. 

Where name of slave and Sultan is for- 
got. 

And peace to Mafamnd on his golden 
throne! 

A book of verses underneath the boagh, 
A jug of wine, a loaf of braid — and 

Thou 
Beside me singing in the Wilderness, — 
Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow! 

(Zal was Rustam's father, and 
their mutual exploits are the most 
celebrated in the Shah-nama. Ha- 
tim Tai was a well-known tjrpe of 
Oriental generosity and hospital- 

ity.) 

In Banks island, the natives be- 
lieve in vampires. A man or wom- 
an will steal and eat a piece of a 
corpse. Then the ghost or spisit 
of the dead person will join the 
vampire, or the person who has 
ate its corpse, and will afflict the 
person's enemies. The man so af- 
flicted will begin to feel the injury 
and to dread the vampire and sus- 
pect him. The vampire is called a 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1565 



talamaur. The neighbors will then 
seize hini» and cause to be made 
a strong smoke of smelling leaves, 
and will then call out the name of 
the dead man, whose spirit is the 
•'familiar" of the vampire. This 
phase of vampirism seems to be ex- 
actly at opposites with all other be- 
liefs. 

The same name, talamaur, is 
given to one whose soul is suppos- 
ed to go and eat the soul of the 
freshly dead corpse. Such persons 
take a morbid delight in the dread 
they inspire* 

The Boonandik tribe, Mount 
Gaurbier, Australia, has the follow- 
ing legend about the end of the 
giants: A man, whilst out hunt- 
ing, left his wife at a temporary 
camping place; on his return, he 
saw traces which led him to con- 
clude that the giant "Brit-ngeal" 
had carried her off. He tracked 
the giant and found the partially 
eaten body of his wife. Close by 
was a deep narrow-mouthed cave, 
out of which the giant got water, 
and beside it lay the long drinking- 
reed. The man got up into a tree 
that overhung the cave, having 
first crushed the reed to make it 
useless for its purpose. Presently, 
the giant came to get a drink. He 
lowered the end of the reed into 
the cave and tried to suck up the 
water, but he drew up nothing but 
air; he bit off the end, but with the 
same result; he bit off a piece more, 
but again failed to obtain water; 
he repeated the same experiment; 
but to reach the water now he had 
to bend his head and shoulders 
right down into the hole. In so do- 
ing, he exposed his really weak 
part to the watcher in the tree, who 
jumped down, struck his spear into 
the giant, and shoved him head 
first into the cave. In this manner, 
the last of the giants met his death. 



As instances of the m}rths and 
legends of the Roumanians: A 
certain Hungarian, Janok, bids one 
of the performers on the small 
shepherd's reed to a banquet. 
Mihou accepts the invitation; but 
at the end of the banquet, which 
has lasted the whole day until the 
evening, the two braves fall into 
dispute. Mihou cuts off the head 
of his entertainer, and casting his 
weapon on the ground, defies the 
spectators to raise it. No one has 
sufficient strength, and with words 
of bitter scorn the brigand majes- 
tically withdraws, filling the forests 
as he goes with his enchanting 
notes on the "kobouz." 

Another hero who has slain with 
his merciless battleaxe a whole in- 
nocent family, father, mother, and 
children, discovers one of his gang 
devouring the murdered house- 
wife's store of butter. It was a fast 
day. "Impious pagan!" cries the 
outraged chief, "hast thou then no 
fear of God, to eat butter on a Fri- 
day!" 

Legend of Glamis Castle: The 
Castle of Glamis, Forfarshire, Scot- 
land, is the residence of the Earl of 
Strathmore. Concerning the fam- 
ily there is a mystery, which is ex- 
plained to the eldest son on his 
coming of age. On the eventful 
day, the heir is taken down to a 
secret room under the castle, and 
there is shown the cause of the se- 
cret, and made to swear that he 
will never tell a soul except his own 
son when that eldest son shall have 
reached his majority. Thus the 
story has been passed from genera- 
tion to generation and the people 
of the neighborhood know nothing 
of what goes on on the young earl's 
birthday. But amongst the ad- 
herents of the family is an old 
housekeeper, who has gradually 
formed her stor>' from hints let fall 



1366 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



and shrewd guesses. From her 
comes the following: Almost two 
hundred years ago, the wife of the 
then Earl of Strathmore had a son 
and heir. There were great rejoic- 
ings at his birth, but in a short time 
these ceased and mourning took 
their place, for the son who 
was bom was a monster without a 
brain. In vain the best doctors 
were consulted, and the father and 
mother, in deepest despair, offered 
a large reward to anyone who could 
help them; it was useless. After a 
time a second son was bom, and 
since the eldest could not be the 
earl, the second was made heir. 
When his parents died, the new 
earl had his brother put in one of 
the dungeons of the castle, which 
was fitted up for him so that he 
was well out of the way. From that 
time till now he has lived in the 
dungeon, and this is what the first- 
bom sees on his twenty-first birth- 
day, when the story of his house is 
j[told him. The real earl still lives, 
or exists, he cannot be said to real- 
ly live, as he merely vegetates, and 
he may continue to exist, as such 
brainless monsters may, for an in- 
definite period, as now he has lived 
almost two hundred years; but he 
will never come into his rights as 
the Earl of Strathmore. 

Australians of the Boonandik 
tribe have the following legend 
about the devil, called **Tennate- 
ona." "Wirmal," "Baringial" and 
"Daroo" were three good men. 
"Tennateona" was a very wicked 
man, of a very savage nature. He 
murdered men, women, and chil- 
dren, and was a perfect terror to 
the blacks; some to save their lives 
laid themselves on ant-hills and let 
the ants cover their bodies as if 
dead, to avoid his cruelty. The 
three good men consulted together 
how they were to rid the earth of 



this monster, and they agreed to 
kill him. One day they found him 
sleeping and killed him, burning 
his body to ashes, and they had 
peace afterwards. 

The natives of the Adelaide tribe 
have a monster which they call 
"Koonyoo/' not unlike the vam- 
pire or incubus of other nations. 
He fiies about at night, makes a 
noise in the trees, but is never seen, 
and is an object of great terror to 
the natives. This being descends 
to the earth in the dark, alights 
upon the body of a man while 
sleeping, and presses on his liver, 
causing him to suffer excessive 
pains, and sometimes producing 
death. 

The natives of the Port Lincoln 
tribe believe in the existence of a 
fiendish monster named Mlurralye, 
whom they describe as a man who 
assumes the shape and power of a 
bird, so that he can fiy through the 
air. He is most feared during the 
nighttime, when he is supposed to 
pounce upon his sleeping victims, 
either killing them by eating their 
hearts out of their bodies, or doing 
them some other grievous injury; 
he takes care, however, not to leave 
any mark of his ravages, and it is, 
therefore, only from the effects, 
such as pain and illness, that the 
sufferers know of his nightly visits. 
The death of children and the loss 
of sight are usually ascribed to 
M&rralye, if no other palpable 
cause can be assigned. 

Ambohed Rapeto was the dwell- 
ing place of a wonderful mytholog- 
ical personage of Madag^car, of 
whom most extraordinary stories 
are related. He is said to have 
been a giant, and originally came 
from one of the highest mountains 
of the Imerena district, about fifty 
miles from the capital. On its sum- 
mit his tomb is still shown, and 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1367 



sacrifices and prayers were former- 
ly offered there in his honor. The 
powers of Rapeto were of the most 
marvelous kind. He could fetch 
things from the farthest extremi- 
ties of the earthy and could at a 
stretch reach the sky. One single 
step of his would be equal to a six 
days' journey of a man. When vis- 
ited by strangers he would, with- 
out moving from his seat, put out 
his hand and secure abundance of 
fowls, sheep, and bullocks. Wish- 
ing occasionally for a few dainties 
for his table, he produced the beau- 
tiful and extensive Lake Itasy, 
which abounds to this day with ex- 
cellent fish. On one occasion, he 
had a serious quarrel with the 
moon, with whom he fought; but 
notwithstanding his gigantic size 
and strength, he was slain. 

Traditionary memorials of the 
primeval giants still exist in Pales- 
tine, in the form of graves of enor- 
mous dimensions; as the grave of 
Abel, near Damascus, which is 
thirty feet long; Seth in Anti-Leb- 
anon, which is about the same size; 
and that of Noah in Lebanon, 
which is seventy yards in length. 

High giants are mentioned in 
Judith xvi., 7, and giants famous 
from the beginning, great in stat- 
ure and expert in war, are named 
in Baruch iii., 26. In 1718 Hen- 
rion, a French Academician, en- 
deavored to show the very great 
decrease in the height of men be- 
tween the periods of the creation 
and the Christian era. He savs 
that Adam was 123 feet high, Eve 
118, Noah 27, Abraham 20, and 
Moses 30 feet high. The above 
Allegation of Adam's height is very 
moderate compared with those 
made by early rabbinical writers, 
who affirm that his head overtop- 
ped the atmosphere, and that he 
touched the Arctic pole with one 



hand and the Antarctic with the 
other. This probably meant that 
the race of man was already scat- 
tered over the whole globe. 

Norway, in ancient times, was 
believed to be inhabited by giants, 
who all suddenly perished except 
two women, who annoyed and at- 
tacked the people who came from 
the Eastern countries to inhabit the 
land, until Thor, wrathful to see 
women have such power, slew 
them with his thunderbolt 

Pantagruel was one of the princi- 
pal characters in Rabelais' satirical 
romance of the same name. He is 
represented as a gigantic person- 
age, beneath whose tongue an 
army takes shelter from the rain, 
in whose mouth and throat are 
cities which contain an immense 
population, etc. 

"Old Chaucer doth of Tropas tell. 
Mad Rabelais of Pantagruel." 

(Draytoa.) 

"He fair besought the ferry-man of hell. 
That he might drink to dead Pantag- 
ruel." (Bishop Hall.) 

In Hungary and Roumania, the 
belief in the mythical vampire in- 
vests this being with fatal reality. 
If in a village a youth or maiden, 
without apparent cause, grows pale 
or wastes away, the elders deliber- 
ately and generally conclude that 
there must be a vampire in the lo- 
cality. The creature is not a bat 
or reptile, but a human being de- 
ceased. Those of the dead arc 
numbered, and it is decided which 
of them feeds in his tomb on the 
blood of the living. Men gather at 
night bearing torches, and one of 
them a trident; they seek the 
priest, compel him to assume his 
stole, and carry him off to the 
graveyard. The g^ave-digger is 
made to open the tomb of the sup- 
posed vampire, the coffin is burst 
open, and if the corpse appears un- 



1568 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



decayed and with the color of life 
in the cheeks, they declare that 
their supposition is correct. With 
savage howls and imprecations, the 
trident is plunged in the breast of 
the body, the heart torn asunder, 
and the limbs pierced. When 
nothing remains but a confused 
mass of flesh and blood, the fury 
of the avengers is satiated, and they 
strew earth over the ghastly re- 
mains, and with a final execration, 
depart Then only is the vampire 
dead, and if perchance the youth 
or maiden recovers, it is attributed 
solely to the dreadful outrage com- 
mitted. 

Of all the tribes on the face of 
the earth, the aborigines of the 
California peninsula seem the most 
utterly degraded. They live to eat. 
To eat is all they think of, and if 
they eat anything whatever, even 
the vilest possible things, quite un- 
imaginable by a civilized person, 
they are happy. A few of them 
with great difficulty were convert- 
ed to Christianity, because they 
have no words to indicate the sim- 
plest ideas. All terms relating to 
rational human and civil life, and 
a multitude of words for signifying 
other objects, are entirely wanting, 
so that it would be a vain trouble 
to look in the Waicuri vocabulary 
for the following expressions: 
Life, death, weather, time, cold, 
heat, world, rain, understanding, 
will, memory, knowledge, honor, 
decency, consolation, peace, quar- 
rel, member, joy, imputation, mind, 
friend, friendship, truth, bashful- 
ness, enmity, faith, love, hope, 
wish, desire, hate, anger, gratitude, 
patience, meekness, env>', industry, 
virtue, vice, beauty, shape, sick- 
ness, danger, fear, occasion, thing, 
punishment, doubt, servant, mas- 
ter, virgin, judgment, suspicion, 
happiness, happy, reasonable, bash- 



ful, decent, clever, moderate, pious, 
obedient, rich, poor, young, old, 
agreeable, lovely, friendly, half, 
quick, deep, round, contended, 
more, less, to greet, to thank, to 
punish, to be silent, to promenade, 
to complain, to worship, to doubt, 
to biiy, to flatter, to caress, to per- 
secute, to dwell, to breathe, to im- 
agine, to idle, to insult, to console, 
to live, and a thousand words of a 
similar character. But even those 
who seemed to understand some of 
what the good priest, Jacob Bae- 
gert, who lived among them sev- 
enteen years, taught, still clung to 
their own notions. 

Qeomedes, a mythological giant 
of ancient Greece, committed many 
desperate freaks, and at last, in a 
school-house, striking a pillar that 
sustained the roof, with his fist, 
broke it in the middle, so that the 
house fell down and destroyed the 
children in it. He was pursued, 
and fled into a great chest, and 
shutting the lid, held it so fast that 
many men with their united 
strength could not force it <^>en. 
When, at last, they had demolished 
the chest, they found nobody in it, 
neither alive nor dead! Astonished 
at which, they sent to consult the 
oracle at Delphi, to whom the 
prophetess made this answer: 
''Of all the heroes, Qeomedes is 

lastr 

Vampirism is a belief common to 
many countries of Europe. There 
are twelve ''authenticated" cases 
with names and addresses in full, 
given with signatures of three army 
surgeons and many other men of 
education and standing, in Mayors 
Popular Superstitions. These vam- 
pires flourished in 1732. The char- 
acteristics of one of the creatures 
will represent all. Usually they be- 
long to corpses of young or middle 
aged persons, who die in the prime 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



13^ 



of life, suddenly, and whose spirits 
are supposed to become conscious 
in the grave and desire to prolong 
life in the body. They therefore 
sally out at night at convenient 
seasons, and approaching some in- 
nocent sleepers, suck the blood 
from their bodies and retire to live 
upon it until they come out again, 
lliose afflicted, gradually have a 
wasting sickness, and die of lack of 
blood and inanition. When a re- 
cent corpse is suspected of being a 
vampire, the grave is opened and 
the corpse is found to have the 
stomach full of blood, the cheeks 
rosy, and the form almost life-like. 

One of the tallest giants of which 
legend tells us, was a soldier in the 
army of the Venetian doge Dan- 
dolo. He was said to be fifty-four 
feet high, and wore a casque on his 
head as high as a turreted city. 
Strabo makes mention of the skel- 
eton of a giant sixty cubits in 
height Pliny tells us of another 
forty-six cubits. Boccaccio describes 
the body of a giant from bones 
discovered in a cave near Trapany, 
in Sicily, two hundred cubits in 
length; one tooth of this giant 
weighed two hundred ounces. This 
giant, however, was later explained 
by scientists to have been a masto- 
don. (A cubit is an ancient meas- 
ure of length originally represent- 
ed by the length of the forearm, 
from the elbow to the end of the 
longest finger. Its original length 
in Egypt was 20.63 inches, but it 
varied widely in different times and 
countries. It corresponds approxi- 
mately to the English yard.) 

At the discovery of America by 
Columbus, there were many mar- 
velous things told and believed by 
the Spaniards. Nothing was too 
marvelous, indeed, for the Spanish 
people to believe about the New 
World. It was said that in one part 



of the coast of El Nombre de Dios, 
the natives had such long ears that 
one was used for a bed and the 
other for a coverlid. Another tale 
was that they had found a people 
who lived on sweet scents alone, 
and were killed by foul smells. The 
noses of these smell-feeders, as 
they were called, were so big that 
they made up the whole head. 
There were other people who were 
quelled by the very sight of a cru- 
cifix, and all the strangers had to 
do was to hold one up before them 
and they would at once lay down 
their arms. 

In the merry days of good King 
Arthur lived Merlin, the enchanter, 
who could do anything under the 
sun he wanted to. A poor plough- 
man and his wife, having heard of 
the astonishing things done by the 
magician, determined to ask him 
for a son, since they had lived long 
years together without having any. 
So, with tears in his eyes, he be- 
seeched Merlin that he might have 
a child, "even though it should be 
no bigger than my thumb!" Now 
Merlin had a strange knack of tak- 
ing people exactly at their words, 
and without waiting for any more 
explicit directions, he at once 
granted his request What was the 
ploughman's astonishment when 
he got back home, to find his wife 
with a tiny child that it required a 
strong exercise of vision to see; 
but his growth was equally won- 
derful, for. 

In four minutes he grew so fast. 

That he t>ecame as tall 
As was the ploughman's thumb in length 

And so she did him calL 

The christening of this little fellow 
was a matter of much ceremony, 
for the fairy queen, attended by all 
her company of elves, was present 
at the rite, and then and there he 
received the name grown so fa- 



X370 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



mous that every child has heard of 
him, Tom Thumb. 

His costume is worth a brief 
notice. His hat was made of a 
beautiful oak leaf; his shirt was 
composed of a fine spider's web; 
his hose and doublet of thistle- 
down. His stockings were made 
of the rind of a delicate green ap- 
ple, and the garters were two of the 
finest little hairs one can imagine, 
out of his mother's eyebrows. 
Shoes made of the skin of a little 
mouse and tanned most curiously. 
His death was caused by his get- 
ting entangled in a spider's web, 
and being suffocated. The names 
given to the fingers in many parts 
of the coimtry begin with that of 
Tom; thus in Essex, England, they 
say: "Tom Thumbkin, Bess Bump- 
kin, Bill Wilkin, Long Linkin, 
Little Dick." 

The Roumanians believe in fair- 
ies, werewolves, vampires, sorcer- 
ers, water-spirits, the power of the 
evil eye, and other phenomena. 
The Stafii are sinister demons, 
harmful beings who abide in deso- 
late places in the midst of ruins, 
and who wage implacable war with 
mankind. They are the most dan- 
gerous of neighbors, and the un- 
happy man who may forget their 
daily supply of food and drink or 
the Saturday's basin of pure water 
for their ablutions, is condemned to 
feel the effects of their vengeance. 
There is, however, a remedy, of 
which the priest takes charge. He 
will bless in your presence a small 
bottle of oil, in which a paper, mys- 
teriously folded, is soaked. This 
paper is fixed on the crown of the 
head with seven hairs taken from 
the spring of the hair of the fore- 
head. In less than three weeks, 
Stafii or Strigoi (vampires) will 
have ceased their pursuit. 

The "Balauri," whose jaws reach 



from earth to heaven, are endowed 
with such wonderful vitality that 
when cut to pieces by the legend- 
ary hero, with whom they main- 
tain a perpetual warfare, the de- 
tached pieces are in vivid move- 
ment, and seek to reunite as long 
as the sun remains above the hori- 
zon. 

The Zmei are another sort of 
monster of supernatural strength 
and size, and furnished with im- 
mense wings. They dwell in the 
center of the earth or in the depths 
of impenetrable forests, where they 
conceal their treasures, as also the 
maidens of royal race whom they 
have carried off. According to an- 
other belief widely credited, pre- 
cious stones are formed of the sali- 
va of serpents, so that their nests, 
if they could be found, should con- 
tain incalculable riches. 

But the most terrible of all these 
superstitions is the idea that no 
building will stand firm on its 
foimdations unless a human victim 
be walled up alive within it It is 
said that even to this day, in the re- 
mote towns and villages of Ron- 
mania, masons still hold this super- 
stition, and endeavor to work cot 
the charm in a figurative manner. 
They believe that every building 
in stone is haunted by a "stahie," 
the spirit of the person sacrificed 
(in imagination), to ensure the sta- 
bility of the structure. The masons 
watch for an opportunity to meas- 
ure the shadow of someone pass- 
ing, build the rule into the wall, and 
believe that in forty days the pass- 
er-by will die and become a stahie 

The Mexican Indians are grea 
smokers, and it is a general belie 
among them that the shooting stai 
are nothing else than the stumps 
the huge cigars thrown down tJ 
sky by the giant beings who g^ua 
the crops, and who should be p; 




kfagicians of the Middle Ages Bringing Forth the Spirits of the Dead. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1371 



pitiated, else there will be thunder- 
storms and the owners will fall sick 
and die. 

The giant Balams will carry off 
children for their own purposes 
and inculcate modesty by hit- 
ting a person who goes naked 
in the fields with an invisible stick. 

The winds are supernatural and 
strike terror to the heart of the 
Mayas of Yucatan. The whistling 
wind is called '^father strongbird." 
The night is full of horrors, among 
whom is the giant "Grab," who 
stalks into a town at midnight, and 
planting his feet like a huge Co- 
lossus, one on each side of the 
roadway, he seizes some incautious 
passer-by and breaks his legs with 
his teeth, or conquers him with 
sudden faintness. 

Another giant fiend is the man 
of the woods, called by the Spanish, 
**Salonge." He is a huge fellow, 
without bones or joints. For that 
reason, if he lies down he cannot 
get up again without great difficul- 
ty, hence he sleeps leaning against 
a tree. His feet are reversed, his 
heels being in front, the toes be- 
hind. He is larger and stronger 
than a bull, and his color is red. 
In his long arms he carries a stick 
as long as a tree-trunk. He is on 
the watch to seize and devour any- 
one going through the woods. To 
prevent this, you have to pluck a 
branch from a green tree and begin 
to dance. This invariably throws 
the woodman into convulsions of 
mirth. He laughs and laughs, un- 
til he falls to the ground, and once 
down, having no joints, he cannot 
rise, and the traveler can go on his 
way. It is singular, says Dr. Be- 
rendt, how widely distributed is the 
firm belief in this absurd fancy. 

Another ugly customer is the 
••priest without a neck." He is a 
hobgoblin so named because he 



has his head cut off even with his 
shoulders. He wanders around 
nights frightening everyone. 

The Troglodytes, which means 
dwellers in caves, were various un- 
civilized people, so named by the 
ancient Greek geographers because 
they had no abodes but caves. They 
were principally inhabitants of the 
western coast of the Red sea, along 
the shores of Upper Egypt, Aethio- 
pia; there were Troglodytes in 
Moesia, on the banks of the Dam- 
ube, and according to recent re- 
searches, also on the Canaries and 
other islands on the west coast of 
Africa. 

The accounts of these curious 
people, as given by ancient writers, 
always represent them as con- 
structing their dwellings under 
ground; as being hunters of such 
activity and skill that they take 
their game while in pursuit, living 
for the most part, however, on the 
flesh of serpents and lizards. They 
are described as being poor and in- 
different to their own interests, 
having no trade except in carbun- 
cles, for which, however, they were 
merely agents. Their language 
differed entirely from that of any 
other people, it being compared by 
Herodotus to the strident cry of the 
bat 

These summary accounts, inco- 
herent and sometimes fantastic, 
have had the effect of rendering 
most modem historians of African 
geography incredulous as to their 
truth. These extraordinary beings 
have been ordinarily banished to a 
world of the imagination, the spe- 
cies of whom antiquity has so 
largely multiplied even to the con- 
fines of known countries. Reliable 
travelers came, however, in their 
turn to discover in the very same 
regions where the ancients had lo- 
cated their Troglodytes, important 



1372 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tribes, living like them in subter- 
ranean abodes, natural or artificial. 

Their social condition is verv 
similar to that of the Arabs, whom 
the Matmatians imitate as closely 
as possible so long as it entails 
nothing contrary to their tradition- 
al legislation (Kanoun). They pos- 
sess a Zaonia, who enjoys a great 
reputation in the mountains, and 
their religious rites follow closely 
those oi the dissenting Ibbadites, 
whose beliefs they share. They 
bury their dead, according to Ara- 
bian custom, in shallow graves, 
so near the surface of the earth that 
a poet, in visiting the spot, has been 
able to say without exaggeration 
that in this strange land the dead 
occupy the place of the living, 
while the living "have for habita- 
tion true sepulchres." "When you 
see them come forth," the Arab 
poet goes on to say, "it seems as if 
they were rising for the day of 
judgment." 

In regard to the Troglodytes 
of the Canary Islands, the 
Guanches, Captain J. W. Gambler 
says: 

"Whether the Guanches owe 
their origin to some primordial 
race of men coexistent with the 
earliest genesis of man, or whether 
they brought these strongly mark- 
ed structural characteristics from 
Berber or other mainland races, 
does not affect the question of their 
antiquity. 

"These Iberians inhabited the 
greater part of western Europe in 
an infinitely remote period, prob- 
ably toward the termination of the 
last glacial epoch, which some 
would place at eighty to ninety 
thousand years ago. These men 
lived and died among the gigantic 
animals now extinct; among mam- 
moths, the giant elk of Iceland, the 
cave bear, and so forth." The 
author traces them through ages 



of slow development, until he says: 
"But now we come to a classic 
period in this Guanche life. For 
though they remained untouched 
by what was going on in the world, 
the world itself already began to 
feel a deep interest in these *F<m-- 
tunate Islands,' especially the 
Greeks and Phoenicians, to whose 
influence it is not to be doubted 
the islanders owed some advance 
in their ceramic art, and possibly 
improvements in their mode of life. 
For these were the islands of the 
Hesperides, and the peak of Ten- 
eriffe was the Atlas that bore up 
the heavens; and to these very isl- 
ands Homer made Jupiter send 
Menelaus as a reward for all his 
wrongs and all that he had suffered. 
They were the Elysian Fields, 
'those blessed isles ^ere the bit- 
terness of winter is unknown, and 
where the winds of the ocean for- 
ever freshen the balmy air.* This, 
too, is the home of Plato's vanished 
Atlantis, his ideal republic 

"It thus becomes a strange spec- 
ulation as to how aroimd the lives 
of these simple islanders, people 
only half emerged from the actual 
condition of primordial man, the 
most exquisite myths and the most 
deeply suggestive legends of old 
days have grouped themselves. 
Here were a people who scarcely 
knew vice. Paid vice was un- 
known; and the Spaniards record 
with wonder that tfiey never lied! 
But to return to the lustorical : In 
later days Pliny, historian of Pom- 
peii, mentions an expedition sent 
to *the Fortunate Islands/ which 
brought back its 'golden apples' 
(oranges), and alludes to those 
wonderful dragon trees, whose age 
has been computed by Humboldt 
as not less than 10,000 to 12,000 
years. One of these enormous 
trees stood within recent times at 
Orotava. It was the largest tree 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES, 



1573 



probably in the world, and was con- 
sidered especially sacred. It was 
the meeting place of all the island- 
ers on religious and political occa- 
sions. 

"The men were brave, a lie was 
an unheard of crime, and the 
treachery and fraud of the Span- 
iards a revelation to them. The 
women were notoriously chaste. 
Men had but one wife, and paid the 
profoundest respect to their fathers. 
The food was simple — the flesh of 
goats, with milk and fruit, and go- 
fio (still the main food of the isl- 
ands), which consists of the grain 
of barley crushed and roasted and 
mixed with milk or water, accord- 
ing to their circumstances. Life 
in every form was as precious as it 
is to a Brahmin, and they looked 
with horror on those whose voca- 
tion it was to destroy it. As is the 
case in China to this day, a butcher 
was an outcast, generally a crim- 
inal, who expiated the enormities 
of his crimes by having to imbue 
bis hands in the innocent blood of 
animals.** 

The belief in the vampire and 
the whole family of demons has its 
origin in the animism, spiritism, or 
personification of the barbarians, 
who, unable to distinguish the ob- 
jective from the subjective, ascribe 
good and evil influences and all 
natural phenomena to good and 
evil spirits. 

Under the names of vampire, 
wcrc-wolf, man-wolf, night-mare, 
night-demon — in the Illyrian 
tongue oupires, or leeches; in 
modem Greek broucolaques, and 
in our common tongue ghosts, each 
country having its own peculiar 
designation — the superstitious of 
the ancient amd modem world, of 
Chaldea and Babylonia, Persia, 
Egypt, and Syria, of lUyria, Po- 
land, Turkey, Servia, Germany, 



England, Central Africa, New 
England, and the islands of the 
Malay and Polynesian archipela- 
goes, designate the spirits which 
leave the tomb, generally in the 
night, to torment the living. 

The Hebrew synonym of demon 
was serpent; the Greek, diabolus, 
a calumniator, or impure spirit. 
The Rabbins were divided in opin- 
ions, some believing they were en- 
tirely spiritual, others that they 
were corporeal, capable of genera- 
tion and subject to death. 

As before suggested, it was the 
general belief that the vampire is a 
spirit which leaves its dead body 
in the grave to visit and torment 
the living. 

The modem Greeks are per- 
suaded that the bodies of the ex- 
communicated do not putrefy in 
their tombs, but appear in the night 
as in the day, and that to encounter 
them is dangerous. 

"The first theory of the vampire 
superstitions," remarks Tylor, "is 
that the soul of the living man, 
often a sorcerer, leaves its proper 
body asleep and goes forth, per- 
haps in the visible form of a straw 
or fluff of down, slips through the 
keyhole, and attacks a living vic- 
tim. Some of these Mauri come by 
night to men, sit upon their breasts, 
and suck their blood, while others 
think children are alone attacked, 
while to men they are nightmares. 

"The second theory is that the 
soul of a dead man goes from its 
buried body and sucks the blood of 
living men; the victim becomes 
thin, languid, bloodless, and, falling 
into a rapid decline, dies." 

The belief of the Obi of Jamaica 
and the Vaudoux or Vodun of the 
west African coast, Jamaica, and 
Haiti, is essentially the same as that 
of the vampire, and its worship and 
superstitions, which in Africa in- 
clude child-murder, still survive in 



1374 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



those parts, as well as in several 
districts among the negro popula- 
tion of our Southern states. The 
negro laid under the ban of the Obi 
or who is vaudouxed or, in the ver- 
nacular, "'hoodooed/' slowly pines 
to death. 

In New England, the vampire 
superstition is unknown by its 
proper name. It is there believed 
that consumption is not a physical 
but a spiritual disease, obsession, 
or visitation; that as long as the 
body of a dead consumptive rela- 
tive has blood in its heart it is proof 
that an occult influence steals from 
it for death and is at work draining 
the blood of the living into the 
heart of the dead and causing his 
rapid decline. 

In some places, the specter ap- 
pears as in the flesh, walks, talks, 
infests villages, ill uses both men 
and beasts, sucks the blood of their 
near relations, makes them ill, and 
finally causes their death. 

Russian superstition supposes 
nine sisters who plague mankind 
with fever. They lie chained up in 
caverns, and when let loose, pounce 
upon men without pity. 

The late Monsieur de Vassimont, 
counselor of the chamber of the 
courts of Bar, was informed by 
public report in Monrovia that it 
was common enough in that coun- 
try to see men who had died some 
time before, "present themselves 
in a party and sit down to table 
with persons of their acquaintance 
without saying a word and nodding 
to one of the party, the one indicat- 
ed would infallibly die some days 
after." 

About 1735, on the frontier of 
Hungary, a dead person appeared 
after ten years' burial, and caused 
the death of his father. In 1730, in 
Turkish Servia, it was believed that 
those who had been passive vam- 
pires during life became active after 



death; in Russia, that the vampire 
does not stop his unwelcome visits 
at a single member of a family, but 
extends his visits to the last mem- 
ber, which is the Rhode Island be- 
Uef. 

The captain of grenadiers in the 
regiment of Monsieur le Baron 
Trenck, cited by Calmet, declares 
"that it is only in their family and 
among their own relations that 
the vampires delight in destroying 
their species." 

The inhabitants of the island of 
Chio do not answer unless called 
twice, being persuaded that the 
brucolaques do not call but once» 
and when so called the vampire dis- 
appears, and the person called dies 
in a few days. The classic writers 
from Sophocles to Shakespeare and 
from Shakespeare to our own time, 
have recognized the superstition. 

In Hungary and Servia, to de- 
stroy the demon it was considered 
necessary to exhume the body, in- 
sert in the heart and other parts of 
the defunct, or pierce it through 
with a sharp instrument, as m the 
case of suicides, upon which it ut- 
ters a dreadful cry, as if alive; it is 
then decapitated and the body 
burned. In New England, the 
body is exhumed, the heart biuTied, 
and the ashes scattered. The dis- 
covery of the vampire's resting 
place was itself an art. 

In Hungary and in Russia, they 
choose a boy young enough to be 
certain that he is innocent of any 
impurity, put him on the back of 
a horse which has never stumbled 
and is absolutely black, and make 
him ride over all the graves in the 
cemetery. The grave over which 
the horse refuses to pass is reputed 
to be that of a vampire. 

The real belief in vampires is to 
be found at the birthplace of Gil- 
bert Stuart, the painter, at the head 
of Petaquamscott pond, six miles 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1375 



from Newport, across the bay, and 
about the same distance from Nar- 
ragansett Pier, in the state of 
Rhode Island. 

By some mysterious survival, 
occult transmission, or remarkable 
atavism, this region, including 
ivithin its radius the towns of Exe- 
ter, Foster, Kingstown, East 
Greenwich, and others, with their 
scattered hamlets and more pre- 
tentious villages, is distinguished 
by the prevalence of this remark- 
able superstition — a survival of the 
days of Sardanapalus, of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, and of New Testament 
history in the closing years of what 
we are pleased to call the enlight- 
ened nineteenth century. It is an 
extraordinary instance of a bar- 
baric superstition outcropping in 
and coexisting with a high general 
culture, of which Max Miiller and 
others have spoken, and which is 
not so uncommon, if rarely so ex* 
tremely aggravated, crude, and 
painfuL 

A list of giants of mythology and 
fable (from "The Reader's Hand- 
book"): 

ACAMAS. one of the Cyclops. 
(Greek fable.) 

ADAMASTOR. the giant Spirit of 
the Cape. His lips were black, teeth 
blne» eyes shot with livid fire, and voice 
louder than thunder. (Canioens: 
Lusiad, t.) 

AEGAEON, the hundred-handed 

S'ant. One of the Titans. (Greek 
ble.) 

AGRIOS, one of the giants called Ti- 
tans. He was killed by the Parcae. 
(Greek fable.) 

ALCYONEUS or ALCION. brother 
of Porphyrion. He stole some of the 
Sun's oxen, and Jupiter sent Hercules 
against him. but he was unable to pre- 
vail, for immediately the giant touched 
the earth he received fresh vigor. Pal- 
las* seizing him. carried him beyond 
the moon, and he died. His seven 
daughters were turned into halcyons or 
kingfishers. (Apollonius Rhodus: Ar- 
gonauttc Expedition, i., 6.) 

ALGEBAR. The giant Orion is to 
called by the Arabs. 



ALIFANFARON or ALIPHA- 
RON. emperor of Trapoban. (Don 
Quixote.) 

ALOEOS. son of Titan and Terra. 
(Greek fabl«.) 

ALOIDES, sons of Aloeus, named 
Otos and Ephialties. (q. v.) 

AMERANT, a cruel giant, slain by 
Guy of Warwick (Percy: Reliques.) 

ANGOULAFFRE. the Saracen 
giant. He was twelve cubits high, his 
face measured three feet in breadth, his 
nose was nine inches long, his arms and 
legs six feet He had the strength of 
thirty men, and his mace was the solid 
trunk of an oak tree, 300 years old. 
The tower of Pisa lost its perpendicu- 
larity by the weight of this giant lean- 
ing against it to rest himself. He wias 
slain in single combat by Rolaifd) at 
Fronsac. (L'Epine: Croquemitaine.) 

ANTAEOS, sixty cubits (eifijhty-five 
feet) in height (Plutarch.) 

ARGES, one of the Cyclops. (Greek 
fable.) 

ASCAPART, a giant thirty foef high, 
and with twelve inches between his eyes. 
Slain by Sir Bevis of Southampton. 
(British fable.) 

ATLAS, the giant of the Atlas Moun- 
tains, who carries the world on his back. 
A book of maps is called an "atlas" 
from this giant (Greek fable.) 

BALAN. "bravest and strongest of 
the giant racet" (Amadis of Gaul.) 

BELLE, famous for his three leaps, 
which gave names to the places called 
Wanlip. Burstall, and Bellegrave. (Brit- 
ish fable.) 

BELLERUS, the giant from whom 
Cornwall derived its name "Bellerium." 
(British fable.) 

BLUNDERBORE, the giant who 
was drowned t>ecause Jack scuttled his 
boat O^ck the Giant-killer.) 

BRIAREOS. a giant with a hundred 
hands. One of the Titans. (Greek 
fable.) 

BROBDINGNAG, a country of 
giants, to whom an ordinary sized man 
was "not half so big as the round little 
worm pricked from the lazy fingers of 
a maid.'* (Swift: Gulliver's Travels.) 

BRONTES, one of the Cyclops. 
(Greek fable.) 

BURLONG. a giant mentioned in 
the romance of Sir Tryamour. 

CACUS, of mount Aventine, who 
dragged the oxen of Hercules into his 
cave tail foremost (Greek fable.) 

CALIGORANT. the Egyptian giant, 
who entrapped tra\'elers with an invisi- 
ble net (Ariosto.) 



1376 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



CARACULIAMBO, the giant that 
Don Qnixote intended should kneel at 
the foot of Dulcinea. (Cervantes, Don 
Quixote.) 

CEUS or CO BUS, son of Heaven 
and Earth. H« married Phoebe, and 
was the father of Latona. (Greek 
fable.) 

CHALBROTH, the stem of all the 
giant race. (Rabelais: PantagrueL) 

CHRISTOPHERUS or ST. 
CHRISTOPHER, the giant who car- 
ried Christ across a ford, and was well- 
nigh borne down with the "child's" ever- 
increasing weight ((Christian legend.) 

CLYTIOS, one of the giants who 
made war upon the gods. Vulcan 
killed him with a red-hot iron mace. 
(Greek fable.) 

COLBRAND, the Danish giant slain 
by Guy of Warwick. (British fable.) 

CORFLAMBO, a giant who was al- 
ways attended by a dwarf. (Spenser: 
Faerie Quecne, iv., 8.) 

CORINEUS. (See Ck)gmagog.) 

CORMORAN, the Cornish giant 
who fell into a pit twenty feet deep, 
dug by Jack and filmed over with a 
thin layer of grass and gravel. (Jack 
the Giant-killer.) 

CORMORANT, a giant discomfited 
by Sir Brian. (Spenser: Faerie 
Queene, vi., 4.) 

COTTOS, one of the three-hundred- 
headed giants, son of Heaven and 
Earth. His two brothers were Briareus 
and Gyges. 

COULIN, the British giant pursued 
by Debon, and killed by falling into a 
deep chasm. (British fable.) 

CYCLOPS, giants with only one eye, 
and that in the middle of the forehead. 
They lived in Sicily, and were black- 
smiths. (Greek fable.) 

DESPAIR, of Doubting Castle, who 
found Christian and Hopeful asleep on 
his grounds, and thrust them into a 
dungeon. He evilly entreated them, 
but they made their escape by the key. 
"Promise." (Bunyan: Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress, i.) 

DONDASCH, a giant contemporary 
with Seth. "There were giants in the 
earth in those days." (Oriental fable.) 

ENCELADOS, "most powerful of 
the giant race." Overwhelmed under 
mount Etna. (Greek fable.) 

EPHIALTES, a giant who grew nine 
inches every month. (Greek fable.) 

ERIX, son of Goliath (sic) and 
grandson of Atlas. He invented leger- 
demain. (Duchat: Oeuvres de R2i>e- 
lais [1711-]) 



EURYTOS, one of the giants who 
made war with the gods. Bacchus 
killed him with his thyxBua. (Greek 
fable.) 

FERRACUTE, a giant thirty-six feet 
in height, with the strength of forty 
men. (Turpin's Chronicle.) 

FERRAGUS, a Portuguese giant. 
(Valentine and Orson.) 

FIERABRAS, of Alexandria, "the 
greatest giant that ever walked the 
earth." (Mediaeval romance.) 

FION, son of Comnal, an enormous 
giant, who could place his feet on two 
mountains, and then stoop and drink 
from a stream in the valley between. 
(Gaelic legend.) 

FIORGWYN, the gigantic father of 
Frigga. (Scandinavian mythology.) 

FRACASSUS, father of Ferragos^ 
and son of Morganta. 
Primus erat quidam Fracassus prole gi- 
gantism 
Cujus stirps olim Morganto venit ab 

iUo, 
Qui bacchioconem campanae ferre sole- 
bat. 
Cum quo mille hominum colpos fracas- 
set in uno. 
(Merlin Cocaius (L e. Theophile Folen- 
go): Histoire Macaronique [1606]). 

GABRARA, father of Goliah (sic) of 
Secondille, and inventor of the cnstom 
of drinking healths. (Duchat: Oeavies 
de Rabdais, [1711]). 

GALUGANTUS, the giant who lived 
with Hocus-Pocus the conjurer. Gack 
the Giant-killer.) 

GARAGANTUA, same as Gargantna 
(q. v.). 

GARGANTUA, a giant so large 
that it required 900 ells of linen for the 
body of his shirt, and 200 more for the 
gussets; 406 ells of velvet for his shoes, 
and 1 100 cow-hides for their soles. His 
toothpick was an elephant's tusk, and 
17^913 cows were required to give him 
milk. This was the giant who swal- 
lowed five pilgrims, with their staves, 
in a salad. (Rabelais: Gargantua.) 

GEM MAGOG, son of the giant 
Oromedon, and inventor of Poulan 
shoes, i. e. shoes with a spur behind, 
and turned up toes fastened to the 
knees. These shoes were forbidden by 
Charles V. of France, in 1365, but tlie 
fashion revived again. (Duchat: 
Oeuvres de Rabelais [1711]). 

GERYONEO, a giant with three 
bodies (Philip II. of Spain). (Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, v., ii.) 

GIRALDA, the giantess. A statne 
of victory on the top of an old Moorish, 
tower in Seville. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1377 



GODMER, son of Albion, a British 
giant slain by Canutus, one of the com- 
IMnions of Brute. (Spenser: Faerie 
Qneene, iL la) 

GOEMAGOT, the Cornish giant 
who wrestled with Corineus and was 
hurled over a rock into the sea. The 
place where he fell was called "Lam 
Goemagot." (Geoffrey: British His- 
tory.) 

GOGMAGOG, king of the giant race 
of Albion when Brute colonized the 
island. He was slain by Corineus. The 
two statues of Guildhall represent Gog- 
magog and Corineus. The giant carries 
a pole-axe and spiked balls. This is 
the tame as Goemagot 

GRANGOUSIA, the giant king of 
Utopia. (Rabelais: Pantagruel.) 

GRANTORTO, the giant who with- 
held the inheritance of Irena. (Spenser: 
Faerie Queene, v.) 

GRIM, the giant slain by Greathcart, 
because he tried to stop pilgrims in 
their way to the Celestial City. (Bun- 
yan: Pilgrim's Progress, iL) 

GRUMBO, the giant up whose sleeve 
Tom Thumb crept. The giant, think- 
ing some insect had crawled up his 
sleeve, gave it a shake, and Tom fell 
into the sea, when a fish swallowed 
him. (Tom Thumb.) 

GYGES, who had fifty heads and a 
hundred hands. He was one of the 
Tiuns. (Greek fabler) 

HAPMOUCHE, the giant "fly- 
catcher." He invented the drying and 
smoking of neats' tongues. (Duchat: 
Oeuvres de Rabelais [1711]). 

HIPPOLYTOS. one of the giants 
who made war with th« gods. He was 
killed by Hermet« (Greek fable.) 

HRASVELG, the giant who keeps 
watch over the Trees of Life, and de- 
vours the dead. (Scandinavian Mythol- 
ogy) 

HURTALI, a giant in the time of 
the Flood. He was too large of stat- 
ure to get into the ark, and therefore 
rode straddle-legs on the roof. He 
perpetuated the giant race. Atlas was 
his grandson. 

INDRACITTRAN, a famous giant 
of Indian mythology. 

JOTUN, the giant of Jortunheim or 
Giant-land, in Scandinavian story. 

JULIAKCE, a giant of Arthurian 
romance. 

KIFRI, the giant of atheism and in- 
fidelity. 

KOTTOS. a giant with a hundred 
hands. One of the Tiuns. (Greek 
fable.) 



MALAMBRUNO, the giant who 
shut up Antonomasia and her husband 
in the tomb of the deceased queen of 
Candaya. (Cervantes: Don Quixote, 
II., iii., 45.) 

MARGUTTE, a giant ten feet high, 
who died of laughter when he saw a 
monkey pulling on his boots. (Pulci: 
M organ te Maggiore.) 

MAUGYS, the giant warder with 
whom sir Lybus did battle. (Libeaux.) 

MAUL, the giant of sophistry, killed 
by Greatheart, who pierced him under 
the fifth rib. (Bunyan: Pilgrim's 
Progress, ii.) 

MONT-ROGNON, one of Charle- 
magne's paladins. 

MORGANTE, a ferocious giant who 
died by the bite of a crab. (Pulci: Mor- 
gante Maggiore.) 

MUGILLO, a giant famous for his 
mace with six balls. 

OFFERUS, the pagan name of St 
Christopher, whose body was twelve 
ells in height. (Christian legend.) 

OGIAS, an antediluvian giant, men- 
tioned in the apocrypha condemned by 
Pope Gelasius I. (492-496.) 

ORGOGLIO, a giant thrice the 
height of an ordinary man. He took 
captive the Red Cross Knight, but was 
slain by King Arthur. (Spenser: Fae- 
rie Qucene, i.) 

ORION, a giant hunter, noted for 
his beauty. He was slain by Diana, and 
made a constellation. (Greek fable.) 

OTOS, a giant, brother of Ephialtes. 
They both grew nine inches every 
month. According to Pliny, he was 
forty-six cubits (sixty-six feet) in 
height (Greek fable.) 

PALLAS, one of the giants called 
Titans. Minerva flayed him, and used 
his skin for armour; hence she was 
called Pallas Minerva. (Greek fable.) 

PANTAGRUEL, son of Gargantua, 
and last of the race of giants. (Rabe- 
lais.) 

POLYBOTES. one of the giants who 
fought against the gods. The sea-god 
pursued him to the island of Cos, and, 
tearing away part of the island, threw 
it on him and buried him beneath the 
mass. (Greek fable.) 

POLYPHEMOS. king of the Cy- 
clops. His skeleton was found at 
Trapani, in Sicily, in the fourteenth 
century, by which it is calculated that 
his height was 500 feet. (Greek fable.) 

PORPHYRON, one of the giants 
who made war with the gods. He 
hurled the island of Delos against Zeus; 
but Zeus, with the aid of Hercules, over- 
came him. (Greek fable.) 



1378 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



PYRACMON, one of the Cyclops. 
(Greek fable.) 

RITHO, the giant who commanded 
king Arthur to send his beard to com- 
plete the lining of a robe. (Arthurian 
romance.) 

SLAY-GOOD, a giant elain by the 
Great-heart. (Bunyan : Pilgrim's Progress, 

ii.) 

STEROPES, one of the Cyclops, 
(Greek fable.) 

TARTARO, the Cyclops of Basque 
legendary lore. 

TEUTOBOCHUS, a king, whose re- 
mains were discovered in 1613, near the 
river Rhone. His tomb was 30 feet 
long. (Mazurier: Histoire Veritable 
du Geant Teutobochus [1618]). 

THAON, one of the giants who made 
war with the gods. He was killed by 
the Parcae. (Hesiod: Theogony.) 

TITANS, a race of giants. (Greek 
fable.) 

TIT Y OS, a giant whose body cov- 
ered nine acres of land. He tried to 
defile Latona; but Apollo cast him into 
Tartarus, where a vulture fed on his 
liver, which grew again as fast as it was 
devoured. (Greek fable.) 

TYPHOEUS, a giant with hundred 
heads, fearful eyes, and most terrible 
voice. He was the father of the Hair- 
pies. Zeus, Qupiter) killed him with a 
thunderbolt, and he lies buried under 
mount Etna. (Hesiod: Theogony.) 

TYPHON, son of Typhoeus, a giant 
with a hundred heads. He was so tall 
that his heads touched heaven. His 
offspring were Gorgon, Geryon, Cer- 
bcros, and the hydra of Lerne. Typhon 
lies buried under mount Etna. (Homer: 
Hymns.) 

WIDE-NOSTRILS, a huge giant, 
who lived on windmills, and died from 
eating a lump of fresh butter. (Rabe- 
lais: Pantagruel, iv., 17.) 

YOHAK, the giant guardian of the 
caves of Babylon. (Southey: Thalaba, 
V.) 

NAIL PARINGS— The Rus- 
sians carry about with them the 
parings of an owl's claws and of 
their own nails, to enable them, 
should they die suddenly, to climb 
the steep mountains which they 
are supposed to climb after death. 

PSYCHIC PHENOMENA— 
According" to a superstition current 
among the Irish, as well as the 



American Indians, dogs share with 
hogs and horses the power to see 
supernatural beings which are in- 
visible to men. 

The activity of the soul is illus- 
trated by an old story of an apothe- 
cary who, during his sleep, read his 
prescriptions through his finger- 
tips, and in the sonmambulic 
state made them up better than he 
could when awake. 

The hypnotist believes that a 
pin-scratch on the negative of a 
photographed subject produces a 
similar mark on the body of the 
subject. 

If a person possessed of second 
sight sees the phantom of a woman 
standing at a man's left hand, it is 
a sign that the phantom oi the liv- 
ing person will some day be his 
wife. (Scotch.) 

To look upon the shoulder-bone 
of a black lamb, confers second 
sight 

The seventh daughter, like the 
seventh son, is a clairvoyant, and 
can tell your fortune. 

When the seer in a vision sees a 
shroud about one, it is a sure sign 
of death. 

In ancient times in Greece, it 
was believed that what an insane 
person prophesied would come 
true. 

Cicero, in his first work on divi- 
nation, gives a story of the predic- 
tion of the death of Alexander by 
an Indian about to die on the fu- 
neral pile. 

If you look over the shoulder of 
one who can see spirits and future 
events, you can see the same 
thing. 

When a seer sees a spark of fire 
fall upon one's arm or breast, it is 
a sign of a dead child which the 
person will carry there. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1379 



If a clairvoyant sees a woman 
standing at a man's left hand, it is 
a presage that she will be his wife, 
whether they are married to others 
or not married at the time of the 
apparition. 

In 1752, there was a strange Por- 
tuguese woman who could see any- 
thing, no matter how covered up 
or concealed. She could look into 
the earth and see water many feet 
below the surface, and could see 
anything that was covered six feet 
deep with stuffs, provided the stuffs 
did not include anything red. The 
king of Portugal, greatly at a loss 
for water in his newly built palace, 
consulted her; and after a glance 
around, she pointed out an abun- 
dant spring, upon which his majes- 
ty rewarded her with a pension for 
life. 

An oracle foretold that Aeschy- 
lus, the great Greek dramatist, 
would die by a blow from heaven. 
This is said to have been fulfilled 
by the manner of his death. An 
eagle, wishing to crack the shell 
of a tortoise, had carried it up very 
high, to let it fall on a stone. Mis- 
taking the bald head of Aeschylus 
for a stone, he let the tortoise 
fall upon it and instantly killed him. 

Claus the Fool at the court at 
Weimar suddenly entered the 
privy council and exclaimed: 
"There are you all consulting about 
very weighty things no doubt, but 
no one considered how the fire at 
Coburg is to be extinguished!*' It 
was afterward discovered that a fire 
was raging at the very time in Co- 
burg. (Steinbeck.) 

Second sight is believed to be 
contagious, and Martin remarks 
that young persons are not only 
infected by the touch, but often by 
the slightest contact with the seer. 
Visions of battles and processions 
have been seen in Scandinavia, first 



by one and then by hundreds, who 
distinctly saw the passage of an 
army of foot and horse in natural 
shape, and even battles between 
the two armies. Mothers have 
been known to see a vision, and 
transfer the image to her child, so 
that the little one would tremble 
with fear as long as the ghost was 
in sight 

Volga was a Russian hero, and 
a soothsayer told him he would be 
killed by his horse. So he ordered 
the animal to be slaughtered, and 
long after he mounted its fleshless 
skeleton. But a serpent came out 
of its whitened skull and stung the 
hero to death. Thus one cannot 
escape his fate! 

A Hanoverian knight was walk- 
ing in the garden of the royal pal- 
ace and saw a funeral procession 
approaching from the castle. At 
the same time, he heard all the 
bells ringing. Much surprised, the 
knight went into the castle and 
inquired who was being buried. 
Everyone laughed at him. Six days 
afterwards, the news was received 
that King George of the Hanove- 
rian family had died on that day 
and at the very moment when the 
knight had seen the procession. 

If you have some dread in your 
mind, a presentiment, drive it away 
by calling over slowly one after the 
other the seven wonders of the 
world. Presentiment and the evil 
also will flee. (The seven wonders 
of the world are : 1. The pyramids 
of Eg>'pt. 2. The hanging gar- 
dens of Babylon. 3. The tomb of 
Mausolos. 4. The Temple of Di- 
ana at Ephesus. 5. The Colossos 
of Rhodes. 6. The statue of Zeus 
by Phidias. 7. The palace of Cy- 
rus cemented with gold.) 

In the year 400, St Ambrose, in 
the church of Milan, Italy, fell 
asleep during mass and discovered 



1380 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



the death of St Martin of Tours, 
which had just occurred. When 
he awoke he said: ''It has been a 
great blessing to me to sleep, since 
God has worked a great miracle. 
Know that my brother St. Martin 
has just died." They noted the day 
and hour, and found that St. Martin 
had actually died at that time. St 
Gregory of Tours, an historical 
writer, states this fact 

Goethe says in his autobiography 
that his grandfather had the power 
of prophecy, especially in matters 
relating to himself, of which he 
gives some instances, and also says 
that persons who were otherwise 
destitute of such a power would 
suddenly acquire it when in the 
presence of his grandfather. 

Jajali was a Brahman who ac- 
quired, by asceticism, a supernat- 
ural power of locomotion, of which 
he was so proud that he thought 
himself superior to all men. A 
voice from the sky telling him that 
he was inferior to Tuladhara, a 
trader, brought him to his senses, 
and he went meekly to the trader 
and learned of him. 

The German philosopher Schel- 
ling gives a very interesting narra- 
tive of the sudden discovery by a 
person who was clairvoyant, of a 
death in her family at a distance of 
more than 150 leagues, the letter 
being on its way and confirming 
the soul-sight 

The secretary of Talleyrand re- 
lates a story of the Prince's escape 
from death by a sudden intuition. 
*'The Prince remarked, *I can never 
forget that I was once gifted for 
a moment with an extraordinary 
prescience, which was the means 
of saving my life ; without that sud- 
den and mysterious inspiration, I 
should not be here to tell of it' " 

It is a Manx belief that people 
who have a hairy cross on their 



breasts, or whose eyebrows meet, 
often have the faculty of second- 
sight, and so had those of post- 
humous birth. Such people, if they 
go into a churchyard on the eves 
of the New Year, of St Mark's 
day, and of Midsummer day, can 
tell who will be buried in it during 
the ensuing year. A child whose 
eye touches water in baptism has 
no chance of becoming second- 
sighted. 

If one goes on Christmas night 
in the morning twilight into a 
wood or forest without uttering a 
word or letting a sound be heard, 
without looking around, without 
eating or drinking, without seeing 
any fire, and follow a path leading 
to a church, when the sun is rising, 
he will see as many funerals as will 
pass that way during the year. He 
can also see how the produce will 
be in the meadows and pastures, 
and whether any fires will break 
out, or epidemics occur; in fact, for 
the time, he will be clairvoyant 

Before Caesar was assassinated, 
he had warning of his fate g^ven by 
indubitable omens. A few months 
before, colonists at Capua were de- 
molishing some old sepulchres, and 
discovered a tablet of brass in a 
tomb in which Capys, the founder 
of Capua, was said to have been 
buried, with an inscription on it to 
this effect: **Whonever the bones 
of Capys are discovered, a descend- 
ant of lulus will be slain by the 
hands of his kinsman, and his death 
avenged by dreadful disasters 
throughout Italy." (Suetonius.) 

The following story was told re- 
cently by a late manager of a 
Rhondda colliery, who is said to be 
a thoroughly trustworthy man, to a 
Welsh journalist. Sitting one Sun- 
day morning with three comrades 
in the lodge room at the bottom of 
a shaft, he was suddenly seized by 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1381 



an irresistible impulse to ascend at 
once, which impulse he told to the 
other men, who, however, refused 
to ga While talking, a drop of 
water £rom the wall above put out 
the lamp of one of the men, oblig- 
ing him to ascend. When he re- 
turned, the impulse stronger than 
before, again prompted the manag- 
er to urge their ascent, and again 
while talking a drop of water fall- 
ing into the lamp again put the 
light out In consternation, they 
gave the signal to be lifted up, and 
no sooner had they reached the 
open air than a terrible explosion 
took place, shattering the shaft, and 
filling it with debris, which could 
only be removed after some 
months of hard labor. This re- 
markable incident stands by no 
means alone, forebodings and 
dreams having warned the same 
miner at various times of coming 
danger. 

Oberlin relates some singular 
symbolical visions: "I beheld two 
young men who, from mere ambi- 
tion, were striving to force them- 
selves through the eye of a needle. 
They were exhausted, dripping 
with perspiration, and so red in the 
face that they appeared to be on 
the verge (rf apoplexy. Then a 
voice said to me: 'If these will 
peril everything — life, health, wife, 
and children — for a mere shadow, 
what should you not do to gain the 
great promise?* " 

Jacques Molay, grand master of 
the Knights Templars, as he was 
led to the stake, summoned the 
pope, Qement V., and the king, 
Phillippe IV., the former within 
forty days, and the latter within 
forty weeks, to appear before the 
throne of God to answer for his 
murder. They both died within the 
stated times. Montreal D*Albano, 
caUed "Fra Moriale," knight of St 



John of Jerusalem and captain of 
**the grand company," in the four- 
teenth century, when sentenced to 
death by Rienzi, summoned him 
to follow within the month, and 
Rienzi was, within the month, kill- 
ed by the fickle mob. George Wis- 
hart, a Scotch reformer, was con- 
demned to the stake by Cardinal 
Beaton. While the fire was blaz- 
ing about him, the martyr exclaim- 
ed in a loud voice: "He who from 
yon high place beholdeth me with 
such pride, shall be brought low, 
even to the ground, before the 
trees which have supplied these 
fagots have shed their leaves." It 
was March when these words were 
uttered, and the cardinal died in 
June. (Reader's Handbook.) 

It is said in the New Testament 
that the Holy Spirit gave the apos- 
tles the "gift of tongues," that is, 
they were supematurally endowedf 
with the power to speak and under-" 
stand intelligently various lan- 
guages of which they knew noth- 
ing, but which were adapted to the 
understanding of their hearers. 
Thus, if they were speaking to Per- 
sians, they would speak and under- 
stand Persian, although they never 
had even so much as heard it spok- 
en. Dr. Middleton, a great divine, 
says that we are not to understand 
this miracle as being occasional, so 
that the apostles would be able to 
discourse in Persian one hour and 
forget it the next, but that the 
apostles were endowed with the 
education of linguists without any 
study. 

In the first year of the reign of 
Edward IV., the brave Sir John 
Arundel! dwelt on the north coast 
of Cornwall, at a place called Ef- 
ford. As a magistrate, he had 
given some offense in his official 
capacity to a wild shepherd, who 
was reputed to possess supemat- 



1383 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ural powers. This man had been 
imprisoned by Arundell, and after- 
wards constantly waylaid him, and 
always looking at him in a threat- 
ening manner, muttered slowly: 



"When upon the yellow sand. 
Thou shall die by human hand. 



n 



Sir John was not free from the su- 
perstition of the age, and might in- 
deed have been impressed with the 
idea that the man intended to mur- 
der him. It is, however, certain 
that he removed from Efford on 
the sands to the wood-clad hills of 
Terrice or Trerice, and here he 
lived for many years, without the 
annoyance of his old enemy. But 
in the tenth year of Edward IV., 
he was obliged to lead a large host 
to an attack on St Michael's 
Mount The retainers of the Earl 
of Oxford, who had seized this 
place, on one occasion left the 
castle and made a sudden rush 
on Arundell's followers, who were 
encamped on the sands near Mara- 
zion. Arundell then received his 
death wound. Although he left 
Efford to "counteract the will of 
fate," the prophecy was fulfilled, 
and in his dying moments his old 
enemy appeared, singing joyously: 

^When upon the yellow sand. 
Thou shalt die by human hand.** 

It has been repeatedly recorded 
as historical, but seems more a 
matter of superstitious belief, that 
Christian Henry Heinecken, a 
baby bom at Liibeck in 1721, spoke 
his maternal tongue fluently when 
only ten months old; at the age of 
one year he knew the principal 
events of the Pentateuch; in two 
months more he was master of the 
entire histories of the Old and New 
Testaments; at two years and a half 
he answered the principal questions 
in geography, ancient and modem 
history. He spoke Latin, French, 
and High and Low German with 



great ease before the commence- 
ment of his fourth year, 1725, when 
he died. His constitution was so 
delicate that he was not weaned 
until a few months before his death. 

Melampus, the prophet, was ac- 
quainted with the language of 
worms, and when thrown into a 
dungeon, heard the worms com- 
municating to each other over his 
head that the roof would fall in, for 
the beams were eaten through. He 
imparted this intelligence to his 
jailers, and was removed to another 
dtmgeon. At night the roof did 
fall, and the king, amazed at this 
foreknowledge, released Melampus 
and gave him the oxen of Iphiklos. 
The prophet was a mythical per- 
sonage of Argos, famous as a 
soothsayer, a son of Am3rthaon. He 
was considered the first mortal who 
had prophetic power, and the first 
who practiced medicine. 

Nicetas Goniates gives the fol- 
lowing, in his life of Isaac Angelas: 

**When the emperor was in Ro- 
dostes, he went to see a man named 
Basilakus who, it was reputed, 
knew the future, though all "sensi- 
ble" people called him a fooL Bas- 
ilakus received the emperor with- 
out any signs of respect, and gave 
no answers to his questions; but, 
going up to a portrait of the em- 
peror which hung in the room, 
poked out the eyes with a stick 
and endeavored to knock the hat 
oflF. The emperor left him, think- 
ing he was indeed a fool. But 
soon the nobles revolted against 
him, took off his crown, and placed 
his brother Alexis on the throne, 
who had the emperor's eyes put 
out!" 



John Knox, the great Scottish 
former, when upon his deathbed, 
experienced a most remarkable 
presentiment as to the fate of his 
friend Kirkaldy of Grange, who» 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



i3«3 



during the civil war of that period, 
was holding the Castle of Edin- 
burgh in the cause of Mary Queen 
of Scots, and of the anti-Protestant 
party. The particulars are in this 
wise related by Calderwood, the 
historian, whose testimony is un- 
impeachable : 

**John Knox, being on his death- 
bed, sent for his colleague and suc- 
cessor, Mr. Lawson, Mr. Lindsay, 
Minister of Leith, and the elders 
and deacons of Edinburgh, all of 
whom he addressed in a farewell 
speech. 

"They were departing, when 
Knox called back Lindsay and 
Lawson, and desired to speak with 
them in private. *Weel, brother,' 
said he, « addressing Lindsay, 'I 
have desired all this day to have 
had you, that I may send you to 
yon man in the castle, whom you 
know I have loved so dearly. Go, 
I pray you, to him, and tell him 
that I have sent you to him yet 
once to warn him and bid him in the 
name of God, leave the evil cause 
and give over the castle. If not, he 
shall be brought down over the 
walls of it with shame, and hang 
against the sun. So hath God as- 
sured me.' Lindsay went to the 
castle accordingly and delivered 
Knox's message; but Kirkaldy, 
after conferring with Secretary 
Letington, said: *Go, tell Mr. 
Knox he is but a drything prophet' 
Mr. Lindsay returned to Mr. Knox 
and reported how he had discharg- 
ed his commission. 'Weill' said 
Knox, *! have been earnest with 
my God anent these two men. For 
the one, I am sorry so shall befall 
him; yet, God assureth me that 
there is mercy for his soul. For 
the other I have no warrant that it 
shall be well with him.' 

"Kirkaldy maintained the castle 
for some months after Knox's 
death, but was at last forced to sur- 



render, whereupon he was con- 
demned to death as a traitor and 
hanged at Edinburgh on the 3rd 
of August, 1572, at four o'clock in 
the afternoon, the sun being west" 

In 1821, there was a seer named 
Niebiill, who had many singular 
visions. He was a glazier, and at 
one time was engaged in putting 
in some panes of glass for a person 
of the name of Welfen. In the 
room where he was working he 
saw Welfen's daughter, a girl of 
eighteen, lying on a bier; and re- 
turning home, he met her funeral. 
The father heard of this, but would 
not believe it, and laid some wagers 
that his prediction would prove 
false. The seer then added that a 
certain number of carriages would 
follow, and that there would be a 
strong wind, as in carrying out the 
coffin a quantity of wood-shavings 
would be blown about. Lastly, he 
said that the coffin would be let 
down unevenly, so that they would 
be obliged to draw it up again out 
of the grave. After a short time, 
all this came to pass, exactly as he 
said 

One of the most famous in- 
stances of clairvoyance is in the 
thirty-eighth volume of the French 
Encyclopaedia, narrated by the 
Archbishop of Bordeaux, in which 
a young ecclesiastic was accustom- 
ed to get up at night in a state of 
somnambulism, compose and write 
sermons, and after writing a page, 
would read it aloud, and correct it 
with his pen. The archbishop put 
a piece of pasteboard under his 
chin to prevent his seeing the 
paper, but he wrote as usual, not 
regarding the interruption. Yet 
when the paper was removed and 
a blank sheet substituted, he was 
at once aware of the change. Thus 
he showed that he was able to see 
what he wished to see, but that he 



13*4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



did not depend upon the transmis- 
sion of light, and was not hindered 
by an opaque substance. 

The Buddhists believe that a 
man can arrive at such a state of 
perfection that he has transcendant 
faculties of knowledge, the inner 
eye, the inner ear, knowledge of all 
thoughts, and recollection of his 
previous existences (for they hold 
that we have all lived here on earth 
before, some of us several times). 
He is, if an adept, capable of re- 
ducing the body to the size of an 
atom, increasing weight and size 
at will, making the body light at 
will, reaching any object, no matter 
how remote, unlimited exercise of 
the will, absolute power over self 
and others, subjecting the elements 
and suppressing the desires. 

Galen, the great Greek physi- 
cian, who lived during the second 
century, seemed to be possessed of 
an inner vision of such clearness 
that he predicted the most minute 
things about his patients. For in- 
stance, he predicted to the Senator 
Sextus, then in perfect health, that 
upon the third day he would be 
seized with fever, that this fever 
would decrease upon the sixth, it 
would abate, return on the four- 
teenth, and on the seventeenth he 
would entirely lose it in a violent 
sweat So it was. A young Ro- 
man l)ring sick of fever, the physi- 
cians wished to bleed him; but 
Galen said it would be unnecessary, 
as the young man would soon 
bleed of his own accord from the 
left nostril. He did, and recovered. 

Anglo-Indians and all who live 
in Asiatic cotmtries, are aware that 
the natives have means of convey- 
ing news which at important junc- 
tures enable them to forestall the 
government Thus throughout the 
Indian mutiny, the intelligence of 
all the important events, such as 



battles, capture of cities, massacres, 
and investments, was in the bazaars 
twelve hours before it reached the 
authorities, and so much was it re- 
lied on by the natives, that fortunes 
were made in speculation, and 
other measures taken with absolute 
confidence. Nobody has ever been 
able to say how over htmdreds and 
even thousands of miles dispatches 
and news are carried, and the na- 
tives themselves have ever been 
reticent about it, only saying it is 
done by mind-transference, what 
we would modemly call telepathy. 
But such is the speed of the intelli- 
gence and the accuracy, that it is 
depended on as if it were the tele- 
graph. 

There is a peculiar power called 
"soul-seeing," that is, seeing by 
interior intuition. This, it is told, 
was exercised about two hundred 
years ago by a humble peasant in 
France, to detect a terrible mur- 
der. He visited the spot where the 
murder had been committed, and 
when he came upon the ground or 
touched the instrument with which 
the deed had been performed, he 
was greatly agitated- by the im- 
pression which was imparted. By 
means of this impression he ac- 
quired an idea of the murderers 
and their movements, and tracked 
them from house to house and vil- 
lage to village, until he actually 
found them. The wonderful per- 
formances of this man were attest- 
ed by magistrates and physicians 
in a public manner, and were of so 
much notoriety at the time, that it 
caused him to be presented at the 
court of Louis XIV. 

The following are two of the 
prophecies still related in Wales of 
a man gifted with prophetic pow- 
ers: 

After the birth of the son and 
heir of Sir George Herbert, of 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1595 



Swansea, a feast was held and 
great rejoicing at the christening 
of the child; and they shod the 
horses with silver, and many other 
costly things they did likewise. 
Twm, seeing this, said: "Ha! here 
is parade, and great pride about the 
baptism of a child bom to be hung 
by the string of his forehead-band," 
He was seized, and put in prison 
in Kenfig Castle; and the child 
was placed in the care of a nurse, 
who was ordered to watch him nar- 
rowly and carefully, night and day. 
This went on some time, when 
it was reported in the house that 
the nurse had the itch. Sir George 
and his lady sent for her to the hall 
to them, that they might see 
whether it was true or not, and 
when they saw that there was no 
itch upon her, they went with her 
back to the chamber where the 
child was, and the first thing they 
saw was the child in his cradle, hav- 
ing twisted his hands under the 
strings of his forehead-band, and 
entangled them in it in such a man- 
ner that he got choked, and died 
from that cause, or, as it might be 
said with truth, he hung himself in 
the strings of his forehead-band. 
Then they sent in haste to liberate 
Twm, and gave him some money. 
Another time he was threshing 
in a bam, and a young lad went by 
and addressed him as follows: 
••Well, Twm Celwydd Teg, what 
news have you to-day?" "There 
is news for thee," said he; "thou 
shalt die three deaths before this 
night," "Ha! Ha!" said the youth, 
••nobody can die more than one 
death," and he went on his way 
laughing. In the course of the day, 
the lad went to the top of a great 
tree on the brink of a river, to take 
a kite's nest; and in thmsting his 
hand into the nest, he was wound- 
ed by an adder, brought by the kite 
to her young ones, as she was ac- 



customed to do. This causing him 
to lose his hold, he fell down on a 
great branch and broke his neck, 
and from there into the river, and 
thus he met with three deaths, to be 
wounded by an adder, to break his 
neck, and to drown. 

The following very curious and 
very ancient prediction, entitled by 
popular tradition Mother Shipton's 
Prophecy, was published three 
hundred and thirty years ago: 

Carriages without horses shall go. 
And accidents fill the world with woe. 
Around the earth thoughts shall fly 
In the twinkling of an eye. 
The world upside down shall be, 
And gold be found at the root of a tree. 
Through hills men shall ride. 
And no horse be at his side. 
Under water men shall walk. 
Shall ride, shall sleep, shall talk. 
In the air men shall be seen, 
In black, in white, in green. 
Iron in the water shall float. 
As easy as a wooden boat. 
Gold shall be found and shown 
In a land that's not now known. 
Fire and water shall wonders do. 
England shall at last adroit a foe. 
The world to an end shall come 
In eighteen hundred and eighty-one. 

There was in Llangynwyd, in 
Wales, a strange seer, who was 
believed to be of "second sight** 
He received the name of John, 
the son of the Dewless, because 
he was found, as already men- 
tioned on the Dewless Hillock, 
on St. John's midsummer festival; 
and because he was a large man, 
he was called Big John, the son of 
the Dewless. He lived and died at 
Llangynwyd, where he was bur- 
ied with the family of Llwydarth. 
It was currently reported that in all 
probability he was the son of Rhys, 
the son of Riccart, the son of Ein- 
ion, by a lady of high rank, and 
when it was asserted in his pres- 
ence, he merely held his tongue, 
allowing that belief to continue. 
(From **Cofion leuan Bradford, 
from the book of Anthony Pywel 



1386 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of Llwydarth, at CoytrehiL" — ^lolo 

MSS.) 

The catalepsy of a lady in Lyons 
had been for some time the sub- 
ject of conversation in that city; 
and M. Petetain, a well-known 
physician of that city, had already 
published several very surprising 
facts relative to it, when Mr. Bal- 
anche, another scientist of Lyons, 
became desirous of being an eye- 
witness of the effects of this dis- 
order. 

He chose the moment for visit- 
ing this lady when she was ap- 
proaching the crisis (the time of 
the magnetic sleep). At the door 
he learned that it was not every- 
one, without distinction, was per- 
mitted to approach the patient's 
couch, but that she must herself 
g^ant the permission. She was, 
therefore, asked if she would re- 
ceive Mr. Balanche. To this she 
replied in the affirmative. Upon 
this he approached the bed, in 
which he saw a female lying mo- 
tionless, and who was, to all ap- 
pearance, sunk into a profotmd 
sleep. He laid his hand, as he was 
instructed, on the stomach of the 
somnambulist, and then began his 
interrogatories. The patient an- 
swered them all most correctly. 
This surprising result only excited 
the curiosity of the inquirer. He 
had with him several letters from 
his friends, one of which he took, 
with whose contents he imagined 
himself to be the best acquainted, 
and laid it folded upon the stomach 
of the patient He then asked the 
sleeper if she could read the letter, 
to which she answered, yes. He 
then inquired if it did not mention 
a certain person he had named. She 
denied that it did. Mr. Balanche 
being certain that the patient was 
mistaken, repeated the question, 
and received a similar answer in 
the negative; the patient even ap- 



peared angry at this, and pushed 
the letter away. Mr. Balanche, 
struck with this obstinacy, went to 
one side with the letter, read it, and 
found to his great astonishment 
that he had not laid the letter he 
intended to have selected oo the 
stomach of the sleeper; and that, 
therefore, he was in error. He ap- 
proached the bed a second time, 
laid that particular letter on the 
place, and the patient then said, 
with a certain degree ol satisfac- 
tion, that she read the name which 
he previously named. 

This experiment, doubtless, 
would have satisfied most men; but 
Mr. Balanche went further still. 
He had been told that the sleeper 
could read writing and letters even 
through walls. He asked if this 
were really the case, to which she 
replied in the affirmative. He there- 
fore took a book, went into the ad- 
joining room, held with one hand a 
leaf against the wall, and with the 
other took hc^d of one erf those who 
were present Then, joining hands, 
they formed a chain which reached 
to the patient, on whose stomach 
the last person laid his hand The 
patient read the leaves that were 
held to the wall, which were often 
turned over, and read them without 
making the smallest error. 

Second sight is a power believed 
to be possesed by certain persons, 
of seeing future events, particular- 
ly of a disastrous nature, by an ex- 
hibition of the persons to whom 
these events relate, accompanied by 
such emblems as denote their fate. 
Thus, if a man be dying or about to 
die, his image will appear exactly 
as in its natural state, but in a 
shroud, with other funereal appur- 
tenances, to a second-sighted per- 
son, who perhaps never saw his face 
in reality. If such a vision is seen, 
the person will surely die. If any- 
thing is seen in the morning which 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1387 



is not common, the event will be ac- 
complished within a few hours. If at 
noon, it will take place sometime 
during the day. If in the evening, 
perhaps at night When a shroud 
is seen about a person, the time of 
his death is judged according to 
the height of the shroud upon his 
person. The higher it is toward 
the head, the sooner his death will 
be. Visitors are seen coming to a 
house before their arrival, and all 
sorts of things are predicted with 
more or less correctness. 

In Scotland children, horses and 
cows are thought to all have the 
power of second sight. There is 
also a way of foretelling death by 
a cry called the '*Taisk." This is 
heard within doors, and resembles 
the person's voice. 

Speaking of the contagious pow- 
er c^ evil, the Cabbalah says: ''As 
physical disease streams forth from 
men, so does the uncleanness of the 
soul ever magically stream forth, 
possessing a power of contamina- 
tion not alone for men, but for ex- 
ternal things. From this proceeds 
the repulsion felt by the pure in the 
presence of the wicked. Each evil 
deed, each impure word, is thus 
possessed of a magical existence 
which renders unclean all about it. 
In a land where great crime is 
rife, all things — houses, furniture, 
beasts, plants, the very earth and 
air — are corrupted." Apropos of 
this, the Voices in "As It Is To 
Be,'* say: **Your thought is your- 
self, and goes with you wherever 
you go. So if, for instance, you enter 
an elevator full of people you never 
saw before, if your thought hap- 
pens to be pure, sweet, humane, 
harmonious, or elevating, you in- 
evitably impart it to the atmos- 
phere, and attract to you and them 
the forces of such thought out of 
At general mass. Unaware of it, 
they absorb it If you could see as 



we see, how astonished you would 
be to note the change wrought in 
the thought of a group of persons 
when suddenly a mind of pure, 
clear, spiritual nature comes among 
them. Virtue goes out to others 
from all who desire the good of 
others. If you long to bless the 
world, you can bless it by being 
heavenly-minded, prone to good 
will, charitable. Your thought is 
your personal atmosphere, which 
touches other thought atmospheres 
either to good or evil." (Ennemos- 
er's History of Magic.) 

Levitation, the raising of the 
body without contact of hands, is 
one of the mysteries said to have 
occurred both in ancient and mod- 
em times. In Horst*s Zauber- 
bibliothek is the record of a Maria 
Fleischer, who was celebrated for 
many wonderful actions. Superin- 
tendent Moller, in Freiburg, said: 
**When her convulsions are most 
vicJent, she begins to rise in the 
air, and at this time it is dangerous 
to touch her. In the presence of 
two deacons who related this, she 
was suddenly raised in bed with her 
whole body, hands, and feet, to the 
height of three ells and a half, so 
that it appeared as if she would 
have flown through the window." 

Spiritualists believe in levitation, 
claiming to be able to overcome 
gravity by spiritual means. 

G. P. Lathrop speaks, in his 
introductions to "Representative 
Poems," of "the mysterious levi- 
tation that enables the poet to rise 
above the general run of men." 
This, however, is doubtless meant 
but figuratively. 

lamblich, the zealous defender 
of the heathen religions, who from 
his theurgic writings, his piety, and 
supernatural powers, was usually 
called "the divine," was, during 
prayers, always raised ten feet 
above the earth, and at such times. 



1388 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



his skin and clothes assumed the 
color of gold. Similar accounts 
are given of very pious men, and 
the legends of the saints contain 
many who had the power of rising 
and walking in the air. 

Toward the end of the Ten 
Years' War between Rome and 
Veii, the Romans were terrified by 
a number ol portends, among oth- 
ers, an unexampled swelling of the 
Alban lake. In the midst of the 
dog days, without any fall of rain 
or anything unseasonable in the 
weather, the water rose to such a 
height that it overflowed the 
mountain which enclosed it, and 
deluged the neighboring country. 
At any other time, the senate 
would have consulted the Etruscan 
oracle on the import of the prodi- 
gy, but as it was, they were afraid 
they would receive a deceitful an- 
swer. A solemn embassy was 
therefore sent to inquire of the 
Pythian oracle. During its ab- 
sence, a soothsayer of Veii scoffed 
at the efforts of the Romans, the 
futility of which was foretold in the 
prophetic books. He was captured 
by a stratagem and forced to 
speak, though loudly bewailing the 
destiny that obliged him to betray 
the secret of his nation. He con- 
fessed that the Veientine books of 
fate announced that so long as the 
lake kept overflowing Veii could 
not be taken, and that if the waters 
were to reach the sea, Rome would 
perish. The ambassadors to Del- 
phi brought an answer to the same 
effect, whereupon the Romans 
made a tunnel, drew the water 
from the lake, and spread it 
through the fields in ditches. When 
the Veientines learned that the 
fatal consummation on which their 
destiny hung was at hand, they 
sent an embassy to Rome to im- 
plore forbearance. They met com- 
passion. The chief of their envoys. 



before quitting the senate, warned 
the Romans that as certainly as 
Veii was doomed to fall, so the 
same books foretold that soon after 
the fall of Veii, Rome would be 
taken by the Gauls. 

The Sibyls were as celebrated 
and as superstitiously believed in 
by the Romans and early Chris- 
tians as the old oracles in Greece, 
and the Persian and Chaldean Sib- 
yls were among the first known. 
They were women who claimed to 
be endowed with a divine power to 
foresee future events and predict 
the deaths of men. Virgil describes 
in a masterly manner the agitated 
condition of the Sibyl when in 
the midst of her prophecy. "She 
changes her features and the color 
of her countenance. Her hair erects 
itself; her bosom heaves full and 
panting, and her wild heart beats 
violenUy. Her lips foam and her 
voice is terrible. As if beside her- 
self, she paces to and fro in her 
cave, as if she would expel the god 
from her breast" The Sibyl her- 
self thus describes her state: ''I 
am entirely on the stretch! My 
body is stupefied. I do not know 
what I say. When my spirit rests 
after a divine hymn, God com- 
mands me to vaticinate afresh. I 
know the number of the grains of 
sand. The measure of the sun I 
know. The height of the earth, 
the number of men, the number of 
the stars, trees, and beasts/' Ac- 
cording to Plutarch, she foretold 
the eruption of Vesuvius which 
overwhelmed Pompeii, Herculane- 
um, and Stabiae,in which Pliny, the 
naturalist, is said to have met his 
death. The Cumaean Sibyl, Amal- 
thaea, was styled the seventh. Her 
books were the most trustworthy 
and were always preserved by the 
Romans, carefully hidden in stone 
caskets buried under the temple, 
and consulted only in the most im- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1389 



portant times. Of these books of 
predictions, were said to have ex- 
isted originally nine, which, accord- 
ing to a legend recorded by Livy, 
the Sibyl offered to Tarquin the 
Proud, one of the legendary Ro- 
man kings. The offer being reject- 
ed, she burned three of them; and 
twelve months later, offered the re- 
maining six at the same price. 
Again being refused, she burned 
three more; and again twelve 
months later, offered the last three 
at the same price as before. The 
offer was now, at the advice of the 
augurs, accepted, the sum paid, and 
Amalthaea disappeared forever. In 
the year 83 B. C, the temple 
of Jupiter, where the original Sib- 
ylline books, or rather leaves — for 
the prophecies were written in 
Greek, on palm leaves — ^were pre- 
served, burnt down, and the books 
were destroyed. Thereupon, a spe- 
cial commission was appointed by 
the senate to visit all the cities of 
Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, and 
to collect all the floating Sibylline 
verses and leaves. Over 4,000 
were thus collected, and deposited 
in the new temple of Jupiter, but in 
12 B. C. Augustus had about half 
of them burnt as spurious, and the 
rest transferred to the temple of 
Apollo on the Palatine. 

The Sibylline prophecies enjoyed 
toch a deep-rooted belief and rev- 
erence among the people all over 
the world that the Christian church 
soon made use of their powerful in- 
fluence for her own purposes, by 
having numerous so-called Sib- 
ylline oracles manufactured by 
monks, which were supposed to 
have predicted the coming of 
Christ, and to bear many allusions 
to the life of Christ and to the 
Christian faith. These are known 
as the fourteen books of Sibylline 
Oracles, written in Greek hexame- 
ters, and are entirely distinct from 
the original Sibylline books. Some 



of the prophecies are doubtless pre- 
Christian and of Jewish origin, but 
many are Christian. They are sup- 
posed to date from the second cen- 
tury B. C. to the second century 
A. D., or later. 

One of the most furious enemies 
of the Christians, the Emperor Au- 
relian, forbade the books of the 
Sibyls to be read, under the sever- 
est penalties, but nevertheless, so 
much did he believe in them, that 
when he did not see his way clear 
in the Markoman war, he wrote to 
the senate and said: "I wonder, 
HcAy Fathers, that it is so long de- 
layed to open the Sibylline books, 
as if they belong only to the Chris- 
tians, and not to all the temples of 
the gods." 

A tower situated at the entrance 
of the river the Bristol Avon, is 
called "Cook's folly," and the fol- 
lowing legend is connected with 
it. This tower bears on its lintel 
the inscription, "I. Cook, 1693." 
The legend runs that Mrs. Cook, 
wife of Sir Maurice Cook, sheriff 
of Bristol, gave alms to a gipsy a 
short time before the birth of her 
child (a son), who in return, prom- 
ised to predict the child's future; 
and two days after the birth of 
the baby, presented the following 
prophecy to the father: 

"Twenty times shall Avon*5 tide 
In chains of glistening ice be tied. 
Twenty times the woods of Leigh 
Shall wave their banners merrily, 
In spring burst forth in mantles gay 
And dance in summer's scorching ray; 
Twenty times shall autumn's frown 
Wither all their green to brown, 
And still the child of yesterday 
Shall laugh the happy hours away. 
That period past, another sun 
Shall not his annual journey run. 
Before a silent secret foe 
Shall strike the boy a deadly blow. 
Such and sure his fate shall be, 
Seek not to change his destiny." 

As the belief in astrology at that 
time was very strong, the father 
spoke lightly of the matter to the 



I390 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



mother, nevertheless when the end 
of his son's twentieth year drew 
near, he showed him the scroll and 
begged him to remain in the tower 
which he had built, so that no one 
could enter unless let in by the one 
inside. At first the son declined, 
but seeing how earnestly his father 
and sisters (his mother had been 
dead some time) wished it, he con- 
sented. Here he remained, visited 
daily by his father and sisters, till 
only one day more remained. This 
also passed, evening drew on, and 
requesting a fagot of wood to be 
given him, the young fellow let 
down the basket in which he had 
drawn up whatever he wanted dur- 
ing the twelve months, then, after 
bidding his friends prepare for his 
release on the morrow, retired 
from the window. Early in the 
morning his father and sisters as- 
sembled under the window, but no 
sign of life appeared in the young 
man's room. The sisters called 
him repeatedly; still no answer. 
The father ordered a ladder to be 
brought, a man ascended, and re- 
ported "The young master is sleep- 
ing!" "Come down, man!" in a 
frenzy cried Sir Maurice; "he is 
dead!" And on entering, this 
proved to be the case. An adder 
had been carried up with the wood, 
and was now twined around the 
son's arm, and had severely stung 
him in the throat, thus causing his 
death and the fulfilling of the 
prophecy. 

It is a general belief among spir- 
itualists that many mediums pos- 
sess an odor of sandalwood, similar 
to the "odor of sanctity" of old, 
which pervades the room where 
they dwell, as well as their own 
body. Stainton Moses writes to 
the famous Madame Blavatsky that 
he is pervaded by this peculiar 
odor, which, he says, exudes from 
a small spot on the crown of his 



head, and which is so strong that 
he himself smells it, exhales it, 
tastes it, and that it even invades 
other objects, such as flowers, 
which are brought in his presence. 
Among the many remarkable 
phenomena attributed to the adept- 
ship of Madame Blavatsky, was the 
following, which was taken down 
from the lips of the Countess 
Paschkoff, the world-renowned 
traveler, member of a dozen geo- 
graphical societies and correspond- 
ent for the Paris "Figaro": 'TThe 
Countess Paschkoff spoke again, 
and again Colonel Olcott translat- 
ed for the reporter. ... I was 
once traveling between Baalbec 
and the river Orontes, and in the 
desert I saw a caravan. It was 
Madame Blavatsky's. We camped 
together. There was a great mon- 
ument standing there near the vil- 
lage of El Marsum. It was be- 
tween the Libanus and the Anti- 
Libanus. On the monument were 
inscriptions that no one could ever 
read. Madame Blavatsky could do 
strange things with the spirits, as 
I knew, and I asked her to find out 
what the monument was. We wait- 
ed until night She drew a circle 
and we went in it. We built a fire 
and put much incense on it. Then 
she said many spells. Then we put 
on more incense. Then she point- 
ed with her wand at the monument, 
and we saw a great ball ot white 
flame on it. There was a sycamore 
tree near by; we saw many little 
flames on it The jackals came 
and howled in the darkness a little 
way off. We put on more incense. 
Then Madame Blavatsky com- 
manded the spirit to appear of the 
person to whom the monument 
was reared. Soon a cloud of vapor 
arose and obscured the little moon- 
light there was. We put on more 
incense. The cloud took the indis- 
tinct shape of an old man with a 
beard, and a voice came, as it 



I 

1 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1391 



seemed, from a g^eat distance, 
through the image. He said the 
monument was once the altar of a 
temple that had long disappeared. 
It was reared to a god that had 
long since gone to another world. 
"Who are you?" asked Mad- 
ame Blavatsky. "I am Hiero, 
one of the priests of the tem- 
ple," said the voice. Then Mad- 
ame Blavatsky ordered him to 
show us the place as it was when 
the temple stood. He bowed, and , 
for one instant we had a glimpse 
of the temple and of a vast city fill- 
ing the plain as far as the eye could 
reach. Then it was gone, and the 
image faded away." (From "Old 
Diar>' Leaves," by Col. Henry S. 
Olcott.) 

Spiritualism is the creed of those 
who believe in the communication 
of the spirits of the dead with the 
living, usually through the agency 
of peculiarly constituted persons 
called mediums, and also in certain 
physical phenomena, transcending 
ordinary natural laws, believed to 
accompany frequently such spiritu- 
al communication, and attributed 
either to the direct action of spirits, 
or to some force developed by the 
medium's own personality. 

The elements of the spiritualistic 
creed are not in themselves new, 
but are traceable severally to a 
high antiquity among different 
races and in widely separated local- 
ities, and have usually been associ- 
ated with some form of religion; 
they have been revived, though not 
of conscious purpose, and gathered 
into one body on beliefs by a move- 
ment having its origin as the result 
of certain incidents which took 
place at Hydesville, a small town in 
the state of New York, in 1848. 

In March of that year, rapping 
sounds were heard, apparently pro- 
ceeding from the furniture, walls, 
and ceilings of a house in Hydes- 



ville, belonging to a family of Ger- 
man descent, named originally 
Voss, a name anglicized into Fox. 
It was found that these sounds 
were always perceived in the pres- 
ence of one or both of the young 
daughters of Mr. Fox, and that a 
code of communication could be 
established by which conversation 
was carried on with the intelligence 
supposed to produce them. It was 
said that in this way evidence was 
obtained concerning a murder be- 
lieved to have been committed in 
the house some time before, and 
the sounds purported to come from 
the spirit of the murdered man. 
Many years after, in 1888, Mrs. 
Kane (Margaretta Fox) came be- 
fore the public with a confession 
that she and her sister made the 
sounds with their toes; but before 
her death, she repudiated this con- 
fession. 

The reported phenomena at the 
time excited widespread attention 
in the United States, and led to the 
formation of numerous circles of 
experimenters, where rappings of 
a similar kind were produced, and 
supposed communication with the 
spirits of the dead was established. 
To the spirit-rappings were added 
other phenomena, such as table- 
turning, automatic writing, trance- 
speaking, etc. ; and the persons who 
developed them received the name 
of mediums. Mediums, according 
to the spiritualistic view, are en- 
dowed with a special faculty ena- 
bling them to be the agents of the 
communications and other mani- 
festations of spirits. Some show 
evidence of this gift in early youth, 
and others gradually develop it in 
later years. 

Spiritualistic communications or 
messages are received through the 
automatic writing with pencil or 
planchette, or trance-speaking of 
the medium when under spirit- 
control; by direct writing of the 



139* 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



spirits on paper or slates with pen- 
cil or chalk; by precipitated writ- 
ing — ^that is, writing supposed to 
be produced on paper without visi- 
ble means; by table-turning, either 
with or without contact of the me- 
dium, and interpreted by a conven- 
tional code; and by raps on the fur- 
niture or walls of a room, made in- 
telligible by a code as in table- 
turning. These communications 
are supposed to have two objects — 
one is to convey proof of the sur- 
vival of the dead, the other to in- 
struct in moTBl and philosophical 
knowledge. They are acknowl- 
edged by spiritualists to vary great- 
ly in character and in value. Some 
are merely the expression erf the 
ideas and opinions of the medium 
himself or of the sitters; some are 
trivial or false, and are attributed 
to a low order of mischievous spir- 
its; others, however, it is asserted, 
are genuine, and imply a knowl- 
edge of events or of facts beyond 
the range of the medium or of the 
inquirers, and proving their super- 
normal origin. 

The principal so-called physical 
phenomena of spiritualism are 
lights, musical sounds, as of invisi- 
ble instruments played on or play- 
ing of real instruments by visible 
or materialized hands; moving of 
furniture and other heavy objects; 
the passage of matter through mat- 
ter, as bringing flowers or other 
material objects into closed rooms; 
materializations of hands or other 
parts of the body, or of complete 
human figures ; spirit-photography ; 
and finally, phenomena immediate- 
ly affecting the medium, such as 
levitation, or floating in the air 
without visible support, the elonga- 
tion or shortening of his body, and 
fire tests, when the medium handles 
live coals, and gives them to others 
to handle without injury, phenome- 
na for which Home was especially 
renowned. 



The object of these phenomena 
is considered by spiritualists to be 
the attestation of the genuineness 
of the communication, and they 
bear to spiritualistic belief much 
the same relation that miracles do 
to revealed religion. Phenomena 
of undignified character, like the 
corresponding communications, are 
attributed to the lower orders of 
spiritual beings. All these phe- 
nomena do not occur at all seances 
or with all mediums, and the latter 
are often classified according to the 
predominant character <rf their 
special "development." Thus there 
are writing mediums, trance me- 
diums, materializing mediums, etc 
A few, such as Home and Staintoa 
Moses, seem to have been equally 
successful in every variety of man- 
ifestation. 

A typical belief is that of Allan 
Kardee, who asserts that the hu- 
man personality consists erf the 
body, the soul or spirit, and a spir- 
itual body ("perisprit") of a rarified 
material, and that after death the 
spirit can manifest itself to the 
senses through the perisprit, which 
by some force of the will or 
through the agency of the medium, 
becomes visible like vapor con- 
densed under certain atmospheric 
conditions. 

Another theory of the materiali- 
zation of spirits is that the spirit 
draws from the medium certain 
emanations by which it can make 
itself wholly or in part visible in a 
temporary reduplication of the me- 
dium's body. While materialized, 
the spirit remains in close rapport 
with the medium, and at the end of 
the seance, or on any sudden dis- 
turbance, repercussion takes place 
— that is, the materialized body at 
once withdraws into the org^anism 
of the medium. (Thomas C. Fel- 
ton, in Johnson's Univ. Cyclop.) 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1393 



Some of the most convincing of 
the strange spirit or ghost phenom- 
ena of the United States which at- 
tracted wide attention, particularly 
since the revival of spiritualism by 
the Fox sisters, was that recorded 
of Dr. Phelps' house, in Stratford, 
Connecticut Dr. Phelps was the 
father of the well-known authoress, 
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward, who 
made her first fame by the spiritual 
story, "The Gates Ajar." This 
gentleman, who was a Presbyterian 
minister, was a man of the most 
perfect integrity, unusual culture 
and intelligence, and one whose 
mind was by education and heredi- 
ty quite averse to the idea of 
hauntings or ghosts. He says: "I 
have seen things in motion more 
than a thousand times, and in most 
cases where no visible power exist- 
ed by which the motion could have 
been produced. There have been 
broken from my windows, seventy- 
one panes of glass, thirty of which 
I have seen break with my own 
eyes. I have seen objects such as 
brushes, tumblers, candlesticks, 
snuffers, etc., which but a few mo- 
ments before I knew to be at rest, 
fly against the glass and dash it to 
pieces, where it was utterly impos- 
sible, from the direction in which 
they moved, that any visible power 
should have caused the motion. As 
to the reality of the facts, they can 
be proved by testimony a hundred- 
fold greater than is ordinarily re- 
quired in our courts of justice in 
cases of life and death." He open- 
ed bb house for the most thorough 
investigation of the supernatural 
things that occurred there, the de- 
tails of which we have not space to 
give; that some unseen, powerful, 
and intelligent force occupied the 
mansion to the discomfort of the 
inmates, has been th'M-oughly be- 
lieved. 



RABBIT FOOT-^et a gun, 
take it to a graveyard where ne- 
groes are buried, secrete yourself 
and wait till the clock strikes mid- 
night; then, from the northwest 
corner of the yard, shoot the first 
rabbit that appears, secure his left 
hind foot and carry it in your left- 
hand pocket; thus you get the 
luckiest thing known, and will have 
the best of luck as long as you car- 
ry it. This is the famous "left hind 
foot of a graveyard rabbit," that 
actresses so covet to use in the 
toilette, and it is a mascot charm 
worth a fortune to a gambler I 

SECRET — If the tongue of a 
goose is cut out while the goose is 
alive and laid on the breast of a 
sleeping person, that person will 
tell all his secrets. 

If you make a funnel of paper 
and insert the little end in a sleep- 
ing person's ear, you can make him 
or her talk of all his or her private 
affairs. Another way is to stick the 
finger or hand in water. 

SEEDS OF APPLES, MEL- 
ONS, ETC. — In eating a melon, 
the person who gets the most white 
seeds will travel. 

If you accidentally cut an apple- 
seed in two when cutting an apple, 
your love affairs will not run 
smooth. 

If you cut two apple-seeds in 
two, it is a sign of approaching 
widowhood. 

A way of reading fate by apple- 
seeds is to count thus: "One, my 
love loves me. Two, he loves me 
not. Three, we shall agree. Four, 
I am forgot. Five, is coming bliss. 
Six. love will not tarry. Seven, a 
faithful kiss. Eight, we're sure to 
marry." 

Count the seeds in your apple. 
Five means bad luck. Six. you will 
be disappointed in love. Seven, 



1394 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



you will find a coin. Eight means 
to a maiden that she will marry the 
man of her choice, contrary to the 
will of her parents ; to a young man 
it means that he will be jilted by 
the girl he is courting. Nine seeds 
announce a letter by the next mail. 
Ten seeds mean that your sweet- 
heart is constant and true. 

Shoot seeds of apples between 
the fingers and say: 

^'Kernel, come kernel hop over my 

thumb, 
And tell roe which way my lover will 

come. 
East, west, north, south; 
Kernel come jump in my lover's 

mouth." 

and the kernel will go into the 
right one's mouth. This is a hal- 
lowe'en charm, all present standing 
in a ring. 

Eat an apple on Easter morning 
as soon as you awaken, and repeat 
all the while: 

"As Eve in her thirst for knowledge ate. 
So I too, thirst to know my fate." 

Then count the seeds, and if they 
are an even number, your sweet- 
heart win prove true; but if un- 
even, he will prove false* 

Cut a melon in seven pieces and 
distribute them by lot among seven 
persons. Each one counts the mel- 
on-seeds, thus: 

"One will be wealthy. 

Two will be healthy, 

Three will seek fortune and fame; 

Four will be stingy. 

Five will look dingy. 

Six will secure a great name; 

Seven for me my best friend shall be." 

The last seed will be your fortune. 

SHADOW — If a negro sees a 
deep shadow lying across his path, 
he feels that he proceeds at his 
peril. 

An Albanian belief is that shad- 
ows are capable of assuming an in- 
dependent existence, and being 
malevolently disposed, are able to 



deal a man a blow which will cause 
his death. 

To dance or play with your shad- 
ow, is to play with the evil one. 
(Portugal.) 

If you can step on the shadow of 
your head in Northern countries* 
it is dinner time. 

There is an old superstition that 
when the devil cannot succeed in 
getting a man himself, he will 
sometimes steal his shadow. The 
German poet Chamisso embodies 
this superstition in his famous stoiy 
of Peter Schlemihl, who sold his 
shadow. 

The following extract from this 
remarkable book tells how the 
devil, in the form of a respectable 
looking old gentleman in gray, 
succeeded in obtaining Peter's 
shadow in exchange for Fortu- 
natus' wishing-cap, mentioning 
also various other charms and 
magical objects which have always 
played such a prominent part in 
fcrfklore and superstiticm: 

''I had hastily glided through 
the rose-grove, descended the hill, 
and found myself on a wide grass 
plot, when, alarmed vrith the appre- 
hension of being discovered wan- 
dering from the beaten path, I 
looked around me with inquiring 
apprehension. How was I startled 
when I saw the old man in the gray 
coat behind, and when the next 
breathed wish brought from his 
pocket three riding horses. I tell 
you, three great and noble steeds, 
with saddles and appurtenances. 
Imagine for a moment, I pray you, 
three saddled hcM'ses from the same 
pocket which had before produced 
a pocketbook, a telescope, an orna- 
mental carpet twenty paces long 
and ten broad, a pleasure-tent of 
the same size, with bars and iron- 
work! If I did not solemnly assure 
you that I had seen it with my own 



r. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1395 



eyes, you would certainly doubt 
the narrative. 

"Though there was so much of 
embarrassment and humility in the 
man, and he excited so little atten- 
tion, yet his appearance to me had 
in it something so appalling, that I 
was not able to turn my eyes. Ad- 
vancing toward me, he immediate- 
ly took off his hat and bowed to 
me more profoundly than anyone 
had ever done before. It was clear 
he wished to address me, and with- 
out extreme rudeness, I could not 
avoid him. I, in my turn, uncov- 
ered myself, made my obeisance, 
and stood still with bare head, in 
the sunshine, as if rooted there. I 
shook with terror while I saw him 
approach ; I felt like a bird fascinat- 
ed by a rattlesnake. He appeared 
sadly perplexed, kept his eyes on 
the ground, made several bows, ap- 
proached nearer, and with a low 
and trembling voice, as if he were 
asking alms, thus accosted me: 

" 'Will the gentleman forgive the 
intrusion of one who has stopped 
him in this unusual way? I have 
a request to make, but pray par- 
don — * 

" *In the name of heaven, Sir!' 
I cried out in my anguish, 'what 
can I do for one who — ' 

**VVe both stared back, and me- 
tbought both blushed deeply. Af- 
ter a momentary silence, he again 
began: 

** 'During the short time when I 
enjoyed the happiness of being 
near you, I observed, Sir — will you 
allow me to say so? — I observed, 
with unutterable admiration, the 
beautiful shadow in the sun, which, 
with a certain noble contempt, and 
perhaps without being aware of it, 
you threw off from your feet; for- 
give me this, I confess too daring 
intnisioa; but should you be in- 
dined to transfer it to me?' 

"He was silent, and mv head 
turned round like a water-wheeL 



What could I make of this singular 
proposal for disposing of my shad- 
ow? *He is crazy,' thought I; and 
with an altered tone, yet more for- 
cible, as contrasted with the humil- 
ity of his own, I replied: 

" 'How is this, good friend? Is 
not your own shadow enough for 
you? This seems to me a whimsi- 
cal sort of bargain indeed.' 

"He began again: 'I have in my 
pocket many matters which might 
not be quite unacceptable to the 
gentleman; for this invaluable 
shadow I deem any price too little!' 

"A chill came over me. I re- 
membered what I had seen, and 
knew not how to address him 
whom I had just ventured to call 
my good friend. I spoke ag^in, 
and assumed an extraordinary 
courtesy, to set matters in order. 

" 'Pardon, Sir; pardon your most 
humble servant. I do not quite un- 
derstand your meaning; how can 
my shadow — * 

"He interrupted me: *I only 
beg your permission to be allowed 
to lift up your noble shadow, and 
put it in my pocket ; how to do it is 
my own affair. As a proof of my 
gratitude for the gentleman, I leave 
him the choice of all the jewels 
which my pocket affords; the gen- 
uine divining-rods, the mandrake 
roots, change-pennies, money-ex- 
tractors, the napkins of Roland's 
Squire, and divers other miracle- 
workers — ^a choice assortment; but 
all this is not fit for you — better 
that you should have Fortunatus's 
wishing-cap, restored spick-span 
new; and also a fortune-bag which 
belonged to him.' 

" 'Fortunatus's fortune-bagi' I 
exclaimed; and great as had been 
my terror, all my senses were now 
enraptured by the sound. I be- 
came dizzy, and nothing but double 
ducats seemed sparkling before my 
eyes. 

'Condescend, Sir, to inspect 



4« <i 



1396 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



and make a trial of this bag.' He put 
his hand into his pocket, and drew 
from it a moderately-sized firmly- 
stitched purse of thick cordovan, 
with two convenient leather cords 
hanging to it, which he presented 
to me. I instantly dipped into it, 
drew from it ten pieces of gold, and 
ten more, and ten more, and yet 
ten more; I stretched out my hand. 
'Donel the bargain is made; I give 
you my shadow for your purse.' 

"He grasped my hand, and knelt 
down behind me, and with wonder- 
ful dexterity, I perceived him loos- 
ening my shadow from the ground 
/rom head to foot; he lifted it up, 
he rolled it together and folded it, 
and at last put it into his pocket 
He then stood erect, bowed to me 
again, and returned back to the 
rose-grove. I thought I heard him 
laughing softly to himself. I held, 
however, the purse tight by its 
string^s — ^the earth was sun-bright 
all around me — and my senses 
were still wholly confused. 
* "At last I came to myself, and 
hastened from a place where appar- 
ently I had nothing more to do. I 
first filled my pockets with gold, 
then firmly secured the strings of 
the purse round my neck, taking 
care to conceal the purse itself in 
my bosom. I left the park un- 
noticed, reached the high road, and 
bent my way to the town. I was 
walking thoughtfully toward the 
gate, when I heard a voice behind 



me: 



'Holla! young Squire! holla! 
Don't you hear?' I looked round 
— an old woman was calling after 
me. 'Take care. Sir; take care — 
you have lost your shadow!' 
'Thanks, good woman!' I threw 
her a piece of gold for her well- 
meant counsel, and walked away 
under the trees. 

"At the gate, I was again con- 
demned to hear from the sentinel: 
'Where has the gentleman left his 



shadow?' and immediately after- 
wards a couple of women exclaim- 
ed: 'Good heavens! the poor fel- 
low has no shadow!' I began to be 
vexed, and carefully avoided walk- 
ing in the sun. This I could not al- 
ways do; for instance, in the broad 
street, which I was next compelled 
to cross; and as ill luck would have 
it, at the very moment when the 
boys were being released from 
school. A confoimded hunchback- 
ed vagabond — I see him at this 
moment — ^had observed that I 
wanted a shadow. He instantly be- 
gan to bawl out to the yoimg tjros 
of the suburbs, who first criticized 
me, and then bespattered me with 
mud: 'Respectable people are ac- 
customed to carry their shadows 
with them when they go into the 
stm.' 

"I scattered handfuls of gold 
among them to divert their atten- 
tion; and, with the assistance of 
some compassionate souls, sprang 
into a hackney coach. As soon as 
I found myself alone in the rolling 
vehicle, I began to weep bitterly. 
My inward emotion suggested to 
me, that even as in this world gold 
weighs down both merit and virtue, 
so a shadow might possibly be 
more valuable than gold itself; and 
that as I had sacrificed my riches 
to my integrity on other occasions, 
so now I had given up my shadow 
for mere wealth; and what ought, 
what could become of me?" 

SOUNDS AND NOISES— To 
hear sounds of fighting in the air, 
is a bad omen. (Korea.) 

If you hear your name called and 
no one is to be seen, it is the sign 
that the spirit of a beloved one 
wishes to commune with you. 

The person who hears the bay- 
ing of a spectral pack of hounds 
coursing through the air, is certain 
to die within the year. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



>397 



To imagine you hear music after 
you have retired, is a favorable 
omen. 

Abroad at night, do not turn at 
the sound of footsteps; they are 
likely to be those of the dead seek- 
ing human companionship. 

If you hear knocking in the 
stove, it is a sure sign of death. 

When you hear mysterious raps 
which cannot be accounted for, it is 
a sign that the fairies are at work 
for you. 

Ghostly tappings are said to be 
warnings of impending evil. 

A ghostly and shadowy hearse is 
often heard in the winter nights, 
rolling slowly and softly up and 
down the roads, till it comes to the 
house where a death is going to 
happen. 

The hearer of footsteps in the 
hall or on the stair, when there is 
nobody there, may be sure that a 
spirit has come to call some one to 
accompany him. 

When the dogs of Ammon howl 
it is a sure sign of death to some 
man of evil deeds. 

To the members of an old 
knightly family in the West of 
England, there comes before the 
death of its chief, the sound of a 
heavy carriage driven around the 
paved courtyard of the Elizabethan 
mansion. 

In one Irish family, death is an- 
nounced by the loud cracking of a 
whip. 

The river Dart, in Devonshire, 
claims the heart of one victim a 



Three raps from a spirit hand 
foretells a death. 

An omen of danger to the negro 
is to bear the clattering of hoofs 
without being able to see the horse 
or rider. 



The sound of a supernatural 
beating of drums is the death 
warning of a noble Scotch family. 

Klopferle, a German knocking 
spirit, knocks and rattles his chain 
before the death of one of the fam- 
ily with whom he lives. These 
"Klopfgeister" are believed to ex- 
ist in every house, and are heard 
but never seen, previous to any 
ominous happening. 

The superstitious in the Western 
Islands of Connemara, say that at 
night the dead men can be heard 
laughing with the fairies and spin- 
ning the flax. But after a year and 
a day from the burial, the voices 
cease, and the dead are gone for- 
ever. 

People who shudder when they 
hear grinding, sharpening, or any 
movement against steel, have not a 
true conscience. 

Hearing strange voices and at- 
tempting to reply to all at once, is 
a sure sign of insanity. 

It was considered an evil omen 
to hear the cries of wild beasts near 
the house at night, as these indi- 
cated misfortune and disaster; also 
if strange humming sounds were 
heard at night, they were dreaded 
as foreboding death or enslavement 
of some member of the family. 
(Mexico.) 

In Germany, many of the prince- 
ly families have especial warnings 
of death. For some it is the roar- 
ing of a lion, for others it is the 
tolling of a bell, and for others the 
striking of a clock at an unusual 
time. 

Dr. Johnson heard his mother 
call his name in a clear voice, al- 
though she was in another city. 

When dogs bark at night on the 
heaths in the woods and crossways, 
the countrymen know it is the god 
Wotan who is leading them, and 



139« 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



pity the wanderer who has not 
reached home. (North Germany.) 

Descartes, the great philosopher, 
was followed by an invisible per- 
son, whose voice he heard urging 
him to continue his researches after 
truth. 

Another Irish omen is a coach- 
a-bower, an immense black coach, 
drawn by headless black horses, 
mounted by a cofl^ and driven by 
a Dullahan. It comes rumbling to 
your door, and if you open it, a 
basin of blood is thrown in your 
face. 

There are "wild huntsmen" often 
heard by the peasantry hunting in 
the air with a spectral pack of 
hounds. Scott mentions it in his 
ballad, 'The Wild Huntsman": 

"This is the horn and horse and hound 
That oft the 'lated peasant hears. 
Appalled he signs the frequent cross 
When the wild din invades his ears." 

A noted imposture was firmly 
beUeved in 1762, called the "Cock 
Lane Ghost" It was in Cock 
Lane, Smithfield, London, and 
done by a man named Parsons and 
his daughter only eleven years old. 
Knockings and other strange 
noises were heard, and a luminous 
lady, supposed to be the ghost of 
Mrs. Kent, was seen. Dr. Johnson 
among others, visited the house, 
and was maliciously attacked for 
his superstition by Churchill in his 
long poem, "The Ghost" Parsons 
was pilloried. 

A singular bit of folklore comes 
from as widely separated quarters 
as England, Ceylon and Mexico, 
differing but little in each country. 
It is of the "midnight axe," strokes 
of which are heard on trees at 
"about the time when men most 
soundly sleep." It is never ac- 
counted for, and no reason why the 
sound should be heard has ever 
been found out. It is an evil omen, 
and by some it is called "the haunt- 



ing of the Fezazi,'' a ghost of hor- 
rible luck, or a goblin, accorduig 
to where it is heard. (Andrew 
Lang, "Custom and Myth.") 

A certain shrill cry of a whistle 
at night is said to come from the 
"seven whistlers whom nobody 
knows." The poet Spencer takes 
notice of them and calls them birds 
of ill omen: 

"The whistler shrill 

That whoso hears shall die." 

There is a tradition that these sev- 
en whistlers are occupied by the 
souls of those Jews who assisted 
at Christ's crucifixion, and in con- 
sequence are doomed to be forever 
on the wing, moving through the 
long night hours bewailing their 
fate by their sorrowful sounds. 

If, in the evening, strange 
knockings were heard on the wall* 
in the cupboard, in the wardrobes, 
or about the house in Belgium, one 
of the family was to die that very 
night, and the number oi knocks 
told at what hour. 

The "seven whistlers," also call- 
ed "Gabriel's hotmds," wfaidi are 
believed to be the souls oi unsaved, 
were often heard to pass over the 
people's heads, but no more than 
six of them were ever heard at 
once. If they should all be heard 
together, then would be the end of 
the world. 

When the Leicestershire colliers 
hear the seven whistlers, they will 
not venture to go down into the 
mine, as death to some one is fore- 
boded. 

Charles IX. of France caused his 
brother-in-law, Henry III., to be 
summoned to him in the night, 
about eight days after the massacre 
of St Bartholomew, in August, 
1572. He found him as he had 
sprung from his bed, filled with 
dread at a wild tumult of confused 
voices which prevented him from 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



«399 



sleeping. Henry himself heard 
these sounds. They appeared like 
distinct shrieks and howlings, 
mingled with the indistinguishable 
ragings of a furious multitude, and 
with groans and curses as on the 
day of the massacre. Messengers 
were sent to the city to ascertain 
whether any new tumult had brok- 
en out, but the answer returned 
was that all was quiet in the city, 
and that the commotion was in the 
air. Henry the king could never 
recall this incident without a hor- 
ror that made his hair stand on end. 

When, on winter evenings, the 
family being assembled quietly in 
the warm sitting-room, in Belgium, 
a strange howling or woeful 
crying and whisUing is heard, 
you may be sure that very soon an 
old spinster or grandmother will 
explain : "There is a soul banished 
on that place waiting for deliver- 
ance." Everyone will look sus- 
piciously at the stove as the place 
whence the sound comes. If three 
"pater nosters" are not sufficient, 
six or nine will be said, until the 
noise ceases and the soul is deliv- 
ered. 

Noises of animals heard in the 
house at midnight, are ominous. 
If an insect cries ''click, click, 
click,'* the person who hears it will 
possess real treasure while he re- 
tides there. If it cries ''kck, kek, 
kek/* it is an evil omen, both to his 
and his neighbors' houses. If it 
cries "chit, chit," it signifies that 
the person hearing it shall always 
feed upon the most sumptuous pro- 
visions. If it cries "keat, keat," in 
a loud, shrill voice, it denotes that 
his residence there will not be for 
kxng. 

Music heard in the night, in 
l^aces remote from human abodes, 
inch as wild moorlands, is gener- 
ally ascribed to the fairies. The 
following two tales, relating to this 



nocturnal music, were told by an 
English vicar: 

"The vicar's informant was a 
woman, who had paid a visit to a 
sick friend and was returning home 
along a lonely footpath, which was 
pointed out to me, close to a wood, 
and as she was approaching the 
sideland she heard charming mu- 
sic, much like that produced by nu- 
merous small silvery sounding 
bells. Her path lay close to the 
spot whence the music was pro- 
ceeding, and when she was within 
thirty yards of the hollow in the 
field where it was, she stopped and 
listened to the sweet sounds; but 
she had not long been there before 
a something came running for- 
wards from the direction of the hol- 
low, and brushed past her and 
struck against her as it passed. 
This frightened the woman greatly, 
and in fear, she went quickly to- 
wards her home. The only expla- 
nation that she could give of the 
strange music was that it was fairy 
music." 

The other tale is as follows: 
"Some miners engaged in opening 
a work on the Merionethshire hills, 
built a hut by the works, in which 
they deposited their tools on fin- 
ishing the labors of the day, and 
one of their number slept in this 
hut The watcher one night, when 
seated in the hut enjoying his pipe, 
heard a tune played on a violin out- 
side. He got up to see who it was 
that was there, but when he had 
opened the door the fiddler and the 
tune had gone a distance off. It 
was a dark night and a drizzling 
rain was falling, and he could not 
see far because of the rain and mist, 
but he stood by the door listening, 
and he heard the music until at last, 
apparently in consequence of the 
distance it was from him, he could 
hear it no more. This man was 
fully persuaded that no mortal fid- 
dler played that tune.** 



I40O 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



«< 



u 



A yelping or whistling sound 
sometimes heard at night in the air, 
is believed to be caused by ^e 
Gabriel Hounds/' also called the 
Seven Whistlers," or the "Wan- 
dering Jews," or the "Haimted 
Huntsman." To hear them, fore- 
bodes bad luck. They are called 
"Gabriel Hounds," from the belief 
that they are the souls of the un- 
saved hunted by Gabriel, and 
shrieking from the smart of his 
whip as he lashes them along. The 
cry really arises from birds, such as 
teal, wild geesCy and widgeons, fly- 
ing by night to new feeding 
grounds. The "wild huntsman" is 
supposed to be the ghost of a hunt- 
er and his followers who hunted 
on Sunday, and was therefore 
doomed to hunt without rest until 
the world's end. There are numer- 
ous versions of this legend, differ- 
ing more or less, and to be found 
in all countries. Even the North 
American Indians have a similar 
tradition. 

SPIRITS, GOOD AND EVIL, 
FAIRIES, ETC.— Before the bat- 
tle of the Boyne, the banshee was 
heard singing in the Irish camp; 
and during the Peninsular and Na- 
poleonic wars, many families were 
warned bv the banshee of the death 
of members falling in battle. 

In some countries of Europe, it 
has been the custom to leave a 
bowl of porridge and milk for the 
brownies, and so propitiate these 
good little household fairies, in 
Germany, called "Heinzelmaenn- 
chen." 

If you can find a fairy's drinking- 
horn, fill it up to the brim with 
some liquid, and carry it over a 
running stream without spilling a 
drop; it will be a cornucopia of 
good luck for you until it breaks, 
which will be disastrous. (Eng- 
land.) 



In Norway, the pec^e put out a 
bowl of groats for the "nissen," a 
sort of fairy, similar to the English 
brownies, to insure their good 
favor. 

It is said in Normandy, that 
when a person is haunted by a gob- 
lin, he must strew flax seed where 
the goblin must pass, and he ¥rill 
leave in disgust 

To meet with elves, is believed 
in Sweden to cause military fever. 

The elves take particular care of 
tulips, and those who cultivate 
them are under their protection. 

The reason why it is unlucky to 
wear green is because it is the 
favorite color of the elves, and they 
resent the intrusion upon their 
rights. 

Sometimes the fairies carry oflF a 
mortal child for a sacrifice, as they 
have to pay such every seven years 
for the power which the devil gives 
them. 

If a child in Ireland is £airy- 
struck, it is given a cup of cdd 
water in the name of Christ, the 
sign of the cross made over it. 

Fairies are believed to blight 
com with adder egg^. 

Fairies dress in green in order 
to be able to conceal themselves 
better. Walk in the woods and 
think you are looking at a mass of 
leaves, and like as not it is just a 
fairy's mantle, and the fairy is 
laughing, shaking it. 

It is believed to incur certain 
destruction to endeavw to spy oa 
a fairy. 

Fairies have especial power on 
Wednesdays and Fridays. It is 
dangerous to speak of them then, 
as they can hear you, and misfor- 
tunes will come upon you. 

Goldmar is a fairy of German 
lore, who is invisible but sensible 



j 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1401 



to the touch. He converses, plays 
beautifully on the harp, and reveals 
secrets. When you feel a soft touch 
and hear strange music, be sure 
that Goldmar is near you. 

In Bavaria, one who places a 
palm leaf on the hearth and fills it 
with bread crumbs, will be protect- 
ed by the fairies. 

Look through the loop of a wise 
man's arm, and you will be able to 
see spirits. 

The most malignant East Indian 
spirits arc those of a man who has 
died without the proper ceremonies 
and not on the ground; and of a 
woman who has died within forty 
days of childbirth. 

Sheik blown in Hindu temples 
scare demons away. 

"The Highlander 

Will on a Friday morn look pale 
II asked to tell a fairy tale, 
He fears the vengeful Elfin king." 

(Scott's Mannion.) 

In England, it is considered 
hicky to leave a small hole some- 
where in the house for the pixies 
to get out of. 

*Tbe peasant see. 
Bethink him of Glendowerdy 
And shun the spirits* blasted tree." 

(Scott*s Marmion.) 

In China, a musical instrument 
called the **hing/* is regarded with 
great awe and is used for frighten- 
ing away demons during religious 
ceremonies. 

To read the Bible backwards in 
a haunted house, will exorcise the 
spirits. 

The Zruen is a changeable and 
malevolent Roumanian spirit, inim- 
ical to braves and heroes; perhaps 
because he is usually the guardian 
of young maids. 

It is unlucky for children to lis- 
ten to the voice of Holda (or Frau 
Holle), as she sits on the main, be- 
wailing. (German.) 



The Tartars in Siberia believe 
that you can invoke a potent de- 
mon by beating a drum. 

Fires kindled with human fat 
frighten away bad spirits. 

With a hazel stick, a person can 
draw a circle around himself which 
no fairy, demon, serpent, or evil 
spirit can enter. 

If a person wishes to do anything 
that he thinks will be displeasing 
to the fairies, he must spit thrice on 
the ground. 

If you wear a piece of brown 
cloth for a charm, you will be safe 
from evil spirits. 

Burning a perfumed punk at 
night to keep away evil spirits, is a 
superstition among the Irish. 

Finnish folklore attributes to 
some spirits the power of drawing 
blood from anything, even a ship's 
mast 

Odds and ends of bone strung 
together and blessed by a voodoo 
priestess, are a marvelous charm 
against the evil one. 

If you wish good luck, scatter 
the "blithe bread" on your garden 
walks for the good spirits of the 
air. 

Every old family is supposed to 
have their good and bad spirits, 
their ghosts that give warning of 
impending calamity sometimes in 
dreams and sometimes by visible 
visitations or visions. 

A heavy chain was kept in a 
great many North of England 
homes, the violent shaking of 
which was supposed to scare away 
ghosts or spirits. 

The wing of a bat and the heart 
of a lapwing repel evil spirits and 
wicked passions. 

It was the custom to make a 
wide planted cross of rushes in Ire- 
land, and place it over the inside 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of the door of the dwelling house; 
then no evil spirit could enter 
there. 

On the seacoast of England, 
there is a strange hollow noise, 
supposed to be a spirit come to 
foretell a great tempest 

The wild huntsman is said to be 
always abroad in storms, and any- 
one who has the misfortune to see 
him expects trouble. (Scotch.) 

When among unknown people 
and in a strange place, cross your- 
self three times, to avoid being mo- 
lested by evil spirits. 

From midnight until morning is 
the chosen hour for spirits to ap- 
pear on earth. 

Bucca, in Irish mythology, is the 
cruel goblin of the winds, and fore- 
tells shipwreck. 

The Scandinavians believe that if 
anyone is daring enough to rush 
on a fairy feast and snatch the 
drinking-cup, he would be lucky 
ever after. Should the glass ever 
be broken, the luck would be gone. 

In "Bleak House," Charles 
Dickens has a banshee who haunts 
the "ghost's walk." 

To curse with book, bell, and 
candle, alludes to an old form of 
exorcism, in which the bell was 
used to scare evil spirits. 

In India, a rude dough image of 
a man is made at rice-planting and 
thrown away, as a sacrifice to the 
spirit of the household. 

The Buggam is an evil Manx 
spirit, which presages woe. 

The "Moody-boo" is a spirit dog 
that appears in Manxland. 

Fairies are fallen angels. 

There are fairies who dwell in 
Welsh mines called "knockers," 
who knock on the walls of the 
mine to indicate where is the silver 
or lead. 



On the G<^d Coast, there are 
stated occasions when the whole 
pec^le turn out en masse at night, 
to drive the evil spirits from their 
towns. 

Ares, a giant spirit of Persia, 
conducts all wars and brings all 
victories. 

The Jinn is a name applied to a 
race of fairies living in mountains 
and caves and only seen as reptiles. 

In some parts of Germany, it is 
bad luck to listen to the fairies 
singing; children who do so may 
have to remain in the wood with 
"HoUi" until the day of judgment. 
If anyone should hear, perchance, 
fairies singing, the person must 
say the paternoster to avert ill luck. 

The Hawaiians have an omen 
that when the sand slides down the 
steep sides and dimes of Kaluakal- 
ma, the sounds are produced by the 
"uhane" spirits, who are troubled 
or being disturbed. 

You can get rid of a fairy by 
turning your cloak wrong side out; 
but if you strike at one with a 
stick, it will dissolve into thin air. 

Robin Goodfellow had to have a 
bowl of cream set out for him, or 
the next day the pottage would 
bum, the cheeses would not curdle, 
and the butter would not come. 

The Germans believe that under 
the ground, particularly in barrows 
of the dead, there dwell little peo- 
ple called by the Holsteiners, 
dwaris or subterraneans. 

Puck is supposed to be a little 
fellow with red jacket and cap, 
who may be seen passing through 
the air as a fiery stripe. (German.) 

The "tensarponleit" is a spirit 
which often presents itself to the 
people under the form of a cow, a 
dog, a cat, or some other domestic 
animal, and like the Scotch brown- 
ie will do all the work of the house. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



Ii03 



The Chinese fan themselves all 
the time when in the presence of 
white people, to keep away the 
white devils, who are supposed by 
them to accompany the whites. 

A charm to keep away evil spirits 
was to say three times all in a 
breath: ''Three blue beans in a 
blue bladder; rattle, bladder, rat- 
tle." 

Near Loch Lomond, was a mill 
which was haunted by a spirit in 
the form of a goat, who did great 
mischief in the mill, to the con- 
sternation of the miller. 

In the mountains of upper Aus- 
tria, the natives have a spirit called 
the "klage," whose boding voice 
they deeply dread, as it bodes death 
to whoever hears it, or whoever 
meets her. 

When time hangs heavy, the 
wings of the spirit flap heavily. 

The Welsh believe in the good 
influence of a spirit called "Trwyn 
Pweca," whose appearance fwe- 
bodes a good time coming. 

The Trudcn are ugly old women 
who cause nightmares. 

German folklore has a fireman, 
whose dwelling place is boundary 
stones. 

Near Lake Tanganyika, in East 
Central Africa, little carved images 
filled with a certain substance, are 
tied around the necks or the upper 
parts of their arms as a charm 
against evil spirits. 

Many villages have an official 
whose duty is to keep away evil 
spirits. He has a knife and dagger, 
kept as heirlooms of the village. 
He offers sacrifices, and is an au- 
thority on all ancient superstitions. 

Charms, usually the bough of a 
tree, together with the bark, are 
buried near the river, to keep off 
evil spirits and enemies. (Africa.) 



To have white or yellow cloth 
hung up in the streets, will keep 
away evil spirits. (Chinese.) 

To have the word "Agla" about 
the house, is good for exorcisms. 
(Arabian.) 

The Chinese think that by turn- 
ing live crabs into the streets, the 
evil spirits will go with them. 

The natives of the Orkney Isl- 
ands and Jutland believed in fairies 
called ''drows,'* and thought that 
they could impart to one a super- 
natural wisdom. 

Fairy rings never appear in a 
cornfield. 

Fairy rings cannot be moved by 
a plough. 

"Come, bring thy wand^ whose magic 

power. 
Can wake the spirits of the deep.** 

(Mrs. Heroans.) 

The "Bugnel-Was" is a be- 
neficent spirit of gigantic stature, 
who wears a long white cloak and 
is only to be seen between mid- 
night and two in the morning. He 
is supposed to defend the people 
from the devil, by wrapping his 
cloak about them. 

The "tensarponleit" is a spirit 
which often presents itself to the 
people under the form of an animal 
resembling the West Indian sole- 
nodon, something like a hedgehog. 

Some people believe that when 
Old Nick touches a man's body, it 
causes him to emit a hissing or 
whistling sound, like that of a ser- 
pent. 

The Indian sailor would drink 
the blood of a cock or swallow a 
live coal, to propitiate the favor of 
his god, Mishiam, king of evil spir- 
its, and to avert evil influences. 

When the spirit called "Kolloh^ 
makes its appearance in Yangroo» 
West Africa, it is a sign of death of 



1404 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



a king or some distinguished char- 
acter. 

It is still believed among the 
Cornish and Devonshire peasantry, 
if, when visiting certain caves in 
the country, called "pixy caves," 
they forget to leave a pin for the 
pixies, that bad luck will follow 
them. 

The mode of summoning and 
exorcising spirits has been about 
the same in all ages. You stand in 
a circle and utter incantations, con- 
sisting of half foul magic and half 
Biblical quotations. The magic is 
usually for summoning, and the 
Bible for exorcism. 

An expectant Hindu father must 
not go out in a rich dress in the 
moonlight, as that attracts the fair- 
ies, and they will come and plague 
his wife. Sometimes the father is 
plagued, to make the malignant 
spirits think that there is bad luck 
in the house instead of good, so 
they will keep away. 

The "StilWolk" of Central Ger- 
many, are a tribe of the fairy king- 
dom that inhabit the interior hills 
in which they had their spacious 
homes. The entrance to their 
caves was only obtained by mortals 
by means of the luck-flower or key- 
flower. 

A disease consisting of hardness 
of the side was called "elf-cake." 
To cure it, take the root of gladen, 
make a powder of it, give the dis- 
eased person a spoonful of it in 
white wine, and the fairies will take 
the hardness away. 

The "Kobold" is in some parts 
of Germany believed to be a fiery 
stripe with a broad head, which he 
usually shakes from one side to the 
other. If he enters a house and a 
serving-man takes a wheel off the 
wagon, he must burn himself out 
of the house. Generally speaking, 
however, kobolds are mischievous 



little imps or spirits of the forests 
and mountains. 

In Eisleben, the "faithful Eber- 
hardt" aj^ears as an cAd man on 
the eve of Maundy Thursday, and 
drives all the people into their 
houses, to save them from the 
ghostly procession of that night. 
He is also the good spirit who pro- 
tects children who have lost their 
way in the woods, and leads them 
on' the right road home. In other 
traditions, he appears to warn per- 
sons from the ascent of the fiatal 
mountain of Venusberg. 

The Cluricaune, an Irish fairy, 
appearing as a wrinkled old man, 
gives one a knowledge of hidden 
treasures. Another Irish spirit, 
called the "Phooka," lures people 
to destruction. 

In the seventeenth century, peo- 
ple believed in what they called a 
"Fire-Drake." It flew in the night 
like a dragon. It was believed by 
the common people to be a spirit 
that kept hidden treasure* "The 
middle part being greater than the 
rest, maketh it seem like a bellie, 
and the two ends are like unto a 
head and tail." 

Popular fancy attributes to fair- 
ies the mischievous habit of shoot- 
ing cattle with arrows tipped with 
flint stone, and these arrows, when 
found, are called "elf-shoots." To 
cure animals assailed with some 
disorder, they simply touch them 
with these arrows. 

On Saturday night lay straws by 
the open window in full moonlight 
and say: 

"Straw draw, crow craw. 

By my lif^I I give thee lawP 

The straws will become fairies who 
will dance to the cawing of a crow 
that comes and sits on the ledge 
of the window. 

In Aberdeenshire, the banshee 
had to be propitiated by every trav- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1405 



«ler over a certain hill. This was 
done by placing near a well a bar- 
ley-cake marked on one side with 
a round O. If the cake was not 
left, the traveler would meet with 
dire misfortunes. 

Miss Martineau tells a curious 
story, in her "Feats on the Fiord." 
A certain bishop of Trondjem lost 
his cattle by the herdsman taking 
his eye off them to look at an elk, 
who was in reality a spirit. When 
the herdsman looked at the cattle 
again, they were no bigger than 
mice, and again when he turned in 
astonishment and looked at the elk. 
in order to understand the mystery, 
the cattle all vanished in a hole in 
the earth. 

At one time, priests in Rome ex- 
orcised and expelled bad spirits 
with salt, and placing some in the 
mouth of a person to be baptized, 
would say: "Receive this salt, and 
may it be a propitiation to thee for 
eternal rest" 

One of the most interesting spe- 
cies of nymphs arc the Hama-dry- 
ades, those personifications of veg- 
etable life which have the power to 
reward and punish those who pro- 
longed or abridged the existence 
of their associate trees. 

In the Abb6 Hue's travels, we 
are told that the Tartars worship 
mountain-spirits, and gain their 
good graces and good luck by rais- 
ing an "Obo," dry branches hung 
with bones and strips of cloth and 
planted in enormous heaps of 
stones. In Western Africa, Park 
bung a shred of cloth to imitate his 
companions, on a tree at the en- 
trance to the "wilderness," which 
was completely covered with these 
symbols which guard the wander- 
er. 

In the Isle of Man, whose first 
inhabitants are supposed to have 
been fairies, the people never go to 



bed without first setting a tub of 
water out for the fairies' use. 

The fairies there are fond of 
hunting, and when the natives find 
their horses tired and covered with 
sweat in the morning, they believe 
that the fairies have had them out 
for the sport 

In China, at times of scarcity of 
rice and sickness prevailing, evil 
spirits look into it, and whoever 
does not believe it will die in Sep- 
tember or October. When any 
evil spirits appear at midnight, 
which is in China, as well as in 
other countries, their favorite roam- 
ing time, no person must speak 
to them, nor give an answer if they 
should query. 

In a very curious work, "A Re- 
lation of Apparitions of Spirits in 
the County of Monmouth and the 
Principality of Wales," by the Rev. 
Edmund Jones of the Trench, we 
meet with what is termed an ex- 
cellent way of getting rid of a fairy: 
"C. T. (a person of strict veracity) 
traveling by night over Bedwellty 
mountain toward the valley of Eb- 
wy Fawr, was surrounded by fair- 
ies, some dancing, and heard the 
sound of a bugle horn, like persons 
hunting. He then began to be 
afraid, but recollecting his having 
heard that if any person should 
happen to see the fairies, if he 
drew his knife they would vanish 
directly, he did so, and saw them 
no morel" 

Small groves of trees are care- 
fully kept cultivated in the vicinity 
of Marangu, Africa, and preserved 
from injury, as it is believed that 
spirits abide in them. 

When a thunderstorm occurs in 
Marangu, Africa, it is a sign that 
the spirits are passing from one 
grove to another. 

Amazona is a good fairy of 
French folklore, who cleared the 



Mo6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



land from the Ogri and the blue 
Centaur. At a blast of her trum- 
pet, the sick had renewed life. She 
gave the lovely Princess Carpelona 
a bunch of gilly-flowers which en- 
abled her to pass unrecognized by 
all who knew her. 

The folklore of England, Ireland 
and Wales is full of stories in which 
hell-dogs pursue men and beasts, 
though they differ in appearance 
according to the country. All, 
however, are of great size, and 
strong beyond comparison. Their 
eyes shoot flames and the mouths 
emit fire that scorches all who ap- 
proach them. They can only be 
routed by a call on the Deity or by 
making the sign of the cross. 

In England, it is believed that 
if you put your foot in a fairy-ring, 
with a companion's foot on top of 
yours, the fairy world and the little 
elves will become visible. If you 
wish to have a charm that can defy 
all their anger, turn your coat in- 
side out, while you put your foot in 
it 

In China, charms are printed on 
yellow paper and pasted over the 
door or on the bed-curtains, or 
worn in the hair, or put into a bag 
and hung from the buttonhole, or 
burnt and the ashes mingled with 
tea and drank, so as to avert the in- 
fluences of evil spirits. 

There are a great variety of sto- 
ries of how fairies are frightened 
away by presents, or any notice 
taken of them. If queer things go 
on in the house, your washing 
and ironing done without anyone 
touching it, your rooms swept and 
your beds made with no one to 
help, say nothing, nor spread any 
presents or mantles of green for 
the little ones, or you will lose 
them. 

German children firmly believe 
in Horsel or Holda, whose boat is 



the moon, whose flower is the flax, 
and whose delight is to reward in- 
dustrious little maidens. Horsel, 
Holda or Hulda, also called Frau 
Holle, is, in Northern mythology, 
a goddess of death and winter, and 
plays a prominent part in German 
folklore. 



Evil spirits, male and female, 
side in the banyan trees of North- 
ern India. A female appears to the 
householder and calls him out. If 
he follows into the woods, he will 
be found in the morning stark, 
staring mad. A piece of iron is 
worn for a protecting charm 
against this. 

An effective charm against spir- 
its in China, is a cash-sword, so 
called from its sheath being made 
of small coins strung together. It 
is hung up horizontally on the cur- 
tains of the bridal bed ior luck, and 
also on the bed-ciutains during 
childbirth, to keep all demons and 
evil spirits away. 

The Ponka Indians believe in 
a being whom they call the Inda- 
cinga. This being is of a super- 
human character, who dwells in 
forests. He hoots like an owl, and 
is so poweriul that he can uproot 
a tree or overturn a lodge. The 
Ponkas have a song about him, and 
the mothers scare little children by 
saying: "Behave, else the Inda- 
cinga will catch you!" Another 
horrible being is the one with two 
faces, the sight of whom would in- 
stantly kill an expectant mother. 

Evil demons are turned away 
from places by hanging their im- 
ages on doors or windows. Cloth- 
and stone-amulets and talismans 
are hung on the person and furni- 
ture. 

Among the Eskimos, every ob- 
ject, however simple, appears to 
have its patron spirit, which, in or- 
der that it may perform its services 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1407 



for the welfare of the people, must 
be propitiated with offerings most 
pleasing and acceptable to it. The 
rule seems to be that all spirits are 
bad and must be propitiated to se- 
cure their favor. Each person has 
his own particular spirit, whom he 
consults, and all these are under 
the control of a single great spirit, 
having its dwelling in the sky» a 
term as illimitable with those peo- 
ple as ourselves. 

The Russian peasant believes 
that every house contains a house- 
spirit He is described as a little 
old man about as big as a five-year- 
old boy, variously dressed and hav- 
ing a long white beard, yellow 
hair and glowing eyes. When peo- 
ple are asleep he comes out of his 
hiding place, the big brick oven, 
and conducts himself amicably or 
not, just as he feels he has been 
treated by the family. Sometimes 
he does the household work in the 
night, and sometimes he upsets 
ever>'thing. 

Dr. Hyde, who writes beautifully 
of the folklore of Ireland, says de- 
spondently of it: "This exultant 
world of fancies is soon to pass 
away, to exist for none but scholars 
and the gentlemen of the sun- 
myth." I know that this is the 
common belief of folklorists, but I 
do not feel certain that it is alto- 
gether true. The fairy and ghost 
kingdom is more stubborn than 
men dream of. It will perhaps be 
always going and never gone. I 
have talked with many who have 
seen it, and I have had my own 
glimpse of unaccountable things. 
(Yeats, "The Celtic Twilight.") 

Ragweed is sacred to fairies, and 
when a little girl was mysteriously 
lost, the constable gave orders to 
bum all of it in the field where she 
had disappeared. In the morning 
the little girl appeared, wandering 
in this same field, that had been 



searched around repeatedly. She 
said the fairies had taken her away 
a great distance riding on a fairy 
horse. At last, she saw a big river, 
and the man who had tried to keep 
her from being carried off was 
drifting down it in a cockleshell. 
(Yeats, "The Celtic Twilight") 

In the fourth century, the Mes- 
silians believed themselves to be 
filled with demons, which they 
strove to relieve themselves of by 
constantly spitting and blowing 
their noses. 

It is said by the wise women of 
Ireland that the roots of the elder 
tree and the roots of an apple tree 
boiled together and drank fasting, 
will expel any evil spirit that may 
have taken up its abode in the body 
of a man. 

The young king of Servia is very 
superstitious, and is a firm believ- 
er in one of the most hideous Serv- 
ian legends — namely, the one con- 
nected with the broncolaque. This 
horrible monster is supposed to be 
a kind of vampire which assumes 
all kinds of shapes — sometimes 
beautiful and sometimes horrible 
ones — and seizes on you when you 
are asleep, and sucks your blood« 

The islands of Tarven are used 
only for grazing, in consequence 
of the superstition that no one can 
inhabit them on account of trolls 
and other devilish beings. 

The Africans believe in an evil 
spirit called "Abiku," who takes 
up his abode in the human body. 
He is believed to cause the death 
of children ; and if a child dies, the 
body is thrown on a dirt-heap. 

If vou are afraid of demons, take 
the leaves of the sweet flag, tie 
them into a bundle and place them 
near your bed; or place a sprig of 
peach blossoms over lintels. This 
will cause the evil spirits to disap- 
pear. 



X4o8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



The field-spirits that figure so 
largely at the {M-esent day in the 
superstitions of the Russian peas- 
antry, linger in Germany in the 
notion concerning grain, straw and 
so forth, which at an earlier period 
were each believed to be protected 
by its own guardian spirit 

In Iceland, the farmer guards his 
fields with charms, lest the elves 
that dwell in them shall invade his 
crops. 

People in Norway dread what is 
called "the wild hunt." They are 
fearful phantoms. If they drop a 
saddle on the roof, there will be a 
death soon« 

To keep oflf evil spirits, clip oflf 
the ends of the nails of a black cat 
with a pair of scissors, collect them, 
and sew them up in a piece of 
black silk, which can be carried 
about your person or kept in your 
home. It will bring you good luck. 

In the Isle of Man, the people 
believe in bad agencies, as well as 
in good angels, which are always 
with them, though invisible, and 
rain, dew, and green crops come 
from their power. 

A correspondent tells a story of 
a pixy who helped an old woman 
to spin. One evening she spied 
the fairy jumping out of her door, 
and observed that it was very rag- 
gedly dressed; so the next day she 
thought to win the further services 
of the elf by placing some smart 
new clothes as big as those made 
for a doll by the side of her wheel. 
The pixy came, clapped her hands 
with delight and vanished, with 
these words: 

"Pixy fine, pixy gay, 
Pixy now will run away!" 

Negroes on their native soil hold 
consultation in what they call their 
inner sanctuary with a spirit called 
the devil's bush. After gutteral 
mutterings, fire is touched to a 



large pile of timber all in readiness. 
These flames are intently watched. 
They believe that after these cere- 
monies their dreams will be filled 
with prophetic vision, by which to 
decide their course. ^ 

The Scotch farmer leaves green 
patches in his fields uncultivated^ 
in order to buy the good will of the 
otherwise evil-disposed earth-spir- 
its. 

The Esthonians dislike parting 
with any of the earth from their 
fields, and in drinking beer and eat- 
ing bread, they recognize the 
wants of the earth-spirits by let- 
ting some drops and some crumbs 
fall to the ground. 

Swedes believe that their fairies 
inhabit the rocks and mountains, 
morass and moor, and woe betide 
the person who meets these spirits 
in a mist, for they are believed to 
carry him oflF in the air. 

In many parts of Germany, there 
is scarcely a house or a family to 
which kobolds are not said to be 
attached. According to the super- 
stitious notions of the peasantry,, 
they preside over all domestic op- 
erations, many of which they per- 
form. The kobold brings luck to 
those who possess him. 

Among the Esthonians, it is be- 
lieved that the timid elves, in order 
to avoid the effects of thunder and 
lightning, get down several feet 
under the roots of trees, which they 
inhabit. 

Since fairies dwelt in their green 
knolls, a prayer like this has been 
offered in Scotland: "O blessed 
One, provide for us and help us 
and let not thy grace fall on us like 
rain drops on the back of a goose. 
Preserve us on land and sea. Pre- 
serve our wives, children, cattle, 
and sheep, from the power and do- 
minion of the fairies, and from the 
malicious effects of every evil eye.'* 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1409 



The best way to prevent the evil 
influence of fairies or demons en- 
tering a house, especially during 
the first three days of May, when 
their power is the greatest, is to 
scatter primroses on the threshold, 
as no fairy can pass this flower. 

It is a Breton notion that fairies 
cannot utter the words Saturday 
or Stmday. Saturday is the Vir- 
gin's day, Sunday the Lord's day; 
it is therefore unlucky to mention 
these days before them unless one 
adds, "and now the week is end- 
ed"; otherwise the fairies will be 
ccHidemned to long penitence. 

Medieval romances assert that 
fairies are on Friday turned into 
hideous animals, remaining so un- 
til Monday. 

According to the Welch, Irish, 
and Scotch, Friday is a day conse- 
crated to the fairies, who tiien can 
do much mischief. 

Banshees are fairies, often ap- 
*pearing in the form of an old wom- 
an, whose wailing foretold death. 
They are peculiar to Irish and 
Scotch folklore and have, accord- 
ing to Baring-Gould, no corre- 
sponding feature in Scandinavian, 
Teutonic, or classic mytliology. 

In Arabia, a piece of paper with 
the names of the seven sleepers 
and their dog, is used to protect 
the house from ghosts and demons. 
The seven sleepers were seven no- 
ble youths of Ephesos, who fled 
in the Dccian persecution to a cave 
in Mount Celion. Here they slept 
for 230 years (according to others, 
309 years), when they suddenly 
awoke, but soon died. Their bodies 
were taken to Marseilles in a large 
stone coffin, which is still shown in 
Victor's church. Their names 
arc G)nstantine, Dionysius, John, 
Maximian, Malchus, Martinian, 
and Scrapion. This legend has 
probably originated through a 



misapprehension of the words 
"They fell asleep in the Lord," 
which really means that they died. 
There are many different versions 
of the story. 

The bird, beast, or reptile of 
which an Indian dreams, betokens 
what he calls his "good medicine." 
It is a fetish, a sort of protecting 
spirit, and when he sees it in the 
woods he is encouraged, and would 
not harm it for the world. But 
the first one he sees after his dream 
he kills, to procure its skin, which 
he wears about his neck as a pre- 
servative against all diseases. 

The famous "Banshee" of Ire- 
land is described as a tall woman 
with uncovered head, long floating 
hair and white draperies, announc- 
ing by piercing cries the approach 
of death. She is also known as 
"the woman of peace," "lady of 
death," "white lady of sorrow," 
and "spirit of the air." Sometimes 
she appears young and beautiful, 
and at other times perfectly hid- 
eous. When several banshees are 
together and they wail in chorus, 
it indicates the death of some great 
or holy one. 

The North Albanians have fair- 
ies called "Vilas." These are of 
two kinds. The one, handsome, 
well-disposed, and riding upon 
beautiful horses; the other, hideous 
creatures, whose heads are covered 
with serpents instead of hair. To 
meet the first, is good luck; but to 
meet the others, is sure to be fol- 
lowed by some dire misfortune. 

One of the good Albanian fair- 
ies is a beautiful woman, wearing 
gold-gleaming garments, and on 
her head a fez covered with jewels. 
If a man can secure this fez, he will 
be happy for life. 

If one wishes to have a goblin, 
he must go on St. John's day, be- 
tween twelve and one at noon, into 



I4IO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the forest to an ant-hill, on which 
he will find a bird sitting; to this 
he must speak certain words, when 
it will transform itself into a Uttle 
fellow and jump into a bag held 
ready for the purpose. He can then 
carry him home in his bag, where 
he will perform all the work com- 
mitted to him. The words of the 
charm, however, are a secret, 
known to but a chosen few, and 
may be revealed especially to those 
bom on Christmas or New Year's 
night, or on a Sunday. 

Among the Eskimos, there are 
spirits of the sea, the sky, the 
clouds, and everything in nature. 
There is one spirit more powerful 
than all the rest, and his name is 
Tung-ak. He is no more nor less 
than Death, which ever seeks to 
harass the people that their spirits 
may go and dwell with him, for 
he is always lonesome and wants 
more company. A legend related 
of the Tung-ak is as follows: A 
father had a son and a daughter, 
whom he loved very much. The 
children fell ill and at last died, al- 
though the father did all in his 
power to alleviate their sufferings, 
showing his care and attention to 
the last moment At their death, 
the father became changed into a 
vicious spirit, roaming the world to 
destroy any person whom he might 
meet, determined that as his dear 
children died, none else should live. 

In India, it is believed that spir- 
its can enter into the body from 
any of the extremities, especially 
the head, and this is the reason 
why the head has sutures, which 
are broken during cremation to al- 
low the spirit to escape. The 
mouth, in particular, must be well 
guarded, for into it may creep 
Bhuts, if you do not wash it out 
often and are careful not to vawn. 
The ears, communicating directly 
with the brain, are kept covered on 



chilly mornings, last Ae Bhut, be- 
ing cold, should take the oppor- 
tunity to get into a warm place. 
Among some of the jungle tribes, 
they think there is no need to pro- 
tect a child against Bhuts or spirits, 
until it is old enough to eat grain, 
for up to that time it is nothing 
but a spirit itself. 

The elves of the Scottish High- 
lands are described as having w<mii 
silver shoes, long yellow hair hang- 
ing down their backs, a green coat, 
and breeches hke bloomers. 

The trolls of Scandinavia also 
made sometimes gifts of magic sil- 
ver shoes to mortals, to the posses- 
sion of which some particular ben- 
efit was attached. (The tn^s were 
anciently a fabled giant race; in 
modem times, they are believed to 
be familiar and friendly, though 
often mischievous, dwarfs, similar 
to the German ^Heinzelmaenn- 
chen.") 

The brownies are, similarly to 
the German '^Heinzelmaennchen," 
homely, good-natured spirits, sup- 
posed to haunt farm houses, and 
to do useful work about the house 
at night 

Sometimes the "brownie" is 
thought to live under the house, in 
the form of a lizard, and his pres- 
ence is thought to be an omen of 
prosperity; great care is therefore 
taken to pay him no disrespect 

In modem times, it has become 
a superstitious custom in tl^s coun- 
try to wear a little "brownie** in 
gold or silver, as a watch-charm or 
scarf-pin for luck. It is said to 
bring sure good luck if worn for 
three successive moons. This su- 
perstition doubtless originates from 
the great popularity of Palmer 
Cox's Brownie books, these charms 
representing imitations of his draw- 
ings. 



FOLKLORE; AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



141 z 



THE FAIRY CHANGELING. 

Dennod O'Byrne of Omah town 
In his garden strode up and down. 
He polled his beard and he beat his 

breast; 
And this is his tronbk and woe con- 
fessed: 

'The good-folk came in the night, and 

they 
Have stolen my bonny wean away. 
Have put in his place a changeling, 
A weashy, weakly, wizen thing 1 

From the speckled hen nine eggs I 

stole. 
And lighting a fire of a glowing coal, 
I fried the shells, and I split the yolk; 
Bot never a word the stranger spoke: 

A bar of metal I heated red 
To frighten the fairy from its bed. 
To put in the place of this fretting wean 
My own bright beautiful boy again. 

Bot my wife had hidden it in her arms, 
And cried Tor shame T on my fairy 

charms; 
She sobs, with the strange child on her 

breast: 
1 love the weak, wee babe the bestl 



f ft 



To Dermod O'Byme's the Ule to hear 
The neighbours came from far and near; 
Outside his gate, in the long boreen. 
They cross themselves, and say between 

Their mottered prayers, "He has no 

lock I 
For sure the woman is fairy-struck. 
To leave her child a fairy guest. 
And love the weak, wee wean the best!** 
Dora Sigcrson. (From "The Chap 

Book.") 

The so-called fairy rings in old 
pastures, little circles of a brighter 
green, within which it was suppos- 
ed the fairies danced by night, are 
now known to result from the out- 
spreading propagation of a peculiar 
moshroom, the fairy-ringed fun- 
gus, by which the ground is ma- 
nured for a richer vegetation. An 
immense deal of legendary lore, 
however, has clustered around this 
curious phenomenon, popular su- 
perstition attributing it to the mer- 
ry roundelays of the moonlight 
Among these superstitions 



is the following: The maidens of 
old gathered the May-dew on the 
grass, which they made use of to 
improve the complexion; but they 
left that on the fairy rings un- 
touched, afraid that in revenge the 
fairies would destroy their beauty, 
and it was not considered safe to 
put one*s foot within the rings, as 
that would place one in the fairies' 
power. In the "Athenian Oracle" 
is found the following: "If a house 
be built on the ground where are 
fairy rings, whoever shall inhabit 
therein, shall wonderfully prosper." 

When Swedish peasants see cir- 
cles marked on the morning grass, 
it is a sign that the fairies have 
been there. 

In the pretty fairy tale of "Ch^ry 
and Fair-star," we read of three 
wonderful things which the Prin- 
cess Fair-star asked her lover 
Ch6ry to obtain for her. One was 
the "dancing water," which beauti- 
fied ladies, made them young 
again, and enriched them. It fell 
in a cascade in the "burning for- 
est," and could only be reached by 
an underground passage. Ch^ry 
was aided by a dove to obtain some 
of this water. The "singing apple" 
was a ruby apple on a stem of am- 
ber. It had the power of persuad- 
ing anyone to anything merely by 
its odor, and enabled the possessor 
to write verses, make people laugh 
or cry, and itself sang so as to rav- 
ish the ear. The apple was in the 
Desert of Libya, and was guarded 
by a dragon with three heads and 
twelve feet. Prince Ch^ry scared 
him by his armour of glass, which 
reflected the dragon a thousand- 
fold, and thus succeeded. The last 
was the little "green bird," which 
could speak, prophesy the future, 
and answer any question which the 
owner might put to it 

In Ireland, witches, warlocks, 
and fairies are said to hold high 



X4I3 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



revel on the last day of October. 
' Then the terrible "phooka" is 
abroad. The phooka is a large 
dusky-looking creature that some- 
times takes the form of a horse or 
pony, sometimes that of a bull, and 
not infrequently of a huge bird like 
the roc, with fire gleaming from its 
eyes and nostrils. On Hallowe'en, 
it lurks in lonesome places, creeps 
noiselessly behind the belated and 
unwary traveler, and thrusting its 
monstrous head between his legs, 
whisks him on to its back and 
whirls him up to the moon, or 
plunges with him to the bottom of 
a lake, or flies with him over the 
ocean or up to the tops of moun- 
tains, or traverses the most remote 
realms of space between dusk and 
dawn. 

In Egypt, evil spirits are called 
afrits. They are supposed to as- 
sume either human or animal form, 
and there is no action of life that is 
not fraught with more or less dan- 
ger from them, and the chief terror 
is of the evil eye. Ruins are sup- 
posed to be the favorite haunts of 
these afrits, and no Eg^tian will 
approach a ruin without a muttered 
acknowledgment of their powers, 
and he is sure to wear some sort of 
a charm, such as the ninty-nine 
titles of the Prophet, or a few 
words from the Koran written on 
paper and enclosed in a metal case, 
to ward off the malignant influ- 
ence. Another amulet is a silver 
ring engraved with a few holy 
words. 

The Singhalese have a demon 
who takes his name from a high 
hill near the city of Kandy. The 
natives believe that one of their 
kings had no children, and the as- 
trologers told him that he would 
never have heirs until he sacrificed 
yearly a virgin to the god of the 
hill. He accordingly, for the sake 
of getting a life, put out one, and 



he had a child every year he killed 
a child, and this custom went on 
until 1815, when the English for- 
bid it and put an effectual 
stop to it Few natives even now, 
dare go up the hill after dark» and 
no young girl will venture. But it 
is said that one girl escaped the 
hungry god and lived to a good old 
age; yet the natives think that 
Bahira is only waiting his time for 
his revenge. 

The Chinese object to develop- 
ing their great resources of coal, 
because the good luck spirits, com- 
ing every spring from the south, 
would fall into the mines and be 
lost 

The Chinese object to railways, 
because the digging would disturb 
the bones of their ancestors. No 
improvement can be suggested that 
would not in some way interfere 
and make trouble between them 
and their ancestors. The spirits of 
the departed are the most impor- 
tant poptdation of China. 

In Magyar folklore, the origin 
of the fairies is told in the follow- 
ing manner: Christ, when wan- 
dering along the road, entered the 
house of a woman under the garb 
of a beggar. She knew hun, how- 
ever, and she had so many children 
that she was ashamed to meet him 
or have him see them. She there- 
fore hid half of them and crept her- 
self under the trough, and sent her 
little girl to tell him that she was 
away from home. "May she never 
come home, then!" said he, and de- 
parted. She came out from the 
trough and frightened her child 
to death, for she had been trans- 
formed into a turtle! She called 
her children, but they had disap- 
peared and she never saw them 
after. Christ had turned them into 
fairies, and since then they have 
multiplied into all kinds, as elves, 
fays, imps, and brownies, ace 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



MX3 



ing to their natures and disposi- 
tions. 

The negroes of Congo believe in 
good and evil spirits. The former 
send rain, the latter withhold it 
To keep the witches away, they 
have a "kissy" or presiding divini- 
ty. It is the figure of a man, the 
body stuck with feathers, rags and 
bits of iron, and resembling noth- 
ing so much as one of our scare- 
crows. If any person attempted 
to shoot one of these kissy, it is 
believed that he would fall dead, 
and the flint would drop out of his 
musket. The Kollah man carries 
a stick in his hand to show his au- 
thority, and to give notice of his 
coming he rings a bell which is fix- 
ed inside of the kollah or basket. To 
be without these signs of his office, 
would bring all kinds of evil on 
him. He teaches that the first 
parents of the natives committed a 
great fault against the "great 
god," so He had cursed both them 
and their children. 

In the Orkney Isles, according 
to Brand, elves were frequently 
seen, clad from top to toe in armor; 
they carried off men by secret pow- 
ers, and accidents were attributed 
to them. One John Sinclair, a 
clcrg>man, who was extremely 
sceptical in his ideas, was one night 
going home, when he was seized 
by an elf and borne through the air 
many miles, **over ethereal fields 
and fleecy clouds," and finally set 
down at his own door; whereupon 
he astonished his congregation by 
a full account of his adventure from 
the pulpit. (Ennemoser, History 
of Magic.) 

Who are the fairies of Ireland? 
"Fallen angels who were not good 
enough to be save<l, nor bad 
enough to be lost," say the peas- 
antry. "The gods of the earth." 
says the Book of Armagh. "Tlie 
gods of pagan Ireland,** say the 



Irish antiquarians, "the Tuatha De 
Danan, who, when no longer wor- 
shipped and fed with offerings, 
dwindled away in the popular im- 
agination and are now only a few 
spans high.** When they are an- 
gry, they paralyze men with their 
fiery darts. When they are gay, 
they sing. Many a poor girl has 
heard them, and pined away and 
"died for love of that singing. Plen- 
ty of the old beautiful tunes of Ire- 
land are only their music caught 
up by the eavesdroppers. Do they 
die? Blake saw a fairy's funeral, 
but in Ireland they say they are 
immortal. (W. B. Yeats, Fairy 
Tales and Folk-Lore.) 

The lakes are believed by the 
Basque people to be inhabited by 
water-fairies. They have also 
"peris,** or such spirits as the 
"genii" of the Persians. Accord- 
ing to popular tradition, it was this 
"hade" who fell in love with a 
shepherd called Luzaide, and took 
him to the summit of Ahunemendi, 
where she had her palace made of 
cr>'stal. Animals, personifications 
of the vices or virtues, and Satan 
with a train of followers, witches 
riding on dragons and broom- 
sticks, and evil creatures of all 
kinds, enter largely into the Basque 
belief, the supernatural accounting 
for the strange open places on the 
otherwise verdurous mountains, or 
for the one black, fir-covered peak 
of Aquelaire, which is utterly dif- 
ferent to all the surrounding 
heights. (Marianda Montciro, 
Legends of the Basque People.) 

The Erl-king is the name of a 
personified natural power or ele- 
mentary spirit which, according to 
German folklore, prepares mischief 
and ruin for men and especially for 
children, with seductive illusions. 
It is fabled to appear as a goblin, 
haunting the forest of Thuringia. 
The existence of such elementary 



I4I4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



spirits and their connection with 
mankind have in the earliest times 
occupied the imaginations of the 
most widely diflFerent races. The 
Erl-king was introduced into Ger- 
man poetry irom the Sagas of the 
N(Hth, and has become universally 
known through Goethe's ballad. 

Flibbertigibbet is (Mie of the for- 
ty fiends cast out by the Spanish 
Jesuits during the Spanish inva- 
sion, according to Bishop Harsnet 
Shakespeare says, in King Lear 
(IV., 1): 

"Five fiends have been in poor 
Tom at once; of lust, as Obidicut; 
Hobbididance, prince of dumb- 
ness; Mahu, of stealing; Modo, of 
murder; Flibbertigibbet, of mop- 
ping and mowing; who since pos- 
sesses chambermaids and waiting- 
women." 

"This is the foul fiend Flibberti- 
gibbet — he beg^s at curfew, and 
walks till the first cock; he gives 
the web and the pin, squints the 
eye, and makes the harelip; mil- 
dews the white wheat, and hurts 
the poor creatiu-e of earth." (King 
Lear, IIL, 4.) 

In Wales, they have an animal 
spirit called "the dog of darkness." 
It is a horrible creature, as large 
"as a nine-year-old horse." An- 
other is a "devil's nag," which runs 
about in the dark, while the "gro- 
tesque ghosts" of that land are 
wonderful to see. They are very 
much like persons in grotesque 
masquerade costumes, and frighten 
the farmers and peasantry as if for 
sport Some of them are called 
"whirling ghosts," because they 
whirl on their hands and feet topsy- 
turvy and over and over. Some of 
the ghosts are gigantic, towering 
in great columns. The "familiar 
spirit" is also almost a household 
god in Wales, as it was with some 
of the ancients. One dangerous 



spirit is "the lady oi the wood." 
She is a wild woman, and appears 
as a beautiful young lady. She is 
represented as being gleeful, slen- 
der, of an elegant growth, and deli- 
cate features. She wins the affec- 
tions immediately, so that no man 
can resist her, and lures the pass- 
ers-by. They disappear or are 
found dead. 

There is a strange bugbear com- 
mon to the Mandingo towns, and 
much employed by the pagan na- 
tives in keeping their women in 
subjection, called Mumbo Jumbo. 
The Kaffirs are not restricted in 
the number of their wives, every 
one marries as many as he can con- 
veniently maintain, so it frequently 
happens that the ladies do not 
agree among themselves, and the 
interposition of Mumbo Jumbo is 
needed to settle their quarrels. 
This strange minister of justice is 
a monster dressed in a fantastic 
costume, who comes into the midst 
of them and whips (hem right and 
left with his rod. He is thoroughly 
believed in by the women as being 
a supernatural being, and yet it is 
suspected that sometimes it is the 
husband in disguise. (Mungo 
Park.) 

The incubus is a male demon 
who inhabits the regions of the air, 
and was formeriy supposed to con- 
sort with women in their sleep. He 
is also often spoken of as the per- 
sonification of the nightmare, or as 
a vampire. In Chaldean demonol- 
ogy the incubus, together with his 
female consort, the succubus, holds 
a prominent place. The latter is 
a female demon of the night, of 
much the same character as the 
incubus, fabled to associate with 
men in their sleep. Deformed chil- 
dren were usually supposed to be 
the results of associations of incubi 
or succubi with human beings. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1415 



Of the "incubus," Chaucer 
writes: 

^Tor there to walk as wonten, was an 

elf. 
There walketh now but Limitor himself; 
In every bush and under every tree. 
There is none other Incubus but he I*' 

E. B. Tylor says, in "Primitive 
Culture": "A not less distinct prod- 
uct of the savage animistic theory 
of dreams as real visits from per- 
sonal spiritual beings, lasted on 
without shift or break into the be- 
lief of mediaeval Christendom. 
This is the doctrine of the incubi 
and succubi, those male and female 
demons that consort with man and 
woman." The dramatist Cowley 
alludes to the succubus in the fol- 
lowing lines: 

''So men, (they say) by Hell's delusions 

led. 
Have ta'en a Succubus to their bed." 

All the numerous fairies, elves, 
giants, dwarfs, and spirits of the 
night, which occur in German and 
Northern folklore and superstition, 
are remnants of the old Norse and 
German mythology. The elves 
(alfen, elfen) live in Alfheimer (elf- 
home); their king is the Erlkoenig. 
In the night hours, they come in 
troops to dance in the grass, leav- 
ing, according to popular belief, 
their traces in the form of fairy- 
rings. The dwaHs (zwerge), 
whose father is named Ivaldr, 
dwell in the heart of the hills. To 
them belong precious stones and 
metals, on which they prove their 
skill in workmanship. As guard- 
ians of hidden treasures, thev were 
propitiated by the seekers of the 
same with a black goat or a black 
cock. An echo is called by the Ice- 
landers, dwcrgmaal-zwcrgsprache 
^-or dwarf-voice. The evil beings 
who stole the light every evening, 
and the summer every year, were 
called giants. Such were the 
Reifricsen (Hrimthursen). who 
brought the winter. The giant 



Hrungnir had a head of stone, and 
a heart of stone; and a giantess, 
mother of Gmir, as many as nine 
hundred heads. Another giant 
was Thiassi, who slew Thor and 
cast his eyes up to heaven, where 
they shone thereafter as stars. In 
the extreme north dwelt the giant 
Hresvelgr, the motion of whose 
wings caused the wind and tem- 
pest, in which respect he resembles 
the gigantic bird of the Buddhist 
play, Nagananda, who raises the 
waves on the sea by the flapping of 
his wings. On the extreme south 
was Surtr, whose flaming sword 
guarded the bounds of Muspelheim. 
Besides these, there were the Troll- 
weiber (troll arvis), phantoms from 
the land of the dead, who in the 
dark nights rode to the earth on a 
wolf, bridled with snakes. The 
three Nomen were the Norse fates. 
The Valkyrien were fair maidens 
who hovered over the field of bat- 
tle, woke up the dead heroes with 
a kiss, and led away their souls to 
fight and drink ale as of old, in the 
happy Valhalla. 

Brewer gives, in his "Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable," the follow- 
ing list of good and evil fairies, the 
definition of which, however, dif- 
fers sometimes from the notions 
current in different localities: 

AFREET or EFREET, one of the 
Jinn tribe, of which there arc five. 

APPARITION, a ghost. 

ARIEL, a spirit of the air and guar- 
dian of innocence; a sylph; and accord- 
ing to Milton one of the Angels cast 
out of heaven. 

BANSHEE or BENSHEE, an Irish 
fairy attached to a house. 

BOGGART. (Scotch) a local hob- 
goblin or spirit 

BOGIE or BOGLE, a bugbear 
(Scotch form of bug). 

BROWNIE, a Scotch domestic fairy; 
the servant's friend if well treated. 

BUG or BUGBEAR, any imaginary 
thing that frightens a person. 

CAULD LAD, the Brownie of Hil- 
ton Hall. 

DJINN, JIN, or GINN (Arabian). 



I4i6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



N 



DUENDE, a Spanish house-spirit 

DWARF, a diioinutive being, human 
or super-human. (Anglo-Saxon, 
dweorg), Dwcrgcr, Dwergugh, or Ducr- 
gar, Gotho-German dwarfs, dwelling in 
rocks and hills. 

ELF, (plu. Elves) fairies of diminn- 
tive size, supposed to be fond of practi- 
cal jokes. 

ELLE-MAID or ELLE-WOMAN, 
Elle-Folk, of Scandinavia. 

ESPIRIT FOLLET, the house- 
spirit of France. 

FAIRY or FAERIE, a supernatural 
being, fond of pranks, but generally 
pleasing. (German and French, fee.) 

FAMILIAR, an evil spirit attendant 
on witches, etc 

FATA, an Italian fay, or white lady. 

FATES, the three spirits (Clotho, 
Lachesis, and Atropos) which preside 
over the destiny of every individual 

FAY, same as Fairy. 

FEAR, Dearg (The) L e. Red Man. 
A house-spirit of Munster. 

GENII (plu.; sing. Genie and Geni- 
us). Eastern spirits, whether good 
or bad, who preside over a man or 
nation. "He is my evil (or good) 
genius." (Latin, genius.) 

GHOST, the immaterial body or 
noumenon of a human being. Supposed 
to be free to visit the earth at night- 
time, but obliged to return to its Hades 
at the first dawn. 

GHOUL, a demon that feeds on the 
dead. (Persian.) 

GNOME, the guardian of mines, 
quarries, etc, (Greek, a Cabalistic be- 
ing). 

GOBLIN or HOBGOBLIN, a 
phantom spirit. (French, gobelin; Ger- 
man, kobold.) 

GOOD FOLK, (The), The Brownies 
or house-spirits. 

GUARDIAN-ANGEL, an angelic 
spirit which presides over the destiny 
of each individual. 

HABUNDIA, queen of the White 
Ladies. 

HAG, a female fury. (Comus 445) 
speaks of "blue meagre-hags." 

HAMADRYAD, a wood-nymph. 
Each tree has its own wood-nymph, 
who dies when the tree dies. 

HOBGOBLIN. Hob is Robin, as 
Hodge is Roger. 

HORNS or HORNIE, the Devil. 

IMP, a puny demon or spirit of mis- 
chief. 

JACnC - A - LANTERN, a bog or 
marsh spirit who delights to mislead. 



JINN or GINN. These Arabian 
spirits were formed of "smokeless fire.** 

KELPIE. In Scotland, an imaginary 
spirit of the waters in the form of a 
horse. 

KOBOLD, a Ciennan household 
goblin, also frequenting mines, ((jer- 
man kobold). 

LAMIA, a hag or demon. Keat's 
Lamia is a serpent which had assumed 
the form of a beautiful woman, beloved 
by a young man, and gets a souL (Latin 
Lamia.) 

LAMIES, African spectres, having 
the head of a woman and tail of a ser- 



y^ 



pent 

LAR, Latin household deities. 

LEPRECHAUN, a fairy shoemaker. , ^ 

MAB, the fairies' midwife. Some- 
times incorrectly called queen of the 
fairies. 

MANDRAKE. The root of the 
mandragora, either forming naturally 
the rude figure of a man or cut to 
represent one, possessing many wonder- 
ful virtues. 

MERMAID, a sea-spirit, the upper 
part a woman and the lower half a fish. 

MERROWS, both male and female, 
are spirits of the sea, of human shape 
from waist upwards, but from the waist 
downwards are like a fish. The females 
are attractive, but the males have green 
teeth, green hair, pig's eyes, and red 
noses. Fishermen dread to meet them. 

MONACIELLO or LITTLE 
MONN, a house-spirit of Naples. 

NAIAD, (plu. Naiades or Naiads), 
water-nymphs. 

NIS or NISSE. a Kobold or 
Brownie. A Scandinavian fairy friendly 
to farmhouses. (Contraction of Nico- 
laus.) 

NIX (female. Nixie), a water-spirit 
The nix has green teeth, and wears a ^ 
green hat; the nixie is very beautifuL 

OBERON. king of the fairies. 

OGRE, (pronounce og'r) an inhabi- 
tant of fairy-land said to feed on infant 
children. 

ORENDS, mountain nymphs. 

OUPHE, a fairy or goblin. 

PERI, a Persian fairy. Evil peris are "^ 
called "Deevs." > 

PIGWIDGEON, a fairy of very _ 
diminutive size. 

PIXY or PIXIE, (also pisgy, pisgie) 
a Devonshire fairy. 

POUKE, same as Puck. 

PUCK, a merry little fairy spirit, full 
of fun and harmless mischief. (Ice- 
landic and Swedish, puke.) 

ROBIN-GOODFELLOW, another 
name for Puck. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



X4I7 



SALAMANDER, a spirit which lives 
in fir«w (Latin and Greek, salamandra.) 
SHADES, ghosts. 
SPECTER, a ghost. 
SPOOK, (in Thcosophy,) an elemen- 

Ul. 

SPRITE, a spirit. 

STROM K.-VRL, a Norwegian musi- 
cal spirit, like Neck. 

SVLPH. a spirit of the air; so named 
by the Rosiciucians and Cabalists. 
(Greek, silphe; French, sylphide.) 

TRITON, a sea deity, who dwells 
with Father Neptune in a golden palace 
at the bottom of the sea. The chief 
employment of tritons is to blow a 
conch to smooth the sea when it is 
raffled. 

TROLL, a hill-spirit. Hence Trolls 
are called Hill-people or Hill-folk sup- 
posed tq be immensely rich, and espe- 
cially dislike noise. 

UNDINE, a water-nymph. (Latin. 
anda.) 

URCHIN, properly means a hedge- 
hog, and is applied to mischie>'0us 
children and small folk generally. 

VAMPIRE, the spirit of a dead man 
that haunts a house and sucks the blood 
of the living. A Hungarian supersti- 
tion. 

WERE-WOLF, (Anglo-Saxon, wer- 
wiilf. man-wolf), a human being, some- 
times in one form and sometimes in 
another. 

WHITE LADIES OF NOR- 
MANDY. A species of fee, lurking in 
ravtn«s. fords, bridges and narrow pas- 
sages, waylaying travelers. 

WHITE LADY (The), of the royal 
family of Prussia. A "Spirit'* said to 
appear before the death of one of the 
family. 

WHITE LADY OF AVENEL, a 
tutelary spirit. (A creation of Sir 
Walter Scott.) 

WHITE L.ADY OF IRELAND 
(The), the banshee or domestic .spirit 
of a family. 

WHITE MERLE (The), of the old 
Basques. A white fairy bird, which, by 
its singing, restored sight to the blind. 

WIGHT, any human creature, as a 
"Highland wight.'* Dwarfs and all 
other fairy creatures. 

WILLO-THE-WISP. a spirit of 
the bogs, whose delight is to mislead 
belated travelers. 

WRAITH (Scotch), the ghost of a 
person shortly about to die or just dead, 
which appears to survivors, sometimes 
at a great distance off. 



Holes are doorwavs for elves. 

Namo is a beautiful French en- 
chantress, who can assume the 
form of anything that is beautiful. 
She was made before the earth, but 
is as lovely as ever. 

The natives of British Guiana 
believe that raging spirits of bad 
men are called **rolling calves/' 
and appear in the form of calves, 
dragging long chains. 

There is a French fairy named 
\'iolenta, who lives in a mountain 
made of a flower, and its doors are 
the petals. 

There is a sort of fairy in human 
form called a "Drac," whose abode 
is the cavern of rivers. Sometimes 
these dracs will float like golden 
cups along a stream to entice bath- 
ers, but when the bather attempts 
to catch them, the drac draws 
him under water. (Mythology' of 
Southern France.) 

Fairyland is at the roots of oak 
trees. 

The djinns, fantastic beings of 
the East, have such a terror of iron 
that the name alone is a charm 
against them. 

The people of Demerara believe 
in **warning spirits," who come to 
their friends and tell them how to 
avoid impending danger. 

When a native of Natal narrowly 
escapes some great danger, the 
person will sav that a verv small 
spirit of his or her family must 
have interfered, that it cannot have 
been a very powerful spirit. 

'Then into the night he looked forth. 
And red and white the streamers bright 
Were dancing in the glowing north. 
He knew by the streamers that shot so 

bright 
That spirits were riding the northern 

light." 
(Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel.) 

Milton speaks of fair}* ladies who 
dance on the hearth at the time of 



14x8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



a birth, and wbo bring good luck 
to the mother and babe. 

The Saxons made drinks for 
"fiend-sick" men, to be drunk out 
of church-bells, and used also holy 
water and oil, to expel demons. 

Phooka is an old Irish spirit of 
most malignant disposition, who 
hurries people to their destruction. 
He sometimes comes in the form 
of an eagle, and sometimes in that 
of a horse. 

I asked Paddy Flynn if he was 
not annoyed by seeing so many 
fairies, and had he ever seen the 
"banshee?" "I have seen it," said 
he, "down there by the water, bat- 
ting the river with its hands!" Per- 
haps the Gaelic people shall, by his 
like, bring back again the ancient 
simplicity and amplitude of imag- 
ination they once had. (Yeats, 
••The Celtic TwiUgi.t.") 

The natives of Natal believe in 
benevolent and evil spirits produc- 
ing prosperity and adversity, health 
and sickness; and witchoaft was 
recognized as one of the evil arts, 
practiced with the view of causing 
death or injury to property. 

When the Antama's cry is heard 
in Madagascar, it is a sign of death. 
The Antama is the Madagascian 
counterpart of the Irish "banshee." 

In Bohemia, wood-nymphs and 
banshees are supposed to be most 
dangerous at the hour between 
eleven and twelve, midday, and 
people avoid going into the woods 
at that time if they can. To meet 
one, brings on bewilderment and 
even madness. 

The Japanese use as a charm 
against evil spirits, a small wooden 
box called "ofaray," which has 
been consecrated and given by a 
priest; it is usually fastened on the 
street-door. They also use fre- 
quently the liverwort, which they 
believe to have magic properties. 



or put up in front of their doors 
images of their house-god, for the 
same purpose. 

It is an Irish belief that it is de- 
mons, and not ghosts, that trans- 
form themselves into dogs and 
cats. The people who see these 
demcHis are poor simple minded 
fishing people, who have for these 
things the fascination of fear. 

An object of much dread among 
the Mayas of Yucatan, is the "black 
taiL" This is an imaginary serpent 
with a broad, black, iorked taiL It 
glides into houses at night when 
the nursing mother is asleep, and 
covering her nostrils with its tail, 
sucks her breasts. 

An Odjibbeway legend: Wampec, 
a great hunter, once came to a 
strange prairie, where he heard 
faint sounds of music, and looking 
up saw a speck in the sky, which 
proved itself to be a basket con- 
taining twelve most beautiful maid- 
ens, who, on reaching the earth, 
forthwith set themselves to dance. 
He tried to catch the youngest, but 
in vain; ultimately he succeeded by 
assuming the disguise of a mouse. 
He was very attentive to his new 
wife, who was really a daughter of 
one of the stars, but she wished to 
return home, so she made a wicker 
basket secretly, and, by help of a 
charm she remembered, ascended 
to her father. (Ignatius Donnelly, 
Atlantis.) 

The Russians also believe in a 
house-spirit, called a hobgoblin, 
fie is a spirit without wings, body, 
or horns. He lives in every honest 
family. The difference between 
him and the devil is that he never 
does anything bad, but only makes 
mischief, or even does favors for 
the master or the mistress of the 
house. It he likes the household, 
he is very quiet; but if not, he 
breaks things, makes noises, and 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1419 



lets the people know that some- 
thing has displeased him. 

In Russia, when a family moves 
and has been happy and the fam- 
ily's cattle have not died or run 
away, they believe that they have a 
good house-demon, and will invite 
him to remove to the other house 
with them; but if they have had a 
great deal of trouble, they give no 
invitation, but let the house-demon 
stay and trouble someone else. 

Korea, "the land of the chosen," 
**the land of the morning calm," as 
it is called, is full of strange super- 
stitions, which have peopled the 
realm of fancy with numerous good 
and evil spirits, such as spirits of 
the harvest, the spirit of the morn- 
ing star, the celestials, etc. Of par- 
ticular significance is the worship 
of the tiger, long believed to be a 
divine beast, and often represented 
on the national flag as having 
wings like a dragon. 

The Karens of Burma make sac- 
rifices to the earth and build a 
small house, two or three feet high ; 
some fowls are sacrificed by cut- 
ting off their heads, and the feath- 
ers are daubed on the posts of the 
house, to keep off the evil spirits. 

In Somerset, England, the be- 
lief in pixies, brownies, "little 
folk,** and "good people," is still 
very prevalent. Tlie "blast'* is a 
large round tumor, thought to rise 
suddenly on the part affected by 
the baneful breath cast on it by one 
of these "good people," at a time 
of their vindictive malice. 

The Manx people assert that the 
first inhabitants of their island were 
fairies; so do they maintain that 
these little people have still their 
residence among them. Tliey call 
them the go^xl people, and say they 
live in wilds and forests, and on 
mountains, and shun great cities 
because of the wickedness acted 



therein; all the houses are blessed 
where they visit, for they fly vice. 
A person would be thought impu- 
dently profane who should suffer 
his family to go to bed without 
having first set a tub, or pail full 
of clean water, for these guests to 
bathe themselves in, which the na* 
tives aver they constantly do, as 
soon as ever the eyes of the family 
are closed, wherever they vouch- 
safe to come. If anything happens 
to be mislaid, and found again, in 
some place where it was not ex- 
pected, they presently tell you a 
fairy took it and returned it ; if you 
chance to get a fall and hurt your- 
self, a fairy laid something in your 
way to throw you down, as a pun- 
ishment for some sin you have 
committed. 

The Mayas of Yucatan have 
many tales of a phantom bird The 
hunter unexpectedly sees a hand^ 
some bird on the tree before him. 
He fires but misses. He fires 
again, but in vain. Finally the bird 
falls of its own accord, and proves 
to be nothing but a colored feather. 
Then he knows that he has been 
fooled by the "Zohol chich." 

In a house where order and 
prosperity prevails, it is believed to 
be done bv the influence of the 
fairies or tonus. (Sweden.) 

If the corn-crib is empty, it is a 
sign the fairies have deserted the 
premises. (Sweden.) 

Work on iron on "tomt night," 
and you will be unlucky. (Sweden.) 

When one has but little to eat in 
the house it is considered unlucky, 
as the fairies will desert the house. 
(Sweden.) 

From the "National Legends of 
Roumania,** we gain the following: 
Tlie word balaur in Wallach signi- 
fies a being with the body of a ser- 
pent and the voice of a man, in 
which they heartily believe. He is 



1490 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



a phantom who fights against the 
braves. They are guardians of hid- 
den treasure and the daughters of 
kings. Wallach peasants have a 
tradition that precious stones are 
formed by the froth of the balaur's 
mouth. 

The "skeleton in the closet" is 
called Alastor, a house-demcHi, 
which haunts and torments a fam- 
ily. Cicero said that he meditated 
killing himself that he might be- 
come the Alastor of Augustus, 
whom he hated. (Plutarch.) "God 
Almighty mustered up an army of 
mice against the Archbishop Hat- 
to, and sent them to persecute him 
as furious Alastors." (Ccwyat. Cru- 
dities, 571.) (Shelley has a poem 
(HI Alastors.) 

Goblin-foxes are peculiarly fear- 
ed in Izumo (Japan), because they 
take diabolical possession of peo- 
ple, tormenting them into madness. 
It is a sign that a man has a goblin- 
fox, when he will not go near wa- 
ter, for it is believed that the man- 
fox cannot be seen, but if he goes 
close to still water, his shadow can 
be seen in the water, and he can 
thus be detected. (Lafcadio Heam, 
"Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.'*) 

'*Such a soft floating witchery of sound, 
As twilight elfins make, when they at 

eve 
Voyage on gentle gales from fairyland." 

(Coleridge.) 

An English gentleman, the par- 
ticular friend of our author, to 
whom he told the story, was about 
passing over Douglas Bridge be- 
fore it was broken down, but the 
tide being high, he was obliged to 
take the river, having an excellent 
horse under him and one accus- 
tomed to swim. As he was in the 
middle of it he heard, or imagined 
he heard, the finest symphony, he 
would not say in the world, for 
nothing human ever came up to it. 
The horse was no less sensible of 
the harmony than himself, and 



kept in an immovable posture all 
the time it lasted; which, he said, 
could not be less than three-quar- 
ters of an hour, according to the 
most exact calculation he could 
make when he arrived at the end 
of his journey and found how long 
he had been coming. He, who 
before laughed at all the stcMies 
told of fairies, now became a con- 
vert, and beUeved as much as ever a 
Manxman of them all. (Waldron, 
"Description of the Isle of Man.") 

The Dooiney-Oie, or "night- 
man," of the Manx peasantry, is 
reverenced as the tutelar demon 
of certain families, as he appeared 
only to give monitions of future 
events to certain persons. His 
voice was very dismal when heard 
on the moimtains at night, some- 
thing like H-ow-1-a-a! When his 
lamentation is heard in winter on 
the coast, you may be sure it is a 
predicticHi of a coming tempest It 
was so awful that even the brute 
creation trembled at the sound. 
(Moore, "Folk-Lore of the Isle of 
Man.") 

When Socrates stood before his 
judges and made his last speech in 
the acceptance and expectation of 
death, he told them that his famil- 
iar spirit or demon (the ancients 
called them "holy"), did not stay 
him that morning, nor warn him 
of danger, neither when he started 
from home nor when he made the 
fatal speech, although he had often 
been stopped in the midst of a 
speech by the warning voice. He 
therefore judged that death was 
best for him. "That which has be- 
fallen me is not the effect of 
change!'* he exclaimed. "This is 
clear to me, that now to die and 
be freed from my cares is better for 
me. On this account, the warn- 
ing in no way turned me aside." 
It can hardly be supposed that 
such a man, under such circimi- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1421 



stances, could possibly lie, and he 
declared that this guardian and 
warning angel had accompanied 
him from his childhood. (Rob- 
ert Dale Owen's The Debatable 
Land.) 

"Not only do we find the same 
words and the same terminations 
in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only 
do we find the same name for Zeus 
in Sanscrit, Latin, and German; 
not only is the abstract name for 
God the same in India, Greece, and 
Italy; but these very stories, these 
*Mahrchen* which nurses still tell, 
with almost the same words, in the 
Thuringian forest and in the Nor- 
wegian villages, and to which 
crowds of children listen under the 
Pippal trees of India — these stories, 
too, belonged to the common 
heirloom of the Indo-European 
race, and their origin carries us 
back to the same distant past, when 
no Greek had set foot in Europe, 
no Hindoo had bathed in the sa- 
cred waters of the Ganges." (Max 
Muller.) 

There is a frightful goblin, nam- 
ed Barguest, in the north of Eng- 
land, which is an object of terror. 
According to Ritson (Fairy Tales), 
besides its many other pranks, it 
will sometimes in the dead of night, 
in passing through the different 
streets, set up the most horrid and 
continuous shrieks, in order to 
scare the poor girls who might 
happen to be out of bed. The fac- 
ulty of seeing this goblin is pecu- 
liar to certain people, but may be 
imparted by simply touching an- 
other. 

Mclusina was the daughter of 
the fairv Pressina. She was con- 
demned to become every Saturday 
a serpent from the waist down, as 
a punishment for having by means 
of a charm inclosed her father in a 
high mountain, in order to avenge 
an injury done to her mother. She 



married Raymond, Count of Poi- 
tiers, and having been seen by him 
during her loathsome transforma- 
tion, was immured in a subterra- 
nean dungeon of the castle of Lu- 
signan. The traditions concerning 
Melusina were collected by Jean 
D'Arras in the fourteenth centurv. 
The tradition and belief still lin- 
gers around the castle to this day, 
and at the fairs of the city, cakes 
are sold with human heads and the 
tail of a serpent, and called Melu- 
sines. 

There was a cave in the region 
adjoining Babylon called Dom- 
daniel, the abode of evil spirits, by 
some traditions said to have been 
originally the spot where the 
prophet Daniel imparted instruc- 
tions to his disciples. It was a 
purely imaginary region, subter- 
ranean or submarine, the dwelling 
of enchanters. 

'*In the Doindaniel caverns. 
Under the rocks of the ocean, 
Met the masters of the spell." 

(Southey.) 

In the Middle Ages, people be- 
lieved strongly in demons and 
spirits, and thought that hell had 
four kings who governed the four 
portions. East, West, North and 
South. Amoymon governed the 
East, and Asmodeus was his lieu- 
tenant and the first prince of the 
realm. He sometimes came to 
earth, and taking favored ones with 
him, went into all sorts of houses 
at night and all places of the world, 
and showed them wliat was hap- 
pening among their fellow-men. 

There is an old legend of a fairy 
who was the very essence of las- 
civiousness,but who attracted many 
lovers whom, when she was tired 
of, she turned into trees, beasts, 
and birds. However, this did not 
last forever, for by a magic ring, 
she was suddenly shown in her 
hideousness, not a beautiful and 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



young creature, but an old hag, 
horrible to look upon. 

The Abyssinians believe that 
certain diseases are caused by de- 
mons or by a "booda," who has 
taken possession of the patient 
The Falashas of Semen and the 
neighborhood of Gondar, skillful 
artisans in general, and a number 
of other people possessed of more 
than common intelligence or gen- 
ius, are locked upon as boodas. 
The hyena is generally believed to 
be a transformation oi booda. 

The Manx people believe in an 
animal they call the "water-horse," 
which can live in fresh or salt wa- 
ter, or on land. A certain glen, 
haunted by the spirit of a man, is 
his resort, and this spirit once 
thinking him an ordinary horse, 
mounted him, and was carried as 
swift as the wind into the sea and 
drowned. 

The description given by hun- 
dreds of Manx people of their won- 
derful fairy water-horse is about as 
follows: The bay or gray horse 

f razes at the lakeside, and when 
e is mounted, nishes into the loch 
and devours his rider. His back 
lengthens to suit any number; 
men's hands stick to his skin; he is 
killed, and nothing remains but a 
pool of water. He falls in love 
with a lady, and when he appears 
as a man and lays his head on her 
knee for his hair to be dressed, she 
finds him out by the sand in his 
hair. He appears as an old wom- 
an, and is put to bed with a bevy 
of damsels, and he sucks the blood 
of all save one, who escapes across 
the stream, over which he dares 
not go, although he is a water- 
horse. (Moore, "Folk-Lore of the 
Isle of Man.") 

Tlie belief in satyrs and other 
creatures, half man and half ani- 
mal, exists to this day among the 
North American Indians. The 



Shoshone Indians believe in little 
imps that people the mountains of 
Montana, called Nirumbees, two 
feet long, naked, and with a tail. 
The Otoes located these little peo- 
ple in a mound at the mouth of the 
Whitestone river, and say they are 
eighteen inches high, with very 
large head. The Dakotas firmly 
believe in fairies, and the Ojibbe- 
ways know of elves that always dis- 
appear into the ground when dis- 
turbed, but who can be seen danc- 
ing on the flowers after a shower. 
(Dorman's "Origin of Primitive 
Superstitions.") 

In Ireland, we hear but little of 
the darker powers, and yet the wise 
are of the opinion that wherever 
man is, the dark powers who feed 
his rapacities, no less than the 
bright beings who store their 
honey in the cells of his heart, and 
the twilight beings who flit hither 
and thither, encompass him with 
their passionate and melancholy 
multitude. They hold, too, that he 
who by long desire possesses the 
power, or he who through accident 
of birth can pierce into their hid- 
den abodes, can see them there, 
those who were once women and 
men, full of a terrible vehemence, 
and those who have never lived 
upon the earth, moving slowly and 
with a subtler malice. 

The dark powers cling about us, 
it is said, like bats upon an old 
tree, and that we do not hear more 
of them is merely because the 
darker kinds of magic are not suf- 
ficiently known. A clerk in a flour- 
mill told me there were ghosts in 
the mill "who will talk to you face 
to face, and in shapes as solid and 
heavy as your own." I went, and 
after some sorcery, I felt clouds 
and darkness closing over me, and 
the clerk cried out from his trance, 
"Oh, God!" He saw a huge ser- 
pent coiling about the room. I felt 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1423 



I too must fall into a trance if I did 
not struggle against it, so by my 
will I got rid of the clouds and 
blackness. But the two sorcerers 
saw a monk and other things — too 
dreadful. When they came to, I 
asked: "What would happen if 
one of your spirits had overpow- 
ered me?" "You would go out of 
this room with his character added 
to your own." 

James Dawson says, in his ''Aus- 
tralian Aborigines": They are 
not much afraid of the bad spirit 
Muwurup in the daytime, but 
dreadfully afraid at night. They 
think that he employs the owls to 
watch and give him notice when he 
may pounce upon any unfortunate 
straggler from the camps; hence 
their hatred of owls, which are re- 
garded as birds of evil omen. 

When the owl is heard screech- 
ing or hooting, the children imme- 
diately crawl under their grass 
mats and stay until he flies off, else 
the evil one would catch them. 

Some blacks think that the evil 
spirit of the owl lives in the moon. 

If a black thinks he sees his own 
likeness or that of a bad spirit, it 
causes him to pine away and die. 

The Manx people have a "Wom- 
an of the Sea" and a "Man of the 
Sea," both of the mermaid order, 
and spirits, fiends, and other invis- 
ible creatures galore. The phyn- 
nodderee or **satyr," is, however, re- 
markable for his strength and his 
hairy limbs, half man, half beast, 
having fiery eyes. He once work- 
ed all night for a gentleman who 
was building a residence on a hill 
and carried a whole quarry of rock, 
including a pure white block of im- 
mense weight, to the building spot 
(the stone can be seen in evidence). 
He borrowed a sickle and cut 
down two fields of com in the par- 
ish of Bride in a single night. He 
is a fallen fairy, and always lament- 



ing his banishment from his native 
home. However, at last he must 
have been pardoned, for he disap- 
peared ; and the old folk say, "there 
has not been a merry world since 
he lost his ground." 

The Eskimos believe in fairies 
as much as other people, and the 
following information has been ob- 
tained at Grosswater Bay: Fairies 
were originally the offspring of a 
flying squirrel and a spider. The 
king of the fairies is a very big man 
possessed of three heads, one on 
each shoulder and one on his neck. 
His wife unscrews his heads before 
he goes to bed, else he would 
snore too much to sleep. He is 
only afraid of fire. 

The queen is about the size of a 
two-year-old child. Her breasts 
are so long that they reach the 
ground. If any wild beast attacks 
her, she places one of her feet on 
each of her breasts, and it is power- 
less to hurt her. 

The fairies are so swift that they 
can catch any wild beast. They are 
so small that they can go in your 
cap or pocket. TTiese, or whatever 
they go into, must be turned inside 
out, or they will lead you astray. 
If they go into a house, a boot 
must be put on a stick and they 
must be chased with it; or shot 
must be put on a shovel and rattled 
over the fire till they leave. 

The Russians believe that evil 
spirits originated in the following 
manner, and tell this story to their 
little ones: King Solomon, his 
wife, and an attendant, were going 
on a journey. At night, they stop- 
ped by the side of a river to take 
food and rest. They caught three 
fish from the river, made a fire and 
put the fish in a pot over the fire 
to boil. King Solomon went to 
sleep, and when he awoke he said 
he had had a dream, and if the 
dream should come to pass, one of 



1424 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the fish would leap alive out of the 
pot. Immediately he had said these 
words, one of the fish came to life 
and went into the river. The at- 
tendant said to the king: "I have 
a presentiment that some one will 
kill you." When King Solomon *s 
wife heard these words she was 
afraid, and confessed to her hus- 
band that she had a lover who in- 
tended to kill him. At this, the 
king ordered this lover to be 
brought, and said to him: "I have 
a very large pitcher, and I wish 
you to fill it with evil persons like 
yourself, and if you fill it to the top, 
then you shall have my queen." 
The lover brought all the wicked 
people he knew and put them into 
the pitcher, but he could not fill it 
The king then said: "Get in your- 
self and take the queen, and per- 
haps it will then be full." The lov- 
er immediately got in with the 
queen, and at once King Solomon 
shut up the pitcher, so that all 
these evil spirits were shut in to- 
*gether. The king then had them 
thrown into the sea, and for many 
years there were no persons with 
evil spirits. But one day a fisher- 
man found it, opened it, and let all 
the evil spirits out again, who scat- 
tered themselves over the broad 
earth, some in one place and some 
in another. From these evil spirits 
came witches, wizards, sorcerers, 
all those who have an evil eve, and 
the rest of the wicked crew of to- 
day. 

The unseen world is constantly 
filling the mind and influencing the 
action of a Kaffir. He believes in a 
host of water-spirits, hobgoblins, 
and the like^ all malevolent, and 
ready to play pranks upon him and 
harm him. To protect himself, he 
wears amulets and charms on his 
person, and the superstition gives 
a tone of seriousness to his charac- 
ter. He is always afraid of some 



unseen influence. He makes a sac- 
rifice to appease these imaginary 
spirits. The meat is sacrificed, for 
the spirit's hunger is satisfied with 
the smoke. From time to time» 
persons claim to have received rev- 
elations from the spiritual world; 
these are implicitly believed, and 
obtain often a greater power and 
influence than any priest. 

If you meet with a "duppie" and 
you wish to know whether it is a 
good or bad one, say: "Jesus the 
name high over all I" If it is a good 
one, it will help you to sing it; but 
if it is a bad one, it will run away. 
(Jamaica.) 

People of the lower classes in 
Russia, believe firmly in the evil 
spirits of Solomcm, and think that 
if they hear their names called and 
they inadvertently answer, they 
will fall into the power of these in- 
visible spirits, who can harm them 
in many ways. If, on the contrary, 
the man does not answer when 
called, the evil spirit is baflSed, and 
has no power. The following stoiy 
was told a correspondent by the old 
man who experienced it: He was 
riding one night to the pond to 
give his horse a drink of water. On 
the road back, someone jtmiped 
up behind him on the saddle, and 
held him with a tight grasp. The 
man was frightened, and under- 
stood at once that it was an evil 
spirit; he crossed himself three 
times and asked God to protect 
him. When they got to the stable* 
the spirit loosed his grasp and said 
to the man: "Who are you? Are 
you a jackal?" But the old man 
was too wise to answer a word, and 
so the spirit left him. He said this 
spirit was nothing but a skeleton 
with very long hair, and had he an- 
swered him, he would have gotten 
into his power and gone mad; but 
by not answering him he was kept 
safe. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1425 



Another similar story was told 
by another Russian peasant of the 
neighborhood of Negoite: One 
night a man, his wife, and boy were 
sitting at supper. Suddenly the 
boy was taken very ill. From the 
outside, someone called the name 
of the boy three times. The boy 
tried to get up and go to answer 
him, but he found he could not 
move. The mother opened the 
door and called out: "Who are 
you? Who is calling my boy?" 
but nobody answered. She then 
turned back to the boy and said: 
"It is an evil spirit; make the sign 
of the cross, and ask God to protect 
you!" The boy, however, sat per- 
fectly motionless for a few minutes, 
and then jumped up and knocked 
himself, and everything else about 
the room, and went mad. He was 
not in his right senses for five 
years afterwards, and everyone 
verily believed that he was under 
the curse of an evil spirit. 

Though Natal has now been for 
more than half a century a British 
colony, its first constitution, dating 
from 1843, neither Christianity nor 
civilization has as yet taken hold 
entirely of the inhabitants, and the 
large majority of the native popu- 
lation has no religion whatever and 
is still wedded to the barbaric cus- 
toms and superstitions of their 
forefathers. Yet much has been 
done by the missionary agencies 
and judiciary government to weak- 
en their belief in witchcraft, proph- 
ecy, love philters, signs, omens, 
and myths. Formerly, superstition 
entered into all the affairs of their 
lives, and formed part of their laws 
and customs. 

The native in his heathen state 
is firmly convinced that the witch- 
doctor and female diviners have 
power to bring rain, to trace spells 
of witchcraft, to heal by incanta- 
tion, and to perform sundry other 



wonders and miracles. In his 
mytholog)'. he has a curious collec- 
tion of spirits as ever had the an- 
cient English, Irish, or Scotch. 
The "hairless one'* is one of these, 
and endless mischief and terror are 
caused by his instrumentality. 

The ancient Maltese thought and 
insisted on others believing that 
the bog>'-man wanders about the 
streets during the winter nights. 
Tlie bog)-man is described as a 
hideous animal, partaking of the 
nature of an ox, a ram, and a don- 
key, going about until it comes to 
the first house which has been un- 
fairly possessed, in order that with 
its hideous cries it might frighten 
the inmates. Parents and nurses 
are still in the habit of frightening 
the little ones with the bog>'-man, 
in order to induce them to "be 
good." 

It is equally difficult to trace the 
origin of the various supernatural 
beings with which ignorant and 
credulous mankind has peopled an 
unseen world, as to describe the 
various kinds of spirits and fairies, 
and define their characters with 
definite correctness. In English 
folklore, most spirits were believed 
to have the power to contract or 
enlarge their bulk at will, while the 
fairies seem to have been essential- 
ly small in size. The latter are also 
usually described as beautiful min- 
iatures of the human being, perfect 
in face and form, while most of the 
other spirits, such as dwarfs, 
brownies, and the like, are general- 
ly presented as more or less de- 
formed creatures. The fairies are 
usually beings of a benevolent 
character, and often called "good 
neighbors*' or "men of peace." 
Nevertheless they have, in the be- 
liefs of various parts of the coun- 
try, more or less an admixture of 
elfin malignancy. This evil part of 
the fairy's nature is frequently 



1436 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



demonstrated by kidnapping of 
unchristened infants, or even some- 
times adult men and women. This 
kidnapping is explained by the cir- 
cumstance that the fairies were be- 
lieved to be under obligations to 
deliver up to the master-fiend 
every seven years, one of their 
number as a tribute, and instead of 
paying "kane," as it was called, by 
sacrificing one of themselves, they 
preferred to substitute some hu- 
man being. Young married wom- 
en were supposed to be carried off 
sometimes for the purpose of be- 
coming nurses to their own infants, 
and in Ireland the belief is found to 
this day that when a young woman 
falls victim to puerperal diseases, 
she has been removed by the fairies 
for this purpose. The land of fair- 
ies, where they lived like mankind 
in large societies and ruled by a 
king or queen, is usually described 
as one of beauty and splendor. The 
fairy palaces, mostly underground, 
.were believed to be filled with 
treasures of gold, silver, and pre- 
cious stones. Their feasts and 
pageants were marked for magnifi- 
cence, greater than anything im- 
aginable. They were dressed in 
brilliant green, studded with inval- 
uable gems, and rode milk-white 
steeds. All these superstitions, 
however, as well as the fairy people 
themselves, were believed shad- 
owy and insubstantial. 

Mr. Adolph Brewster Joske, of 
Colo, Fiji Islands, contributes the 
following, illustrating Fijian belief 
in ghosts, supernatural powers and 
spirits: "We were traveling through 
the interior of Viti Levu, and had 
halted for the night at an up-coun- 
try village. After dinner in the big 
house of the place, the people came 
in to pass the evening away with 
yangona (kava) tobacco and con- 
versation, as is usual. Before long, 
the stock topics of the crops, the 



exceedingly dry weather, the local 
gossip, being exhausted, I endeav- 
ored, as is my custom, to find out 
something more of the folklore of 
the people. To get them to make 
a start, I began to talk about 
ghosts and spirits, and then de- 
manded of die audience as to 
Aether any of them had ever seen 
a ghost, in Fijian parlance, "tevo- 
ro." They shook their heads du- 
biously; all had heard of them, but 
on the whole inclined to think that 
they had no actual personal experi- 
ence, although the Mataninivanua 
of the place (ofiicials synonymous 
with our heralds, who conduct all 
matters of ceremonial importance) 
said that not long ago, upon the 
death of the chief of his district, he 
had for four long nights sat out 
and kept vigil upon the grave of his 
departed master, as a mark of love 
and attachment Although all 
alone, he had not seen anything; 
but he was inclined to think that 
there had been a supernatural 
manifestation. On each night, just 
before the dawn, he had become 
heavy with sleep, and then the 
grave beneath him had quaked, 
and starting up suddenly, he had 
fully expected to see a spirit, but 
nothing appeared. To one accus- 
tomed to keep watch, and to take 
one's turn at the helm, to which the 
most of us in the islands are used, 
through the frequency of boat trav- 
el, the sudden feeling of falling as 
one wakes from an unintentional 
nap, the phenomenon of the quak- 
ing of the grave is without mys- 
tery, but not so to the simple Ma- 
taninivanua. To him, it was a mat- 
ter of the deepest import, to 
be carefully pondered upon and 
thought out, and apparently to this 
day he has not arrived at the solu- 
tion. Nor did I venture to oflEer 
him my idea of the cause. I pre- 
ferred not to throw the light of 
common sense upon it, wishing to 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1427 



hear what the others thought about 
it" 

Then from the listening assem- 
bly a young man named Timothi 
modestly observed: "I, sir, have 
seen tevoro. At one time, I was 
employed as a mail carrier on 
the overland route, which passes 
through the wildest parts of the 
mountains of Viti Levu, and had 
to carry the letters during the night 
between Vunidawa and Nambila, 
The mail had arrived as usual from 
Suva about seven o'clock one even- 
ing, and I left V^unidawa with it. 
The native magistrate in charge of 
the station, who handed me the 
bag, said I must not light my torch 
till I g^t clear of the place, as nak- 
ed lights were forbidden on the 
station for fear of fire. So I trudg- 
ed along in the dark till I got to 
the next village at Deleitonga, and 
then I lighted my bamboo and 
went on my way. When I got to 
the part of the road where it passes 
along the face of the precipice ov- 
erhanging the river, I felt my body 
begin to bum all over, and when I 
turned the bend by the big dakua 
tree (a species of pine), I saw two 
gigantic goddesses coming along 
in single file. They were the most 
beautiful women 1 have ever seen, 
and their 'tombes' (lovelocks) 
reached down to their knees, and 
they had gigantic bosoms, which 
flapped against their breasts as 
they walked along. They were 
laughing and chatting together, 
but what thev said I could not un- 
derstand. They took not the slight- 
est notice of me, and I was in the 
most mortal terror. Down fell my 
torch and the mail bag. and 1 tried 
to veil, but could not. Mv voice 
refused to come. Then I dropped 
on mv knees and endeavored to sav 
my prayers, but not a word would 
come. Then I prayed inwardly 
three times and then the goddesses 
fled, and I saw them go and disap- 



pear into the big bure at Taulevu. 
I staggered along to the next vil- 
lage at Nairukuruku and managed 
to fling myself, speechless, into the 
house of Manasa. where I remain- 
ed for some time in a dead faint. 
The people of the house clustered 
round me and asked many ques- 
tions, but I was unable to re- 
ply to them. So old Manasa said: 
*The bov must have encountered 
a tevoro! I know the medicine for 
that. Get lemon leaves quickly.* 
So some were brought, and iie 
made an infusion of them with hot 
water, and bathed my head and 
chest, and after a while I recovered 
and told the people what I had 
seen. They said: 'Oh, yes! you 
have seen the "Alewa Kalou" 
(goddesses); they are the enchant- 
resses of our tribe, and haunt the 
big dakua tree. As soon as I got 
a bit better I went on with the mail 
all through the night till I got to 
my destination at Nambila, sixteen 
miles further on, and although the 
path was solitary through weird 
groves of trees and dense growths 
of bamboos and reeds, I saw no 
more spirits. That was four years 
ago, and to this day I have met 
with none other." 

"Ah!" said the Mataninivanua, 
thoughtfully, "though I have never 
seen a tevoro, I have heard them 
called, and a conversation carried 
on with them. It is done bv a 
practice called in these parts the 
Loiloi. When we find a man dead 
in the bush, with blood coming out 
of his eyes, ears, and nose, and yet 
with no signs of violence about, 
then we know he has been killed 
bv a 'tevoro,' and we do the Moiloi' 
to find out the spirit that has dvMie 
it. It is performed in this manner: 
The body is brought back to the 
house in the village which formerly 
belonged to it. and the friends and 
relatives all collect therein on the 
succeeding night. Proclamation is 



X4a8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



made to the rest of the villagers to 
remain in their houses with closely 
shut doors. In the middle of the 
night, the dead man's nearest 
friend climbs on to the ridge pole 
of the house where the dead body 
is, and sits astride, facing one of 
the gable-ends, and shouts: 'A loi, 
loi, loi. A loi, loi, loi' (whence the 
custom derives its name); 'hoi you 
tevoro over in that direction!' The 
spirits hailed reply: 'What do you 
want?' The challenger says: *Did 
you kill my dear friend?' We will 
presume that in the first in- 
stance the inquiry has been made 
in the wrong direction, and 
the answer is in the negative. 
Then the challenger interrogates 
the spirits in the four comers un- 
der heaven, till he gets a reply in 
the affirmative. The spirit who has 
done it always owns up, and says 
defiantly: 'Yes! I killed your 
friend!' Then the man on the roof 
defies the evil spirit, and chal- 
lenges it to mortal combat on the 
morrow at a given spot. Of course, 
the tevoro accepts the wager of 
battle, and promises the dead 
man's champion the fate of his 
friend. The conversation has been 
anxiously listened to by all the 
braves in the place, and they at 
once proceed to take steps to 'lay 
the devil.' They arm themselves 
with every description of weapon, 
more especially with missiles which 
can be discharged from a distance, 
and are therefore more to be rec- 
ommended in an encounter with a 
spirit than the ordinary hand to 
hand arms of warfare, such as 
clubs, which might necessitate too 
close a proximity to 'my lord the 
tevoro.' All the bowls and troughs 
in the place are taken out and 
placed along the path by which he 
must approach the place of combat, 
and filled with water. This is done 
to show his approach, as being a 
spirit, he is invisible. All the 



tracks in the olden times were very 
narrow, with dense thickets on 
each side. Of course, the tevoro 
could not avoid under such circum- 
stances treading in the bowls of 
water spread in the way, and 
thus by the splashing, showing 
his whereabouts. The champion 
stands at the end of the lane yell- 
ing defiance, whilst the warriors 
are in ambush on either side. 
When the splashing shows the 
presence of the spirit, his path is 
enfiladed by heavy volleys from 
those concealed on either side, and 
by this simple method the too con- 
fiding 'tevoro' meets his death, or 
is supposed to. But it was always 
uncertain as to whether it was effi- 
cacious, through the invisibility of 
the spirit, and there were general- 
ly great arguments as to what 
really had been effected, and the 
only real test was whether he ceas- 
ed or not his malicious pranks." 
Considering that most of the te- 
voro are the disembodied spirits of 
ancestors, they ought not, from 
their acquaintance with Fijian 
treachery, to fall into the simple 
wile of their degenerate descend- 
ants. Yet it seems to be a rule 
that, though spirits may be malig- 
nant, they are easily cheated. In 
witness of this, not very far from 
the place where this was recounted, 
when a man died and was carried 
to his last home, he was taken bv 
devious tracks with many twists 
and turnings, so that he could not 
find his way back to his old village, 
and so cause trouble to the sur- 
vivors by his wandering appari- 
tion. 

An old graybeard from a village 
away up in the dividing range, who 
had been listening intently, inti- 
mated that they managed things 
better from where he came. He 
said: "I'm an old man; I've never 
seen the 'loiloi,* but I've heard the 
old men sav how thev did it. When 



FOLKLORE. AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1429 



a man got killed by a tevoro, he 
was taken to his house, and a num- 
ber of his friends collected there 
with drums and conch shells, whilst 
the remainder of the villagers post- 
ed themselves about close to the 
house, but in concealment. Then 
one of the friends climbed on to the 
ridgepole and called to the various 
dakua trees in the neighborhood, 
as they in our parts are always the 
abode of spirits. The man on the 
roof shouts like this: *Loi, loi, loi, 
ho! You spirit over there in the 
big dakua tree at Mataso, did you 
kill my friend?* If the reply is no, 
he turns and yells to the various 
dakua trees till he gets an answer 
in the aflSrmative. TTien he replies : 
'Here I am in the house of my 
dead friend, come along and fight 
me, if you dare.* He then adds 
abuse in a truly oriental style, and 
so works the tevoro up into a boil- 
ing passion, until he rushes to the 
house to utterly smite and wipe 
away the puny mortal who is in- 
sulting him. But when he gets to 
the house he finds the door shut, 
so he dashes upon it with his cluj, 
whereupon the people inside strike 
up the drums and blow the conch 
shell and make such a noise that 
they nearly frighten him to death, 
and he turns to run home. Then 
comes the opportunity of the peo- 
ple posted outside. They have 
heard his footsteps as he has come 
along, and placed themselves so as 
to be able to strike at him as he 
comes back. When thev hear him 
on his return journey, they strike 
out right and left, with all their 
main, and smite him hip and thigh. 
When daylight comes they look 
round for the fragments, and often 
find ribs and teeth lying about. 
Then it is known that the tevoro 
has been successfully punished." 

STRENGTH— To be strong, a 
piece of bearskin inscribed with the 



70th psalm, is worn suspended 
from the neck. 

SUCCESS— A lion's tooth car- 
ried in the pocket, will enable the 
owner to do whatever he under- 
takes. 

TEETH OF ANIMALS— If by 
accident you find the back tooth of 
a horse, carry it about with you as 
long as you live, and you will never 
want for money. 

TIGER EAR — In India, to 
have a pair of tiger's ears about 
you, is good luck. 

TOOTHACHE — To eat no 
flesh on Easter day, is good for the 
toothache. 

TREASURE SEEKING — II 
you drop a cross penny on a treas- 
ure, it cannot be moved away. 

In looking for treasure, the ne- 
groes say that if something is 
found, and the spirits that g^ard it 
are not willing it should be taken, 
it is ''spirited away" again, and 
then it is gone forever. 

If a pot of money is found, a rice 
cake must be put in place of each 
coin taken, and spirit-money burn- 
ed as an offering to any spirit that 
might be irritated at its removal. 
(Japan.) 

In Stendal, Germany, exists the 
belief that one can dream of a place 
where treasure is hidden, if one 
lays the heart of a pewit, drieil and 
reduced to powder, under one's 
head at night. 

The Bedouins believe that im- 
mense treasures were concealed bv 
Solomon beneath the foundations 
of the buildings in the city of Pal- 
myra, and committed to the care 
of Jinns. who still watch over them. 

Tlie Irish believe that hidden 
treasure may be discovered with 



1430 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the help o! a nenuphar, the great 
white water-lily. 

Around Sasice, in Bohemia, the 
peasants say that a blue light hov- 
ers above a buried treasure, but 
that everyone cannot see it, as it 
disappears if you are not the right 
person. 

If two people are together and 
find a treasure, neither must speak 
until they have removed their find, 
otherwise one of them would die. 

There is an old belief that wher- 
ever treasure is hidden, it is guard- 
ed by spirits. 

There is a certain mosaic moon 
which will enable the owner tt) find 
hidden treasure. 

In hunting for a treasure, go to 
a place where the shadow falls at 
midnight under the end of a limb of 
an old dead tree; there you will 
find a treasure. 

If a prayer was offered to St. 
Christopher in order to discover 
buried treasures, of which he is the 
guardian saint, the treasure would 
be found. 

If a forked twig of hazel or some 
similar wood, turns in the hands of 
its bearer and points to the east, 
it is a sign that water or buried 
treasures will be found on that spot. 
Dig for it and you will find it. 

When digging for treasure, have 
some bread about you, and the 
specters cannot trouble you. 

If you think treasure is buried, 
take a black chicken or a black cat, 
and make it walk over the spot; if 
the creature suddenly disappears, 
it is a sign that the treasure lies 
there, and you may dig in sure 
hope of finding it. 

TROUBLE— If you take a cat 
at night to the grave of one whom 
you disliked and place it there, the 
devil will take it and all your trou- 
bles with it 



VERMIN — ^A malefactor's arm- 
bone carried in the pocket, is a se- 
curity against vermin. 

VOODOO — Voodoo-worship 
was brought from Africa by slaves 
and is said to be still flourishing, 
though more or less secretly, in 
Haiti and other West Indian is- 
lands. Not very long ago, it was 
still to be found among the negroes 
and Creoles of the Southern Unit- 
ed States, but now as a faith it is 
practically dead. It has left, how- 
ever, many superstitions that are 
to this day current among colored 
people. Voodooism consists in a 
practice of malicious, defensive, 
amatory, healing, or soothsaying 
enchantments, charms, witchcrafts 
or secret rites, tinctured with Af- 
rican superstitions and customs. 
In the main, these are only such 
fanatical beliefs and important se- 
cret libations, burnings, etc, as are 
everywhere the conditions where 
the base and puerile of mind have 
recourse to such things. These 
ceremcwiies, often connected with 
cannibalism and human sacrifices, 
are conducted, by special voodoo 
priests. The American slang term 
**hoodoo " is probably adopted 
therefrom. 

Among the voodoo worshippers, 
if a woman gets a pair of shoes 
which her rival has just taken oflF, 
ties her own shoes inside of them, 
and lets them remain so till morn- 
ing, she will win away the affec- 
tions of the man she wants. 

One is safe from voodoo-conjur- 
ing if one owns a frizzly hen, which 
will surely eat such charms as may 
be placed on the premises. 

To carry a voodoo charm, will 
always bring luck. 

A "hoodoo" can be transformed 
into a "mascot" by spitting on it 

It is believed that by magic 
spells a "voodoo" can cause the 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1431 



feathers in an enemy's pillow to 
form themselves into some non- 
descript bird or animal. This grows 
slowly and only by night. When 
completely formed, the person who 
has used the pillow, dies. 

A similar practice is to tear a live 
bird asunder and put the wings 
into the pillow. Another form of 
the same idea finds vent in placing 
some charm such as a combination 
of bones, hair, and other trifling 
objects, into the pillow; all this 
with the intention to do the person 
who is to sleep on that pillow^ 
harm. 

Putting grains of com into a 
child's pillow, prevents its grow- 
ing any more. 

The surest way to prevent being 
•^hoodooed," is to open one's pil- 
low, and if any charms are found, 
to sprinkle them with salt and bum 
them. 

Scattering dirt before an ene- 
my's door is one form of conjuring 
evil upon him. Making certain 
figures on the wall of the house 
with chalk will also do him evil. 
Crumbling dead leaves and scatter- 
ing them before an enemy's house 
will "hoodoo" him. Throwing salt 
after the person who places such 
charms, if caught, and sprinkHng 
the charms themselves with salt, 
win break their power. 

If you think anyone has placed 
a malefic charm under your door- 
sill, pour some oil in a line along 
the threshold, and whoever did it 
will fall into the power of the voo- 
doos, if he or she crosses the oil- 
line. 

The people of the West Indies, 
whose grand-parents were recmit- 
cd from nearly every tribe living 
on or near the west coast of Af- 
rica, have inherited an almost un- 
varying belief in many queer 
Ibingi of the sort called "super- 



stitions." These are comprehend- 
ed under the titles of "Obeah" (or 
Wanga) and "Voodoo" (or T'chan- 
ga). Writers who mention the sub- 
ject generally refer to Obeah and 
Voodoo as one and the same thing; 
but as cults they are perfectly sep- 
arate and distinct. They may be 
defined as follows: 

The Obeah means killing, and 
wanga means incantation or spell 
and represents the tribal system of 
single magic of the Popo, Koro- 
mantyn, Eboe, and other tribes. 
The Voudoo cult is the dual magi- 
cal system of the Arada, Yumba, 
and Dahomean tribes, and can only 
be performed by a priest and priest- 
ess together, and in presence of 
the sacred snake, the totem or fe- 
tish of the sect. 

The Voudoo-T'changa, whose 
sacred color is yellow and white, 
has a totem snake of a harmless 
variety, to which are offered only 
ripe fruits, milk, and the blood of 
pure white cocks and spotless 
white goats. The Vidu has red for 
the sacred color, and the snake is 
the poisonous green Vidu or Mam- 
ba, to which are devoted the blood 
of black cocks and black goats, as 
well as other things mostly of that 
color, and on great occasions, the 
"flesh and blood of the goat with- 
out horns" (the human victim). 
Obeah is b^sed on the use of the 
spell or charm, and includes com- 
munication with the spirits of the 
dead (duppies or ghosts), the pro- 
tection of fields and crops by 
means of glamour and "nature 
spirits," the infliction of disease 
and the cure of it, supplemented by 
a wide knowledge of poisons. 

The prototype of the Obeah-man 
is that long-legged grayish spider 
or brownish black (anansi) spider, 
which is generally to be seen carry- 
ing a large white bag with him. 
Nurses tell Anansi stories to chil- 
dren, and of his cunning and won- 



143* 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



dcrful feats. His rapid movements, 
his venomous bite (to other in- 
sects), and his big medicine-bag, is 
the very image of the Obeah-man, 
and Anansi stcM'ies are tales which 
keep alive the belief in Obeah and 
faith in the Obeah-man. 

The Obeah worshippers invest 
Anansi, the prototype of the 
Obeah-man, with a halo of preter- 
natural powers, cleverness and 
luck. 

To protect crops from thieves, 
the Obeah-man causes the birth of 
a snake in the field, which will 
scare away anyone who enters. 
The way he does it varies, but in 
many instances he goes to the gar- 
den and hangs there on a tree: 1. 
A bottle containing (apparently) 
discolored water. 2. A triangular 
board, on which a similar shaped 
scrap of black cloth is glued, both 
with point downward. 3. A little 
skin bag, containing an eggy some 
nails, beans c^ various kinds, and 
rags of various cc^ors. He then 
walks about the tree three times, 
muttering spells. It is understood 
that a snake is hatched from the 
egg 2uid feeds upon the contents 
of the bottle, until it crawls down 
full grown to do its work. 

Another favorite article for the 
protection of fields is a miniature 
coffin, sometimes empty, but usual- 
ly filled with pieces of bone, feath- 
ers, and generally an assortment of 
things, and these are placed in a 
suitable place where any trespasser 
can see they are there and will "fix 
him" if he enters. 

When an Obeah-man is consult- 
ed about the recovery of buried 
treasure, as is often the case, he 
usually, after making all his prep- 
arations, will tell where it is locat- 
ed and all about it, but he will say: 
"There is a duppy of such and 
such a description living there 
in charge of it (or a big 
snake), and he will not let you 



take the treasure unless yoo 
give him a soul." That means that 
the place in consideration has to 
be sprinkled with the blood of 
some animal, which must be sacri- 
ficed there, together with rum or 
some other spirit 

One branch of Obeah, extensive- 
ly practiced, especially by ladies, is 
the art of exciting "love" and en- 
forcing fidelity in one person to 
another of the opposite sex. The 
most learned Obeah doctors, when 
consulted, agree that the following 
means are the most powerful: 

To establish and act on a psychic 
rapport, is of course what is aimed 
at in the use of 

I. Hair — ^The exciter bums and 
rubs to powder a portion of his or 
her own hair, a pinch of which is 
sprinkled from time to time in the 
food or drink of the person to be 
excited. Usually requires about 
three repetitions before the effect 
begins to be produced. 

II. Pers[Mration — ^The exciter 
mingles a few drops of his or her 
own perspiration in th\e food or 
drink as above. 

III. Blood— The food of the 
person to be excited is steamed in 
a cloth by the exciter, on which 
cloth a little, properly nine drops, 
of the cook's own blood is dropped. 
Fresh blood is requisite. This 
method is almost exclusively used 
by women; blood drawn at cert^n 
seasons is most effective. 

This third method is said to have 
by far the most powerful and 
prompt effect, and according to a 
person who has experienced its ef- 
fects, it produces a semi-madness, 
and reduces the excitee to perfect 
slavery to the excitor, from which 
there is no escape till the excitor 
properly renounces and breaks the 
band. This is usually done by the 
excitor driving away the excitee 
with a blow or a kick, the hand or 
foot used having been dipped in. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1453 



and being wet with, water in which 
cedar (Cedrela odorata) leaves 
have been boiled. 

As an instance of the working of 
the other means: The late Jules 
Laureton (a white man), lived with 
a far from beautiful mulatto wom- 
an called Angclique, as his 'plac6/ 
She was of a very violent temper, 
and behaved very badly to him, 
but retained her influence over him 
for many years — till his death. A 
relative of hers explains her power 
over him by saying: "Angelique 
took the precaution, from time to 
time, when she thought it was 
needed, to mix a few drops of her 
perspiration in his chocolate." 

These things must be done se- 
cretly. Should the victim become 
aware and resist, if his will is the 
stronger, the whole thing reacts on 
the operator, and she or he be- 
comes the very slave of her victim. 

The following is an obeah meth- 
od of causing intense sleep in a 
person, and as a process it has 
similar liabilities and possibilities: 

To effect this, the evening is the 
time usually chosen. The operator 
takes a small piece of a garment re- 
cently worn by the person to be 
acted on, and of course more or 
less impregnated by his or her per- 
spiration ; and after folding it into a 
small flat bundle, which must be 
fastened by two pins placed X wise, 
secretly places it into or under the 
pillow the latter is going to sleep 
on. During the whole of the fold- 
ing process the operator is of 
course "willing" the bundle to 
cause sleep. This is considered a 
very effective process, and the (X) 
cross whether written or otherwise 
is a frequently used and j)otent 
s>'mbo] in Obeah. It is the bind- 
er! The Obeah sleep bundle is. as 
may be notice<l, somewhat analo- 
gous in its effect to that credited to 
the celebrated "Hand of Glory" of 
English witchlore. 



"Setting on" a jumbie or duppy 
to hunt out secrets, take revenge 
on any enemy or to do other wick- 
ed and unlawful acts of secret per- 
secution, is thoroughly believed in. 
It is considered that the Obeah- 
man makes the spirit or duppy of 
the deceased do this haunting by 
either invigorating it with some of 
his own life power, or by using 
a "nature spirit" for the purpose. 
They will "trick" ponies, donkeys, 
and horses, and make them throw 
and kill their riders. An instance 
in brief. There was a quarrel be- 
tween Laury on one part and Daw- 
son and Young on the other. The 
latter called an Obeah-man to aid, 
and Laury was at once thrown 
from his horse and died. Laury's 
family included an Obeah-man, 
and by his advice, Laury's body 
was put into the coffin without any 
of the customary burial prepara- 
tions, in his clothes, just as he had 
died. Before the funeral, some of 
Laury's relations, including the 
Obeah-man last mentioned, went 
through a ceremony in which some 
of Laury *s blood was used, in pres- 
ence of the corpse; later, the cere- 
mony was concluded before the 
funeral party, by their putting into 
the left hand of the corpse — he had 
been a left-handed man — ^a sharp 
knife, and telling it to show them 
within nine davs who had killed 
him. Then the lid of the coffin 
was nailed down. 

Within the nine days. Young 
disappeared; and Dawson went 
mad. going about raving that 
Laury was chasing him with a 
knife in his hand. He subsequcnt- 
Iv refused all food, but with his 
teeth gnawed his left arm. from the 
biceps nearly to the wrist, in a hor- 
rible way. Flies got to the arm 
thus wounded, and it soon became 
a mass of corruption, and Dawson 
died in horrible agony, calling out 
the whole time to those about him. 



1434 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



to save him from Laury, who was 
hunting him with a knife. 

A few days after Dawson's death, 
Young's hat and some of his 
clothes were found cm a rock by 
the seaside, where it was supposed 
he had gone to bathe, and had been 
drowned. He never reappeared. 

There is another performance, 
in which clothes soiled with per- 
spiration, and ipso facto impreg- 
nated with aura, play a very curi- 
ous, interesting and important 
part. It is, as far as I am aware, an 
original conception and an exclu- 
sive possession of West Indian 
Obeah, and may be considered cme 
of its distinctive operations. 

It is the "Dirty Clothes oracle," 
and is performed as follows: Im- 
mediately after the funeral of any- 
one who is supposed to have died 
in consequence of some Obeah op- 
eration by some unknown enemy, 
or of anyone who is supposed to 
have left money buried, and no di- 
rections where to find it; or who 
has left property and no directions 
for its division and bestowal; the 
relatives and friends of the deceas- 
ed assemble in the house, and pro- 
curing a board about five or six 
feet long, appoint four relatives of 
the deceased to carry it on their 
heads. On the board is placed a 
bundle of the yet unwashed gar- 
ments the deceased died in. This 
being done, the board-bearers are 
directed to march with it round the 
house, against the sun, and then to 
come in. Then, if the necessary 
power is present, it manifests itself 
by the bearers being unable to 
speak, and reeling about with the 
board on their heads as if intoxi- 
cated. Then questions are ad- 
dressed to the board by the name 
of the deceased, which are an- 
swered by it — ^through its bearers 
— bowing with it toward the ques- 
tioner; or by the board and its 
bearers hunting out any person or 



thing like a thought-reader after a 
pin. 

As disease and death are gener- 
ally believed to be caused by an 
enemy using spells, this method 
is often used to find out who killed 
the deceased. Names are said over 
and when the board emphatically 
bows, it indicates who was the se- 
cret murderer. Measures are at 
once taken to avenge the death, 
and "war to the knife" socm sep- 
arates the families. 

The real Bella-bella or Jumbi 
dance is a method of finding out 
the grievances of restless "depart- 
ed spirits,'' or of communicating 
with deceased friends. These 
dances (along with others of a 
much less innocent nature) are 
forbidden by law and are therefore 
conducted in secret. After a feast 
and exciting music, the dance 
grows wilder, and someone be- 
comes "possessed" by the duppy, 
who cannot lie still in his grave. 
The dancer proclaims himself in 
the very voice of the dead person, 
and is only to be pacified if the 
host will go to his grave on a cer- 
tain day, and there to kill a black 
cock, and to sprinkle the grave 
with its blood, and the contents of 
a bottle of rum. 

At these dances, it is not an un- 
common thing for as many as sev- 
en or more dancers to become |>os- 
sessed at one time, and each by a 
separate 'Jumbi' ; but in such cases, 
it is not probable that all are pos- 
sessed by 'Duppies.' The possess- 
ed play all manner of strange an- 
tics. On one occasion, a man be- 
ing possessed by the *Duppy' of a 
person who had committed suicide 
after going mad, sprang at one leap 
up on to the rafters of the house, 
where he remained for some min- 
utes, moving up and down in time 
to the music; and from thence 
shot out of an open window and 
down a precipice behind the house. 



- .J 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1435 



where he was found dead, with his 
neck broken. The possessed of- 
ten speak in Spanish, French, and 
other languages, and frequently in 
tongues quite unknown to their 
hearers. 

The ancient "Speller Art" we 
we know has special secret formu- 
lae for every purpose under the 
sun, from snake-charming upwards. 
The Norse "Troll-Runes," from 
what is now known of them, were 
a similar system. The spells and 
incantations of the European 
witches, etc., was another; and the 
"foreign language" speeches and 
chants of the Hametic Obeah-men 
correspond. All these formulae 
whenever or wherever used, are 
in the same, the universal, "ele- 
ment language": the use of one 
predicates the present and past 
knowledge and use of the whole 
system, and in short, the existence 
of a system of magic in a state of 
development depending on the sur- 
roundings and other circumstances. 
As students well know, that lan- 
guage is composed of "sounds, not 
words,** etc., and so the reason of 
Obeah spells forever being said to 
be in a foreign language is not far 
to seek. 

One of the most learned and 
highly accomplished Obeah profes- 
sors ever known in the West Indies 
was called Congo Brown; he was 
brought, with other slaves, to the 
estate of La Gloirca and by all 
characteristics, was a Moor. Con- 
go Brown gave a party at his 
house, and for the entertainment 
of his guests, said he would show 
them something. He first sent out 
to his garden and had a plantain 
sucker about eighteen inches long 
brought in. He then dug a hole in 
the beaten-clay floor of his house, 
in a corner; and planted the said 
plantain sucker in it, which was 
then covered over with a sheet. 
Then he stood up and waved his 



hands over it, and talked to it in a 
tongue not understood by his 
guests. Next, he had fetched into 
the center of the floor a washing 
tub, which was filled with fresh wat- 
er brought in buckets from a spring 
close by. This done, he produced 
a walking-stick, a piece of twine 
about two feet long, and a fish- 
hook. These he put together, and 
asking the company to seat them- 
selves round the tub, saying he was 
going to fish. After waving his 
hands and saying some unknown 
words over the tub, he began, and, 
to the very great wonderment of 
the company, fished out of that tub 
of fresh water over a dozen large- 
sized and living "snappers" and 
"groupers" (two kinds of sea fish). 
These he made over to certain 
members of his company, and told 
them to go out to his kitchen and 
cook the fish for him. When the 
fishing was over — it had taken 
about two hours — he again turned 
his attention to the plantain sucker 
in the corner. Being uncovered, it 
was observed to have grown under 
the sheet, and was now about four 
feet high. Again putting the sheet 
over it, he held his hands over it 
for some time, occasionally mutter- 
ing some words in the unknown 
tongue, and between times talking 
and chatting to the company. Fi- 
nally calling for a knife to cut the 
bunch of plantains, the sheet was 
taken off, and there stood a full- 
grown plantain tree, bearing a 
large and well developed bunch of 
green-ripe plantains. These were 
duly cut and also sent to be cooked. 
Brown offended his master, who 
sentenced him to be whipped. He 
took the matter coolly, and re- 
marked that the lashes would hurt 
the real cause of the trouble. When 
three lashes only had been given 
and Brown was laughing, shrieks 
issued from the great house, which 
proceeded from the wife of the 



1436 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



manager of the estate, on whose 
back those three lashes had simul- 
taneously fallen. He was accredit- 
ed with removing one hundred 
hogsheads of sugar in a single night 
from La Gloire estate to the Bay, 
a distance of two miles. Carting it 
down would have occupied the es- 
tate's cattle tor a week. Brown 
had offered to do it, but the man- 
ager laughed at him. However, it 
was done, and the incident is 
known far and wide, and often re- 
ferred to. He used a staff, which 
he would throw on the ground, 
when it would instantly become a 
snake. He would pick it up and 
it would at once stiffen into a stick 
again. 

Of late years, we have become 
accustomed to hear of interesting 
experiments, chiefly in America, 
having for their object the produc- 
tion of rainfall, though as yet they 
do not seem to have been attended 
with any very striking success. In 
countries which are liable to long 
droughts, it becomes a matter of 
vital importance to the inhabitants 
to attain some degree of certainty 
about the rainfall, and means of 
producing it at will would be most 
welcome. It is not amiss, there- 
fore, to cite some examples of 
Obeah rain production, which at 
any rate go to suggest that the pro- 
duction of rain when required is 
not an impossibility, even when 
neither dynamite nor gunpowder 
are to be had. 

It will be noticed that in the fol- 
lowing examples differences of 
procedure exist between the East 
and West African and other sys- 
tems which are of considerable 
value to the student, and they are 
much enhanced by the fact that 
they can be compared with a case 
of unconscious (mediumistic) rain 
production. 

Here is a Southeast African ex- 
ample: "For weeks and weeks 



there had been no rain at all, al- 
though it was the rainy season. 
The mealies were all dying for 
want of water, the cattle were be- 
ing slaughtered in all directions; 
women and children were dying 
by scores. . . . When, one day 
the king announced the arrival of 
two celebrated rain-makers, who 
would forthwith proceed to relieve 
the prevailing distress. ... A 
large ring . . . being formed by 
the squatting Kafiirs . . . the 
king being in the center and the 
rain-makers in front of him, they 
commenced their performances. 
The zenith and the horizon were 
eagerly examined by them from 
time to time, but not a vestige of a 
cloud appeared. Presently, the 
older man rolled on the ground in 
convulsions, apparently epileptic, 
and his comrade started to his feet, 
pointing with both hands to the 
cc^per-colored sky. All eyes fol- 
lowed his gesture, and looked at 
the spot to which his hands point- 
ed, but nothing was visible. Mo- 
tionless as a stone statue, he stood 
with gaze rivetted on the sky. In 
about the space of a minute a dark- 
er shade was observable in the 
copper tint, and in another minute 
it g^ew darker and darker, and in 
a few more seconds developed into 
a black cloud, which soon over- 
spread the heavens. In a moment 
a vivid flash was seen, and the del- 
uge that fell from that cloud which 
had now spread completely over- 
head, was something to be remem- 
bered. . . . The king dismissed 
the rain-makers with presents of 
wives, cattle, etc., etc. (T. T.)" 

That is East African Kaffir rain- 
making; readers who are interested 
in that system may compare with 
this the magnificent thunder and 
lightning duel between two Zulu 
rain-makers in Rider Hagg^d*s 
"Allan's Wife." In which volume, 
too, will be found a Zulu rain-mak- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1437 



cr using glamour and various other 
phases of arcane knowledge for 
beneficent purposes. 

This is a West African rain-mak- 
ing scene: "A priest from Tou- 
louse, called Pere Fraisse, had 
brought from the kingdom of Juda, 
in Guinea, to Martinique, a little 
African boy of nine or ten years of 
age. Some months after the child 
arrived, he heard the fathers speak 
of the dryness of the weather, 
which was affecting their garden, 
and heard them wishing for rain. 
The child, who had beg^n to speak 
French, asked whether they want- 
ed a heavy or a light shower, as- 
suring them that he could make a 
shower fall on their garden. 

This proposal much astounded 
the fathers, but after consulting to- 
gether, they consented — for the 
child was not yet baptized — to his 
causing a light shower. 

The child immediately gathered 
three oranges, which he placed on 
the ground at a little distance from 
one another. He prostrated him- 
self with a surprising fervency and 
devotion. He then gathered three 
little orange twigs, which, after re- 
peated prostrations, he placed 
against each orange. He then pros- 
trated himself for the third time. 
and said some words with much 
resi)ect and attention; then, lifting 
one of the little orange twigs in his 
hand, he looked all round the ho- 
rizon till he perceived a very small 
cloud at a very great distance; he 
then extended the twig toward it, 
which instantly produced a smart 
shower, lasting nearly an hour. He 
then took the orange and twigs 
and buried them. The fathers were 
much surprised, particularly as not 
a drop fell outside their garden. 
Thev never could induce the child 
to tell them the words he had mut- 
tered. The witnesses of this scene 
were Fathers Temple, Rosie, Bour- 



not, and Fraisse, of the Dominican 
order. (Pere Labat.) 

The spell of words and incanta- 
tions is applied to all the elements, 
as well as water. The wind is act- 
ed on in this one: About the be- 
ginning of this century, "a woman 
of the parish of Blackcraig in the 
Orkney Islands, known to have a 
deadly enmity to a boat*s crew that 
had set off for the fishing banks, 
took a wooden basin and set it to 
float on the surface of a tub of \va- 
ter; then, to avoid exciting sus- 
picion, went on with her usual do- 
mestic labors, and, as if to lighten 
the burden of them, sang an old 
Norse song. After a verse or two 
had been recited, she sent a child 
to the tub, and bade him tell her if 
the basin was capsized. The little 
messenger soon returned with the 
news that there was a strange swell 
in the water, which caused the 
basin to be sadly tossed about. The 
witch then sang still more loudly, 
and, for the second time sent the 
child to the tub, to report the state 
of the basin. He hastened back 
with the information that the water 
was frightfully troubled, and that 
the basin was capsized. 

"The witch, on hearing of the 
state of the basin, with an air of 
malignant satisfaction, ceased her 
song and said: 'The turn is done!* 
On the same day, news came that 
a fishing boat had been lost on the 
banks, and the whole of her crew 
had been drowned." 

As to these Norse songs: Odin 
(the Norse god) says, in one of the 
Sagas: **I know a song of such 
virtue that were I caught in a 
storm. I could hush the winds, and 
render the air perfectly calm with 
it." 

Fire is acted on here (though 
glamour also plays a larger part). 
The writer was with some Zulu 
witch-doctors in their hut, and thev 
had been giving him examples of 



I440 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



few minutes his limbs stiffened, his 
body became rigid, and he felt cold 
and motionless as a corpse." Then 
at the command of the narrator, 
mentally expressed, the "double" 
(or rather, the consciousness) of 
the entranced man went to various 
places and did various things, his 
voice relating to her all that he was 
seeing and doing. (R. B.) 

Assisted projection — ^"How long 
I had slept I cannot tell, but in a 
moment — with the suddenness erf 
a flash of lightning — I passed from 
unconsciousness to complete and 
vivid consciousness. I gave a quick 
glance round my chamber; every- 
thing was visible clearly enough in 
the subdued light of my lamp, 
turned low for the night; all seem- 
ed as usual, nothing out of place, 
nothing to account in any way for 
that sudden awakening. But the 
next moment there thrilled through 
my soul the well known voice of 
my 'Master . . / That voice ut- 
tered but one word, 'Come!' But 
ere I could spring from my couch 
in obedience, I was seized with a 
feeling which it would hopeless to 
attempt to describe so as to give 
anyone else an adequate conception 
of it. Every nerve in my body seem- 
ed strained to the breaking point 
by some hitherto unsuspected force 
within; after a moment of excruci- 
ating pain, this sensation focussed 
itself in the upper part of the head, 
something then seemed to burst, 
and I found myself floating in the 
air! One glance I cast behind me, 
and saw myself — or my body rath- 
er, lying as if soundly asleep, upon 
the bed — and then I soared out 
into the open air. . . ." (L. G.) 

Projection as the result of ex- 
hibition of an internal drug — ^"The 
interests of experience, coupled no 
doubt with a certain percentage of 
curiosity, prompted me to accept. 
... I received the powder, to all 
appearance a mixture of fine sand 



and tobacco ashes, and before go- 
ing to bed next night I swallowed 
it, and notwithstanding the excite- 
ment, went to sleep. . . . with- 
out any warning, I seemed to be 
standing on what appeared to be 
the summit of a high mountain, 
overlooking a scene I can find no 
words to describe. . . . Sud- 
denly, my eye alighted on a build- 
ing which stood on the summit of 
a peak lower than the rest, with 
luxuriant forest growing to its very 
top; no sooner had I caught sight 
of this building than some irresist- 
ible attraction drew me to it. I 
seemed to float through the air to 
it, the motion imparting a feeling 
of delight and security I had never 
before realized. On, on, I floated 
without any fear, but with a great 
expectation as to what was going 
to happen. To my surprise I pass- 
ed over the courtyard of the build- 
ing; for the first time I felt some 
suspense in seeing my progress 
blocked by a bare, windowless wall, 
directly in front. I put out my 
hands to save a collision, but to my 
horror my hands passed through 
the wall, as though nothing was 
there. I shut mv eves and clenched 
my teeth, expecting a shock; but 
none came. ... I awoke to find 
myself in bed, trembling, and bath- 
ed in perspiration, my head split- 
ting, my heart beating as lit it 
would burst. ... I was in a fe- 
ver — I could not sleep — so I got 
up. ... lit a lamp and commit- 
ted all this to paper." (P. H. F.) 

The following history of a negro 
sorcerer who was burnt alive at 
St Thomas, in 1701, was communi- 
cated to me by Mons. Vanbel, 
Chief of the Danish factorv there: 

"A negro convicted of being a 
sorcerer, and of having caused a 
little figure of earthenware to 
speak, was condemned by the 
judge of the island to be burned 
alive. Mons. Vanbel, meeting him 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1441 



on the road as he was being carried 
to execution, said to him: 'Well, 
thou canst not make thy little fig- 
ure speak again! It is broken!* 
The negro replied: *If you like, 
sir, ni make the cane you hold in 
your hand speak!' This proposal 
filled evervone with astonishment! 
Mons. Vanbel asked the judge, 
who was present, to delay the ex- 
ecution for a little while, to see if 
the neg^o could do as he said, 
which was allowed. He gave the 
cane to the neg^o, who, having 
planted it in the ground and made 
several ceremonies before it, asked 
Mons. Vanbel what it was he de- 
sired to know. The latter replied 
that he would like to know with re- 
gard to a vessel which they ex- 
pected, whether it had started, 
when it would arrive, who were on 
board, and what had happened to 
them on the voyage. The negro 
recommenced his ceremonies, after 
which, drawing back, he asked 
Mons. Vanbel to approach his cane, 
and he would hear what he wanted 
to know. On approaching, Mons. 
Vanbel heard a small but clear and 
distinct voice, which said to him: 
*The vessel thou expectest left EI- 
sinore on such and such a dav, so 
and so in command of her, and he 
has such and such passengers with 
him: thou wilt be content with her 
cargo: although a squall in pass- 
ing the Tropic broke her foretop- 
mast, and carried away her flying 
jib, she will arrive here within 
three days!' . The negro was 

executed, and three days after, the 
vessel arrived, and verified to the 
letter the entire prediction." (P4re 
Lobat.) 

The hags of the West India Is- 
lands are said to "eat the heart*' of 
persons whom they hate. Mons. 
Lc Compte de Gennes, command- 
ing a squadron of the king's ships, 
had on board in 1G96 some slaves, 
and among them a sorceress who 



stopped the ship, so that it took 
seven weeks to go a distance it 
usually made in forty-eight hours. 
Water and provisions began to run 
short, the mortality among the ne- 
groes increased to such an extent 
that they had to throw a part of 
them overboard. Some of them 
complained, while dying, of a cer- 
tain negress, who, they said, was 
the cause of their death, because, 
since she had threatened to eat 
their hearts, they had been driven 
to despair by severe pains. The 
captain of the vessel caused the 
bodies of several of those negroes 
to be opened, when they found 
their hearts and livers dry, and full 
of air-bladders, while the rest of 
the organs were in the ordinary 
state. 

The captain then asked the wom- 
an if she could eat the heart out 
of a cucumber or a watermelon as 
easily as she ate the hearts of these 
victims, and she said she could. 

"Show them to me," said she, 
"and without my touching them, 
or even approaching them, be sure 
that I vnW eat them within forty- 
eight hours." 

He accepted the offer, and show- 
ed her the watermelons at a dis- 
tance, and immediately locked 
them away in a coffer, the key of 
which he put into his own pocket, 
not trusting it to any of his people. 

The second morning thereafter, 
the negress asked him where his 
melons were. He opened the cof- 
fer in which he had locked them, 
and had much pleasure in seeing 
them quite entire; but the pleasure 
was shortlived, and soon changed 
into vast astonishment, for, when 
he lifted them to show them rmmd. 
they were empty, nothing remain- 
ing but the sheer skin, distended 
like a bladder and as dry as parch- 
ment. 

It is fully believed that Obeah 
men and women can compass the 



M43 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



death of anyone by invisibly eat« 
ing their hearts, but by incanta- 
tions can also restore them to 
healthy even when at the point of 
death. This was confipned by a 
similar story told at Ispahan by P. 
Sebastian de Jesus, a Portuguese 
Augustinian, a man to be believed, 
and of singular virtue, who was 
prior of their monastery when I 
departed. He assured me that in 
one of the places dependent upon 
Portugal, on the confines of Ye- 
men, I know not whether it was 
at Mascate or at Omuz, an Arab, 
having been taken up lor a similar 
crime and convicted of it, for he 
confessed the fact, the captain or 
governor of the place, who was a 
Portuguese, that he might better 
understand the truth of these black 
and devilish actions of which there 
is no doubt in this country, ordered 
the sorcerer to be brought before 
him before he was led to his pun- 
ishment, and asked him if he could 
eat the inside of a cucumber with- 
out opening it, as well as the heart 
of a man. The sorcerer said, yes; 
and in order to prove it, a cucum- 
ber was brought. He looked at it, 
never touching it, steadily for some 
time, with his usual enchantments, 
and then told the captain he had 
eaten the whole inside; and accord- 
ingly, when it was opened, nothing 
was found but the rind. 

Bottles and vials are supposed, 
when buried empty with the mouth 
up and level with the surface of the 
ground, near houses whose in- 
mates are troubled by jumbies and 
hags, to catch them and hold them 
as in a trap, so they can work no 
more evil. They are also used in 
the supposed infliction of disease, 
by burying them in a path fre- 
quented by the desired victim, who 
is believed to become diseased 
from the moment his foot touches 
the mouth of the bottle, and may 
even die as a result. 



A person suffering from an ab- 
scess would poultice it, and when 
the poultice had done its work, it 
was taken off, wrapped in a piece 
of rag and left in a pathway, in the 
beUef that the first person or ani- 
mal who passed there and kicked 
or trod on the bundle, would be af- 
flicted by the abscess, to the im- 
mediate relief of the original suf- 
ferer. These bundles are a com- 
mon sight on pathways even nowa- 
days, in all Mahomedan countries, 
but elsewhere the belief seems to 
have died out 

There is a story of a certain de- 
file in the Island of Trinidad being 
haunted by a curious entity which 
I have never heard described 
Whatever it is, it is said to jump 
up behind the horseman and try to 
throw him off. 

Another silk-cotton tree "Nancy 
Story" is one that will, doubtless, 
recommend itself to my Roman 
Catholic readers. It is said that 
one day, a couple of centuries 
back, a priest was passing by 
a large silk-cotton tree near 
Giiiria, and he saw a little devil 
playing outside one of the buttress 
hollows. The priest stalked him, 
and finally caught him — it is not 
stated whether it was done by put- 
ting salt or holy water on his tail — 
and bound him, with two or three 
silken threads drawn from his 
girdle, to the tree, in the name of 
the Holy Trinity. The little devil 
asked when he would be released, 
and the priest answered, 'when 
women cease to conceive and bear 
children!' Since then, whenever 
any woman passes that tree, the 
devil puts the pertinent question 
to her. With the lapse of years, 
dust, leaves and debris of all sorts 
have accumulated round the roots, 
so that the devil is now some feet 
underground; the tree itself, how- 
ever, is still visible — to the faithful 
—on the Venezuelan coast 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1443 



The Obeah-wanga "spell" is 
more often a sound than any par- 
ticular set words. There are others 
than Freemasons who have heard 
of a "Lost Word," which is uni- 
versally desired by all Masons to 
reanimate the body they know of, 
which "is not dead but sleepeth." 
That "Lost Word" is a "spell," and 
the spell or charm is a formula of 
sounds, arranged to produce cer- 
tain vibrations in co-relation with 
certain chords; the utilization of 
the natural magical power of sound 
energized by the concentrated will. 
A spell or charm is by no means 
dependent for its effect on being 
couched in any particular words ; it 
is a sound formula, which can be 
as well — and sometimes better — 
played on an instrument than spok- 
en. 

(N. B. — ^The foregoing super- 
stitions and practices of Obeah- 
worship are taken from a pamphlet 
by Dr. Myal Djumboh Cassecana- 
rie, of Port of Spain, Trinidad, en- 
titled, "Obeah and the True Wan- 

Of all the folk-stories of Jamaica, 
those most characteristic and most 
easily collected and understood arc 
the "Anansi Stories," or "Nancy 
Stories," as they are usually called 
by the natives. Of these, Anansi 
is the hero; and he is represented 
both as a human being and as a spi- 
der, while at all times he possesses 
the wiles and subtle craft of the 
spider. He is the prototype of the 
terrible Obeah-man. When child- 
ish curiosity would make a Euro- 
pean child push this point with its 
negro narrator and inquire: "But 
was it Anansi the man or Anansi 
the spider?" she would give this 
reasonable and convincing reply: 
**Chuh, chin yo* too poppesha! It 
was Nancy, jus' Nancy, yo' see." 

In Jamaica, the spider common- 
ly called Anansi is the large black 



house spider that is to be met with 
everywhere on the island. How- 
ever, every spider is spoken of as 
"Nancy," and their webs as "Nan- 
cy webs." 

"Death" is Anansi's brother, and 
it is probable this relationship was 
fancied through the relation of 
death with the poisonous sting of 
the tarantula and other spiders 
common in the tropics. 

"Takuma" is Anansi's wife, and 
a stupid sort of creature she seems 
to be, without wit or any positive 
characteristics. Her character has 
doubtless been conceived and es- 
tablished through the worthless- 
ness of the spider for purposes of 
food or clothing, or any use of 
primitive man. 

The stories of "Man Mary" may 
still be heard; and although the 
exact personality of this creation 
cannot be distinctly gotten at, it is 
without doubt true that he is a relic 
of an old-time fear of cannibalism, 
and a character of Obeah- or voo- 
doo-worship. It is told that a large 
black man is sometimes met in the 
woods and lonely places, gathering 
herbs and earthworms, which he 
uses for making soup. He is no 
other than "Man Mary," who 
chases children when they pass his 
way, and who eats them if he 
catches them. My old nurse has 
told me of many an exciting jour- 
ney past Man Mary's hut, and of 
hair-breadth escapes from his boil- 
ing soup-kettle. 

The following is one of the pop- 
ular "Anansi" stories: 

One time Annancy libed in a 
country where the Queen's name 
was Five, an* she was a witch; an' 
she say whoeber say five was to fall 
down dead. It was berry hungry 
times, and so Annancy go build 
himself a little house by de side of 
de riber. An' him make five yam 
hills. An' when anvbodv come to 
get water at de riber he call them 



1444 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



4< 



a 



>» 



>> 



an' say: "I beg you tell me how 
many yam hills I hab here. I can't 
count berry well." So den dey 
would come in and say: "One, 
two, three, four, five!" an' fall 
down dead. Then Annancy take 
dem an' com dem in his barrel an' 
eat dem, an' so he live in hungry 
times — ^in plenty. So time go on, 
an' one day Guinea fowl come dat 
way, an' Annancy say: "Beg you, 
Missus, tell me how many yam 
hills hab I here." So Guinea fowl 
go an' sit on hill an' say: "One, 
two, three, four, an' de one I am 
sittin' on I" "Choi" say Annancy; 
"you don't count it right I" Aii' 
Guinea fowl mouve to anoder yam 
hill an' say: "Yes, one, two, three, 
four, an' de one I am sittin' on! 
He! you don't count right at alii 
How you count, den?" "Why, 
dis way," say Annancy: "One, 
two, three, four, five!" an' he fell 
down dead, an' Guinea fowl eat 
him upl 

Dis story show dat "Greedy 
choak puppy." (Article by Ada 
Wilson Trowbridge, in "Journal of 
American Folk-Lore.") 

WEALTH — If anyone can find 
a living "golden snail," he can 
command unlimited wealth. Even 
an empty shell worn as a charm, 
will insure the wearer wealth and 
prosperity. 

WISH — In England, if a person 
drops a pin into a wishing-well and 
makes a wish, that wish will surely 
come to pass. 

If you can wish before the first 
circle disappears when you throw 
a stone into the water, you will get 
your wish. 

Spit on the last car of a train and 
make a wish at the same time, and 
your wish will come true. 

The Welsh say that one has only 
to wish for a thing with sufficient 
energy, to get it 



The spring is the luckiest time 
for wishes. 

"Wishes wished in the spring 
Best results will bring." 

"Wish and rub your hand on brass. 
Your wish will surely come to pass. 
Wish and rub your hand on tin. 
Your wish will surely come again.** 

Whenever you wish a good 
thing for somebody else, a bless- 
ing will come to you; but if you 
wish evil to someone else, it will 
surely rebound upon you. Wishes 
are like boomerangs. 

If a person goes into a strange 
church and makes a wish, he or she 
will get it before the year is out. 

Wish on a load of hay, without 
looking at the load again, and your 
wish will come true. 

Get into the "expanding stone** 
and make a wish while turning 
about; it is a sign that the wish 
will come to pass. (Wales.) 

Make up a rhyme when you hear 
a beautiful strain of music, and 
your dearest wish will be granted. 

What you eagerly wish for, will 
be likely to meet you. 

Throw a rusty nail over your 
head and wish, and you will get it 

If you stand on a stone that can- 
not be moved and make a wish^ 
you will get it 

Go into a graveyard, dip your 
hand into a vessel of clear water, 
and any wish you make then will 
come true. 

Walk to the nearest cross at 
midnight, make a wish, return 
home and go to bed; do not speak 
from the time you start until next 
morning, and you will get your 
wish. 

A Basque legend tells of a "wish- 
ing sack," which was given by our 
Lord to a man named "Fourteen" 
because he was as strong as four- 
teen men. Whatever he wished to 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



HAS 



have, he had only to say: "Art- 
chila murtchila!" ("Come into my 
sack!") and it came in. 

If you have onion-skins, put a 
sprinkle of salt and pepper on them 
Friday morning and bum them for 
good luck, making a wish. 

If you make a wish without 
speaking, when about to eat any 
new fruit or vegetable, the wish 
will come true. 

Any wish would come true if it 
was made on the divining rod, but 
it had to be made on certain nights 
of a new moon. 

In Germany, the wishing-rod is 
cut from the black thorn, and those 
possessing it will have their wishes 
granted. 

If you see a load of hay, say: 
"Load of hay, load of hay, give me 
the wish I wish to-day," and do not 
look at it again; you will then get 
your wish. 

In East Prussia, the sap of dog- 
wood absorbed in a handkerchief, 
will fulfill every wish. 

When you find a stone broken 
in halves, place the two parts to- 
gether, throw them over the right 
shoulder, and wish. 

The wibhing-rod was a rod of 
pure gold, belonging to the Niebe- 
lungs. Whoever possessed it could 
have anything he wished, and hold 
the wide world in subjection. 
(Reader's Handbook.) 

If you pull wishbones, the one 
who gets the junction of the bone 
does not get her wish, and if it flies 
away, neither girl will be married. 

If a person will make a wish and 
then cut an apple in halves without 
cutting a seed, it is a sign that the 
wish will be fulfilled. 

To obtain what you want from 
another, lay a swallow's tongue on 
your own and then kiss the party. 



Take the little bow out of a gen- 
tleman's hat without his knowl- 
edge, wear in your shoe, and all 
your wishes will come true. 

If you find a dead bird, btuy it 
under a pine tree and make a wish; 
yotu" wish will then come true. 

If, in India, you place a ring in 
the center of a square that is sa- 
cred and pour buttermilk over it, 
you will get whatever you desire. 

If a woman wishes a compliant 
husband, let her have a ring made 
of old iron nails during the hour of 
mass on Friday. Afterward lay the 
gospels upon it, and if she wears 
the ring, her husband will grant 
all her wishes for a year. 

Cover an image of St. Francis 
Assisi with a petticoat in which a 
pin has been stuck, if you desire 
the granting of a special favor or 
a wish; the saint, noticing the pin, 
will grant the favor. 

Every Japanese beheves firmly 
that at least one wish of his heart 
will be granted. Their goddess of 
mercy, with her Itmar aureole, must 
not be prayed to but once in a life- 
time by any person, but that once 
she will hear and answer. 

WISHBONE — If a broken 
wishbone is placed over the door, 
the first person going through the 
door will be the first to be married. 

WITCHCRAFT — Witch-elm 
sewed up in the gatherings of a 
woman's petticoat, is a sure protec- 
tion against evil influences. 

A witch can only weep three 
tears, and those from her left eye. 

Square bits of green turf put in 
front of doors and windows, will 
scare away witches. 

The island of Guernsey is rich in 
records of witchcraft and devil- 
lore. Many people have been 
burnt at the stake here for pos- 



1448 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



If you lay aspen leaves across a 
witch's grave, she can never ride 
abroad nights. (Russian.) 

The protection of a house from 
witches vrdis insured by placing a 
jug filled with horseshoe nails un- 
der the door of the entrance. 

In Bologna, it is believed that if 
a nut with three segments is placed 
under a witch's chair, she will be 
unable to get up. 

In the Tyrol, there is a belief 
that if rue, broom, maidenhair, ag- 
rimony, and ground root are bound 
into one bundle, the bearer of the 
same is enabled to see witches. 

Aztec witches used the left arm 
of a woman who died in her first 
childbirth as the greatest of weap- 
ons. 

In an extract from the "Penal 
Laws Against Witches," it is de- 
clared: "They do answer by their 
voice or else set before their eyes 
in glasses, crystal stones, and so 
on, the pictures or images of things 
and people sought for." 

If you can interpose a brocJc be- 
tween yourself and witches or 
fiends, you can remain in perfect 
safety. 

If you watch a witch, you will 
sometimes see her soul pop out of 
her mouth, in the form of a red 
mouse. 

Nickels and dimes with holes 
bored in them and strung around 
the neck, are said to be an efficient 
charm to ward off witches. 

A witch, being asked how she 
contrived to kill all the children of 
a certain family, replied: "Easily 
enough! When the infant sneezes, 
nobody says *Domine Stekan' (the 
Lord be with thee), and then I be- 
come mistress of the child!" 

Ancient witchcraft ascribed mag- 
ic power to pounded lizards and 
blood of revolting creatures un- 



timely dead, out of which they 
made their secret and potent 
charms. 

An animal killed by witchcraft 
must be burned, to drive away the 
witch. 

To keep witches out of the 
house, lay a broom across the door, 
or put thorns in the window, or 
sprinkle mustard seed on the 
door-silL 

In Central Africa, a huge bowl 
filled with tobacco and clay, is used 
to keep off witches. The fumes are 
inhaled until the smoker falls stu- 
pified or deadly sick. 

If a suspicious looking female, 
whom you take to be a witch, en- 
ters the yard, you must either 
strike her so that the blood will 
run, or throw a firebrand at her, in 
order to avert her evil influence. 
(Old Colonial.) 

We read of one witch at Fam- 
ham, England, who was supposed 
to make cows wild and prevent 
them from giving their milk; and 
of another at Henly-on-Thames, 
who was thrown into the river and 
"floated like a cwk." 

To prick a pigeon with pins, or 
to stick pins in the heart of a stolen 
hen, was considered, in England, 
very efficacious in destroying the 
power of witches. It was also said 
that bewitched persons vomit pins 
in g^eat quantities. 

If you talk of witches on either 
Wednesday or Friday night, no 
matter how far off, they will hear 
it and avenge themselves. (Ger- 
man.) 

In connection with the belief in 
witchcraft, there is a story of an 
old woman who had two holes 
made in her coffin, one at each 
end, so that she could creep out of 
one when the devil came in after 
her at the other. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1449 



To unbewitch the bewitched, spit 
into the person's right shoe before 
he or she puts it on. 

To go in an opposite direction 
to the sun» is called '"withershine" ; 
witches always go "withershine." 

Boesartus says: "There are 
witches in Norway and Iceland, as 
I have proved, that can make 
friends enemies, and enemies 
friends, enforce love, tell any man 
where his friends are and about 
what employed, though in the 
most remote places; and if they 
will, bring their sweethearts to 
them by night upon a goat's back, 
flying in the air." 

When the witches are coming 
through the keyhole, they sing: 
"Skin, don't you know me? Jump 
out, jump in!" and if you are able 
to throw pepper and salt on the skin 
while they are out of it, they cannot 
get into it again. 

If you find a rusty nail wrapped 
around with horse-hair under your 
doorstep, it is a sure sign that 
someone has been trying to be- 
witch you. 

To keep the witches from riding 
you at night, sleep with an open 
penknife on your breast 

In some places, witches are sup- 
posed to pull unchristened infants 
out of the graves, to use for their 
wicked purposes. 

"At midnight boors o'er the Kirkyard 

she raves. 
And howks unchristened weans out of 

their graves." 

A witch's hair is always red 

A witch, in old times, who want- 
ed to raise an extraordinary tem- 
pest that would do terrible damage, 
would boil hog-bristles and bury 
sage until it was rotten, and this 
would bring up the worst storm 
imaginable. 

It was supposed that if you could 
get some oif the urine of a witch. 



bottle it with some pins and nails, 
and set it before the fire, you could 
confine her so she could not move. 

Witches raise a storm by casting 
a flint-stone over the left shoulder 
toward the west. They can also 
raise a storm by hurling sea-sand 
up into the element, by wetting a 
broom-sprig and sprinkling in the 
air, and by putting water in a hole 
and stirring it with the finger. 

If you could catch a witch in a 
narrow lane and take hold of her 
right hand, you would be able to 
prevent her from working her 
charms. 

Spit, among the ancients, was 
considered a charm against all 
kinds of witchcraft 

In old times, a person suspected 
of being a witch was ducked; if she 
sank, it was a sign that she was in- 
nocent; if she swam, she was guil- 
ty. 

No witchcraft can ever harm you 
if you carry a water-lily bud about 
your person. 

The inhabitants of some North- 
em countries nail the head of a 
wolf over the door, to keep out 
witches. 

People are preserved from 
witchcraft by sprinkling holy wa- 
ter, receiving consecrated salt, by 
candles hallowed on Candlemas 
day, and by green leaves consecrat- 
ed on Palm Sunday. 

Among the Wyandotte Indians, 
to ascertain if one practices witch- 
craft, the accused runs, during the 
trial, through fire from east to west 
and then from north to south, and 
if no injury is received, he is inno- 
cent; but if he falls, he is guilty. 

To discover a witch, hang a bot- 
tle in the chimney of her victim and 
she will come and ask to have it 
removed. Then she can be prop- 
erly dealt with. 



I450 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Whoever is subject to the influ- 
ences of magic, witchcraft, or other 
malign influence, may destroy the 
effect of the same by standing in 
running water, or even crossing a 
stream. 

The descendants of sons of the 
Puritans attribute their success in 
life to the fact of some of their an- 
cestors' having been accused of 
witchcraft. A witch in the family 
brings good luck. 

There are said to be 33,333 
witches in Hungary. 

There is an old Indian supersti- 
tion that a witch cannot move if 
you put a shoe under her chair. 

If you go out unwashed, you are 
easily bewitched. 

In the Canary Islands, a coun- 
tryman, when afraid of witches, 
turns the waistband of his trousers 
wrong side out 

If a thing is bewitched and it 
bums, the Witch is sure to come. 

He who has a harrow-nail, found 
on the highway, can recognize all 
witches. 

During the Middle Ages, and 
even up to this century, it was of- 
ten considered a mark of impiety 
to doubt the existence of witches. 

Old women are known as the 
strongest tools of the devil, and as 
having the most fatal powers of 
witchcraft. 

To obtain the power and secrets 
of witchcraft, it is necessary to vis- 
it a churchyard at midnight, and cut 
off the hand of a recently buried 
corpse. 

No witch can be killed, except 
with a silver bullet. 

To prevent witches from riding 
you at night, put a table-fork un- 
der your head. 

When something has gone 
wrong, boil some milk in a pan on 



the stove, prick the milk with a 
flesh-fork, and the witch who has 
done the mischief will have to ap- 
pear. 

In England, it is believed that 
any baptized person whose eyes 
are touched with the elder tree, can 
see what the witches are doing in 
any part of the world. 

In North Germany, they say if 
you wish to see the witches on 
May-day, you must stand where 
four roads meet and take an egg 
laid on Maundy Thursday; or else 
you must go into a church cm 
Good Friday, but be sure not to 
stop to hear the benediction. 

Some people in Germany place 
a small biaig of smooth human hair 
over their stomachs, to see if they 
are bewitched. If the hair is tan- 
gled after three days, they coo- 
clude that they are. 

If people are bewitched, and 
wish to find out who bewitched 
them, they steal a black hen, take 
its heart out, and stick it full of 
pins. Then they roast the heart at 
the midnight hour. The double of 
the witch will come and nearly pull 
down the door in her efforts to get 
in and to save the heart from roast- 
ing. If this double does not come, 
but a neighbor should happen to 
pass by, bad luck would attend the 
neighbor. 

If a witch-woman overlooks a 
beautiful child, it is bound to die. If 
she overlooks the chum, the butter 
will be carried off to her own. 
When she enters the place, put a 
red coal under the chum, tie a red 
string to the cow's tail, and a 
branch of rowan tree on the child's 
cradle; that will protect both. 

The English enveloped smaD 
portions of rice in cloths, marked 
with the name of women suspected 
of being witches, and places] the 
whole in a nest of white ants. If 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M5X 



the ants devoured the rice in any of 
these mystic bundles, the charge of 
sorcery was thereby established 
against the woman whose name it 
bears. 

The Russians put aspen on a 
witch's grave, to prevent the dead 
sorceress from riding abroad. 

The residence of the witch Acra- 
sia was called **The Bower of Bliss." 
She was a most beautiful and fas- 
cinating woman. This lovely gar- 
den was situated on a floating is- 
land, filled with everything which 
could conduce to enchant the senses 
and wrap the spirit in forgetfulness. 
(Spencer's Fairy Queen.) 

In Wales, there is believed to live 
a witch called Caurig Bwt, who eats 
the brains of little children. A man 
who dared to approach her asked 
her to tell his fortune, when she an- 
swered: "Wait a minute, until I 
finish this delicious morsel of brain 
out of this sweet little skull!" 
Welsh children are frightened with 
the name of this creature. 

A suspected witch was success- 
ially convicted in the parish of An- 
dreas by a sportsman, who, seeing 
a hare crossing a field, fired and 
wounded it, and, when getting over 
a hedge to secure his prey, he found 
that be bad shot an old woman, 
who was a reputed witch. (Isle of 
Man.) 

In the Gentleman's Magazine 
(January, 1731), the following is 
mentioned: 

••From Burlington in Pensilvania 
'tis advised, that the owners of sev- 
eral cattle, believing them to be 
bev^itched, caused some suspected 
men and women to be taken up and 
trials to be made for detecting 'em. 
About 300 people assembled near 
the Governor's house, and a pair of 
scales being erected, the suspected 
persons were each weighed against 
a large Bible: but all of them vastly 
outweigbed it The accused were 



then to be tied head and feet to- 
gether, and put into a river, on sup- 
position that if they swam not they 
must be guilty. This they offered 
to undergo in case their accusers 
shouki be served in like manner, 
which being done they all swam 
very buoyant and cleared the ac- 
cused." 

In Scotland, a suspected witch 
was treated no less indecently than 
cruelly, for she was stripped naked 
and "cross-bound," that is, her 
right thumb to the left toe, and her 
left thumb to the right toe, and then 
thrown into the water; if guilty, it 
was believed to be impossible for 
her to sink. 

In W^ales, as soon as a calf is 
dropped, a slit is made in its ear, to 
protect them against witchcraft; 
also, wreaths of rowan tree are plac- 
ed about the necks of young calves, 
for the same reason. 

When a pig is wasting away, it is 
said that a witch has got it, and 
it must be immediately killed, but 
not eaten until part of the flesh 
is burned, to avoid any ill luck 
to those who eat the remainder. 
(Worcestershire, England.) 

In the latter half of the sixteenth 
century, it was believed that a frag- 
ment of earth from a grave, when 
sanctified in the mass and placed on 
the steps of a church, would pre- 
vent the egress of any witch within. 

The same power was attached to 
a splinter of oak from the gallows, 
sprinkled with holy water and hung 
in the church portal. 

The witches of Scandinavia, who 
produced tempests by their incan- 
tations, are duplicated in America. 
A Cree sorcerer sold three davs of 
fair weather for one pound of 
tobacco I The Indian sorcerers 
around Freshwater Bay kept the 
winds in leather bags, and disposed 
of them as they pleased. (Donnel- 
ly, Atlantis.) 



us» 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



The "ordeal drink" of Africa is 
prepared from the root of a small 
shrub. Half a pint is given to the 
person accused of witchcraft, and 
he is obliged to walk five times over 
a row of small sticks laid down. If 
the drink makes him dizzy so that 
the sticks look like logs to him and 
he steps high or falls, then he is 
guilty; but if he manages to keep a 
clear bead, he is innocent 

Witches are greatly feared in 
Corea, and hated as well; but they 
are employed in long runs of iU 
luck, sicloiess, or other drcum- 
stances which nothing else will 
change, to exorcise the malignant 
demon that is the author of it The 
witch is usually dressed in a fantas- 
tic garb of brilliant colors, and has 
a most frightful expression of coun- 
tenance. 

The Rev. Hilderic Friend, in his 
"Flowers and Flower Lore" (1884), 
p. 554, gives the following York- 
shire anecdote, narrated to the Rev. 
J. C. Atkinson: 

"A woman was lately in my shop, 
and in pulling out her purse, 
brought out also a piece of stick a 
few inches long. I asked her why 
she carried that in her pocket. *Oh,' 
she replied 'I must not lose that or 
I shall be done for.' 'Why so?' I 
inquired. 'Well,' she answered, 
'I carry that to keep off the 
witches; while I have that about 
me they cannot hurt me.* On 
my observing that I thought there 
were no witches now-a-days, she ob- 
served quickly, *Oh, yesl There arc 
thirteen at this very time in the 
town; but so long as I have my 
rowan tree safe in my pocket, they 
cannot hurt me.'" 

In England, under the reign of 
Henry VIII., A. D. 1541, a statute 
declared that all witchcraft and sor- 
cery was felony without benefit of 
^^Sy* '^^^ happened also in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth and of 
James I. James Harrington esti- 



mates the judicial murders far 
witchcraft in England in two hoo- 
dred 3rears at thirty thousand per- 
sons. 

To bewitch a person, the witcb 
must have something that has been 
worn next the body, or get the vic- 
tim to accept something fax>m her. 
An apple, a sweetmeat, anything 
will do to get a person in your pow- 
er, if he takes it (Bohemia.) 

A "wonder-doctcwr," in the Tyrol, 
when called to assist a bewitched 
person, made exacdy at midnight 
the smoke of five different sorts of 
herbs, and while they were burning, 
the bewitched was gently beaten 
with a martyr-thom-birch, which 
had to be obtained the same night 
This beating the patient with diom 
was thought to be really beating 
the hag who caused the eviL 

The people of Madagascar are of 
an extremely superstitious nature, 
and have a multitude of signs, 
omens, myths, and stq>erstttioQS. 
They have a firm belief in the pow- 
er of witchcraft and sorcery, divina- 
tion, ghosts and spirits, lucky and 
unlucky days, ancestor^worshqi, 
and the like. 

Whoever was successful in draw- 
ing blood from a witch, was free 
from her power. Hence Talbol, 
when he sees Joan of Arc, in Shake- 
speare's I King Henry VI (L, 5), 
exclaims: 



M 



Devil, or devil's dam. 111 conjnre thee: 
Blood will I draw from thee, thoa art 

a witch. 
And straightway give thou soul to him 

thou scrv'st" 

Circe was a sorceress who tamed 
the companions of Ulysses into 
swine. He was able to resist her 
power by the use of the herb moly, 
given him by Mercury. 

"Who knows not Gice, 
The daughter of the sun, whose charmed 

cup 
Whoever tasted lost his upright shape 
And groveling fell into a groveling 

swine?" (Milton's Comus.) 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



S4S3 



S u pCffs U ticHi, espeaally in con- 
nection with witchcraft, attached 
great significance to the broom- 
stick. Henderson, in his ''Folk- 
Lore/' describes a sermon preached 
in Germany, A. D. 1517, on the in- 
iquity of old hac;s who drain their 
neighbors' cows milk by milking 
pomp-handles or broomsticks. 

R. F. Tombs says, in his 'Tradi- 
tions and Superstitions/' that in 
north and south Littleton, Worces- 
tershire, the belief in witches was so 
deeply rooted that even houses 
were constructed with holes over 
the doors or round windows, by 
which the witches were assured an 
easy exit 

Not very long ago, there lived a 
very well-known old woman in 
Scotland, who made her living by 
selling charms of all kinds, among 
which she had also one against 
witchcraft, consisting in '*a gruel, 
thick and slab." 

At a recent folklore congress at 
York, some curious charms against 
witchcraft were exhibited by ProL 
E. B. Tylor. He showed a pecu- 
liar **worm-knot," used in the west 
of Ireland to heal cattle. The knot, 
which is a small piece of twine done 
up in a peculiar fashion, is drawn 
over the ailing beast's back. If it 
went smoothly, the cow would get 
well; bat if it caught and hitched, 
death was expected to ensue. 

In the old slave days, witchcraft 
was practiced in the British West 
Indies, and especially in San Sal- 
vador, by means of wooden dolls or 
images, with looking-glass insert- 
ed in the stomach. The Obi-doctor 
(a kind of sorcerer) would set a 
charm to injure one, and watch the 
effects in the looking-glass stom- 
ach. Wax dolls, into which pins 
were stuck for producing various 
^'f0^m^^^ were also used, as well as 
^'witched"* eggs, cakes, bread, and 
candies. 



The Lapland witches could bring 
disorders upon men by spitting 
three times upon a knife and anoint- 
ing the victims with the spittle. 

Lapland witches are said to have 
confessed "that while they fastened 
three knots on a linen towel in the 
name of the devil, and had spit on 
them, they called the name of him 
they doomed to destruction." 

Among the Kaffirs, certain per- 
sons are believed to have received 
from demons the power to bewitch, 
and thus cause sickness and death. 
The priest, who is also a witch- 
finder, is usually appealed to in such 
cases, and denounces the witch or 
sorcerer, who is then tortured or 
put to death. This denouncing a 
witch is called by the Kamrs, 
''smelling her out" 

In the works of Horace, Epode 
v., 42, "The witches mangling a 
boy," reference is made to the witch 
Folia, who, with her Thessalian in- 
cantations, brought down the moon 
and stars from heaven. It was be- 
lieved that the Thessalians were 
possessed of these magic arts more 
than other people. They had a 
magical instrument by which they 
effected their will, called the rhom- 
bus. 

At Peel, in the Isle of Man, there 
is a tradition that a witch with a 
basin of water said that the herring- 
fleet would never return. Every 
ship was lost, and she was put in a 
barrel with spikes and rolled down 
the hill. The place of this horrible 
punishment was formerly covered 
with grass, but has ever since re- 
mained barren. 

It was thought among the early 
English, that men were preserved 
from witchcraft by sprinkling with 
holy water, by receiving consecrat- 
ed salt, by candles li^lk>wed on 
Candlemas day, and by green 
leaves consecrated on Palm Sun* 
day. 



I4S4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



If yoa put a sifter onder your 
head at night, the old ''hag" will 
not ride you, for she must pass 
through every hole in the sifter, and 
by that time it is day and she will 
have to leave. (Negro.) 

To keep witches from the house, 
bore holes in the door-sill, place in 
them pieces of paper, containing 
mysterious writing, and plug the 
holes. (Buffalo Valley.) 

The dried skins of snakes worn 
next the skin in Scotland, will pre* 
serve the wearer from the power of 
witchcraft 

If you have bread and salt about 
you, you are safe from sorcery. 

Years ago, it was believed that if 
you strewed mustard seed about the 
bed, it would keep witches away. 

If a woman puts her petticoat on 
hind part in front, she will be secive 
against witchcraft 

In Spain and Italy, forked pieces 
of coral are in high repute as witch- 



A German superstition is that if 
anyone can catch a little of the dust 
which the minister throws into the 
grave, and places it before the 
church, any person who is a witch 
cannot cross it 

A charm to ''shorten a night- 
goer on this side," or rather to 
harm or destroy a witch, nms as 
follows: "Listen. In the frigid 
land above, you repose, O red man, 
quickly we two have prepared your 
arrows for the soul of the Impre- 
cator. (The witch.) Quickly we 
two will take his soul as we go 
along. Quickly now we two have 
prepared your arrows. He has them 
lying along the path. Quickly we 
two will cut his soul in two." The 
shaman places arrows outside of the 
tent, and if the witch approaches, 
under cover of night, or the **Im- 
precator" under the form of an ani- 
mal, the charmed arrows will fly 



into the air and come down on the 
head of the victim and wound, so 
that he will die in seven days. 

"An old woman went to a famn 
house on the confines of Radnor- 
shire, up above Kerry parish, 
Montgomeryshire, begging. She 
was told to leave the place, as they 
had nothing to give away. The old 
woman departed^ and it was seen by 
some one who watched her, that 
she took away with her out of the 
farm yard a fistful of straw. The 
next day a healthy calf died; and 
day after day, one after the other, 
calf after calf, died. The farmer 
went to a conjurer, and told him all 
about the woman's visit, of their un- 
kindness to her, and how she had 
taken straw away with her. The 
conjurer told the farmer to take the 
heart of the next calf that should 
die and prick it all over with a fork, 
adding that the person who had 
witch^ him and brought about the 
death of his calves, would then ap- 
pear and ask for something, and 
that they were to give her whatever 
she asked. A calf died shortly after 
the farmer's visit to the conjurer, 
and, acting on the instructions re- 
ceived, its heart was taken out of 
its body, and the former began 
pricking it with a fork, and for a 
while he continued doing so; then, 
while in the very act of driving the 
fork to the very handle into the 
heart, the old beggar woman ap- 
peared, and she seemed to be suf- 
fering agonies of pain, and rushii^ 
into the house, she said: "In the 
name of God, what are you doing 
here?" The farmer did not pretend 
that he was doing anything in par- 
ticular, and when he saw the beg- 
gar he stopped the work he was en- 
gaged in, and the beggar was in- 
stantly relieved of her bodily pain, 
and now she requested the gift of a 
few potatoes, which were instantly 
given her, and she departed, and no 
more calves died." 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



'455 



Id times of chivalry, the knight 
wore as a protection from witches a 
clover leaf on his falchion arm. 

"Woe, woe to the wight, who meets the 

gray knight. 
Except on his falchion arm 
Spell proof, he bear like the great St 

Qair, 
The holy trefoil's charm." 

The clover takes its sacred and 
lucky qualities from the fact that it 
is three-leaved, and thus represents 
I the Trinity. 

The antiquity of witchcraft is 
vouched for by the book of Deuter- 
onomy in the Bible, where it says: 
'There shall not be found among 
you anyone that maketh his son or 
his daughter to pass through the 
fire, or that useth divination, or is 
an observer of times, or an enchant- 
er, or a witch, or a charmer, or a 
ooosulter with familiar spirits, or a 
wizard, or a necromancer." The 
penalty for these things was to be 
put to death. 

Russian folklore endows some 
witches with wonderful power. Not 
long ago, one of them hid away so 
much rain in her cottage that not a 
drop fell all summer long. One day 
she went out, and gave strict orders 
to the servant girl in charge, not to 
meddle with the pitcher which stood 
in the comer. But no sooner had 
she got out of sight than the maid 
lifted the cover of the pitcher and 
looked in. Nothing was to be seen, 
but a voice said from the inside: 
"Now there will be rain!" The 
girl, frightened out of her wits, ran 
to the door, and the rain was com- 
ing down just as if it was rushing 
out of a tub. The witch came 
running home and covered up 
the pitcher, and the rain ceased. If 
the pitcher had stood uncovered 
much longer, all the village would 
have been drowned. 

There is a frightful witch, called 
the Baba Yaga, who flies over land 
and sea, doing all the mischief she 



can, but always stops at her own 
cottage, on the edge of a forest She 
is plainly the wind, which ceases 
blowing when it comes to a thick 
forest And there are the usual 
secondary evil spirits, who live in 
the waters or the woods. (Russian.) 

Normandy is par excellence the 
land of witches and sorcerers. It is 
common to hear of people on which 
a "tour" has been cast A "tour" is 
a species of malefic charm, which 
can only be conjured by having a 
mass said by a priest in a scarlet 
vestment, and if the patient returns 
home without speaking a single 
word. If these rules are complied 
with, the "tour" falls on the one 
who cast it, and he will be heard 
shrieking at night in his bed, and 
those who listen say devoutly: **The 
devil is scourging him!" 

In France, the notorious "Witch- 
Sabbath of Arras" was instituted in 
1459^ and the celebration of the un- 
holy rites continued in the southern 
provinces of France until the sev- 
enteenth century. In the reign of 
Charles IX., the great sorcerer 
Rinaldo des Trois Echelles was ex- 
ecuted, and he undauntedly said be- 
fore the king that in France he had 
300,000 confederates, "all of whom 
you cannot commit to the flames as 
you do me!" 

Spanish witches threw a powder 
over the fruits of the field, causing 
a hailstorm which destroyed them. 
The demon accompanied them on 
these occasions in the form of a 
husbandman. As they threw the 
powder, this verse was chanted: 

"Polvos, polvos, 

Pierda se tado, 
Queden los nuestros, 

Y adrasense otros." 

Spanish witches, when they en- 
tered a house, threw a powder over 
the faces of the inmates, producing 
so deep a slumber that nothing 
could wake them until the witches 
had gone. 



1456 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The Powysland tale tells the tale 
of a iBiry cow, which was to give 
milk to the famished people on 
Stapeley Hill as long as each only 
drew one pail a day, and of the 
witch who tried to circumvent the 
beneficent gift by drawing milk at 
night into a bottomless pail: 

The bottom from a pail she took 

And there a riddle placed. 
That as she drew, the milk went thro'. 

And ran away to waste. 

An hour she milked with wicked speed. 

As hard as she could pull; 
The fairy cow much wondered how 

The pail was never fulL 

But suddenly a lightning flash 
Shot downward to the heath. 

The wondering cow saw plainly now 
The wasted milk beneath. 

One kick she gave, the wicked hag 

Fell backward in affright; 
While in the ground, without a sounds 

The cow sank out of sight 

The witch's feet were fastened to 
the ground, and when the people 
came for their milk, they exacted 
full vengeance. 

On Thursday, the 25th of March, 
1830, an inquiry was held before 
the magistrates at Llanfyllin, 
Wales, which disclosed facts of a re- 
markable character. A young farm- 
er was charged with shocking bru- 
tality to an old woman. The fol- 
lowing was the old woman's state- 
ment: *The defendant came to my 
house, and prevailed on me, against 
my will, to accompany him home, 
and then made me kneel down be- 
fore the chum and repeat these 
words: *The blessing of God be on 
the milk!' On remonstrating with 
him, he pierced a nail through my 
hand, until the blood flowed." The 
poor woman showed her wounded 
hand. The farmer was asked if he 
had anything to say for himself, 
when he replied: **I could not 
chum, which happened very often, 
so I thought it best to get the wom- 
an to bless the milk. I do not think 



it would make anyone worse for re- 
peating before the chum, *The 
blessing of God on the milk/ *' But 
the magistrates thought differently, 
and informed the faximer that there 
was no freedom for him or anyone 
else to draw blood from old women 
or to take them against their will to 
bless the milk or Uie chum, as there 
was really no power in any sor- 
ceress to prevent her neighbors 
from churning. It was a common 
belief among the old people that to 
draw the blood out of a witch would 
prevent her witching anyone else. 

A witch may be found out in va- 
rious ways: You may take glow- 
ing coals and throw them into wa- 
ter, which will give the witch a sore 
mouth or a sore finger, by which 
her character is made known. 

Or you may go out and select a 
hard stump and give it three blows 
with an axe, and if the axe sticks 
fast the third time, the witch, if any 
there be, will die in three days. 

Or take a rusty nail from the 
door or fence of a grave3rard, bend 
it like a hook and throw it od the 
ground. The witch will be sure to 
step upon it, and it will then be 
known by her limp. (Pennsylvania 
German.) 

There is an old legend that the 
devil was the original designer of 
the celebrated Cologne cathedral, 
with its twin towers 515 feet high. 
The devil drew the plan for a monk, 
who cheated the designer out of his 
stipulated recompense. Satan, the 
legend says, bit off his tail in pore 
vexation, and has ever since done 
his level best to prevent the comple- 
tion of the cathedral, which, in fact, 
was over 600 years in building. 

Near Salem, Massachusetts, there 
is a place called Gallows' Hill, on 
which the witches were executed 
after they were tried. This spot is 
believed to be haunted ever since, 
witches holding there, on a certain 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



U57 



night, their yearly carnival. Cour- 
ageous young people, anxious to 
find out whether, when, or to whom 
they would be married, couk! be 
told by them, if they dare to go 
there on that particular night. 
Whenever anything important was 
about to happen, the screeching and 
screaming of the witches would be 
heard in the neighborhood. 

The "Sabbat" was a supposed as- 
sembly of witches met in mystic 
conclave and presided over by the 
devil. An introduction to its orgies 
was effected by rubbing the soles 
of the feet and the palms of the 
hands with an enchanted pomade. 
The effect of this was the supply of 
wings with which the initiated flew 
to the Sabbat. There they kept up 
ridiculous baccanals until morning. 
A meeting-place of the witches, 
made feunous in Goethe*s "Faust," 
was on the summit of the Brocken, 
in the Hartz mountains. The 
greatest Sabbat of all the year was 
believed to be held on Walpurgis 
night, the eve of May 1st. 

The general prevalence; popular- 
ity, and influence of magic in the 
civilized states of antiquity, renders 
it extremely probable tiiat it was 
the most effectual instrument by 
which the people were governed, 
and by which a great degree of their 
national tranquillity and power was 
sustained. 

Years ago, when witches were 
very generally believed in this 
country to exist, a child who was 
supposed to be bewitched, was tak- 
en to the woods and stood up 
against a white oak tree. A hole 
was bored in the tree at the exact 
height of the child, a lock of its 
hair stuck in the hole, and a tight 
plug inserted. The hair was then 
clipped, freeing the child from the 
tree^ It was then carried home 
without being permitted to look 
back. This remedy was also used 



for various diseases of children, ac- 
cording to the locality. It was very 
common in southwestern Pennsyl- 
vania, and trees from that locality 
within the last ten years have been 
found to contain a lock of hair, the 
annual rings of wood around it 
showing it to have been inserted 
over a hundred and fifty years ago. 

Turner mentions a curious cus- 
tom existing in New Caledonia 
when he visited it early in the cen- 
tury, in connection with the pre- 
vailing belief in disease-makers. If 
a man was suspected of witchcraft, 
and supposed to have caused there- 
by the death of persons, he was for- 
mally condemned. Immediately 
after sentence had been passed 
upon him a great festival was held, 
during which the criminal, decked 
with a garland of red flowers and 
shells, and his face and body paint- 
ed black, dashed into the midst of 
the assembled people, and jumping 
over the rocks into the sea, paid the 
penalty of his supposed crime by 
the forfeiture of his life. 

When witches wish to raise the 
wind, they take a rag and a beetle, 
knock the rag on a stone twice, and 

sav: 

"I knock this rag upon this stane. 
To raise the wind in the devil's name. 
It shall not lie till I please again." 

To lay the wind, they dry the rag, 
and sav thrice over: 

m 

**1 lay the wind in the devil's name. 
It shall not raise till he like to raise it 
again." 

If it will not lie immediately, cry 
*Thief, thief, conjure the wind and 
cause it to lie." 

In 1759, a woman bv the name 
of Susannah Hameokes. who was 
quite old, was accused of being a 
witch. Tlie charge against her by 
one of her neighbors, was that in 
using the spinning wheel, she could 
not make it go around, either one 
way or the other. When the witch 
was brought to trial, her husband 



1458 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS. 



suggested that his wife be tried by 
the church Bible, and his wife 
should be present This was as- 
sented to, and the husband brought 
her to be tried. The people flocked 
in great numbers to see the cere- 
mony. The woman was stripped of 
nearly all her clothes, and she was 
put into one scale, while the Bible 
was put into the other. To the as- 
tonishment of the crowd, she out- 
weighed the Bible, and was thus 
proved innocent 

In Russia, in olden times, when 
anyone was suspected of witchcraft, 
a number of people gathered by the 
side of the river Soupsa, near the 
old tower "Bookees Seekha." To 
this place the unfortunate suspect 
was brought and stripped naked, 
hands and feet fastened, and a rope 
tied around his waist, to prevent 
him from drowning, and then the 
person was put into a deep place in 
the side of the river. If he went to 
the bottom at once, he was quickly 
drawn out, for that proved his inno- 
cence; but if he floated on the top, 
he was then taken and branded with 
a red-hot iron, in the shatpt of a 
cross, to warn the people that he 
was a wicked witch. They believed 
that after that branding, he could 
never after do them any harm. 

The natives of the Canary Is- 
lands are firm believers in witches 
and sorcerers of all kinds, who go 
out at night in the shape of pigs, 
donkeys, large dogs, or cats. Many 
are supposed to practice "black 
magic," such as making animals ill, 
wishing ill to people and making it 
come true, also sticking pins into 
images to make them waste away. 
There are, in fact, many "wise" 
men and women, who cure the 
afi)icted by means of their simples 
and prayers. In Teneriffe, lives an 
old woman who is believed to effect 
cures by prayer, even at a distance. 

The Sia Indians have something 
appalling to them in the return of 



the dead and in their belief in 
witchcraft, asserting that witches 
can assume the form of any animal, 
pursue a man in the night, and cre- 
ate disease, by casting snakes, 
worms, stones, bits of fabric, and so 
forth into him, thus making sores 
and the like. But the theurgists are 
able to remove these evils, and a 
snake was removed from an Indian 
while the writer was sta3ring with 
them, much to the satisfaction of the 
patient, who had a cold, but (by 
power of his own faith) got better 
right away. 

In Russia, the witches' holiday is 
the eve of the first of September. 
On that evening, all the witches 
come out of their hiding places and 
roam about To prevent their do- 
ing any harm to persons, cattle or 
crops, the people stick a piece of 
wax on their heads, and on the 
heads of their cattle. They also 
shoot off guns on that evening, to 
frighten the witches away. 

If witches are married, it becomes 
necessary to administer to their 
husbands a potion that shall cause 
them to slumber and keep them 
asleep during their absence in the 
night, and for this purpose the 
"sleep-apple," a mossy sort of ex- 
crescence on the wild rose, is em- 
ployed, which will not allow any- 
one to awake until it is removed. 

"With lips of rosy hoc, 
Dipp'd five times over in ambrosiail dew. 
She led them to their destruction." 

A famous enchantress, sojourn- 
ing in the Isle of Man, had by her 
diabolical arts made herself appear 
so lovely in the eyes of men that she 
ensnared the hearts of as many as 
beheld her. The passion they had for 
her so took up all their hearts that 
they entirely neglected their usual 
occupations. They neither plougli- 
ed nor sowed, neither built houses, 
nor repaired them; their gardens 
were all overgrown with weeds, and 
their once fertile fields were cov- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1459 



ered with stones; their cattle died 
for want of pasttire ; their turf lay in 
the bowels of the earth undug for, 
and evefything had the appearance 
of an utter desolation, even propa- 
gation ceased, for no man could 
have the least inclination for any 
woman but this universal charmer, 
who smiled on them, permitted 
them to follow and admire her, and 
gave everyone leave to hope him- 
self would be at last the happy He. 
When she had thus allured the male 
part of the island, she pretended 
one day to go a progress through 
the provinces, and being attended 
by all her adorers on foot, while she 
rode on a milk-white palfrey, in a 
kind of triumph at the head of 
them. She led them into a deep 
river, which by her art she made 
seem passable, and when they were 
all come a good way in it, she caus- 
ed a sudden wind to rise, which, 
driving the waters in such abun- 
dance to one place, swallowed up 
the poor lovers, to the number of six 
hundred, in their tumultuous waves. 
After which, the sorceress was seen 
by some persons, who stood on the 
shore, to convert herself into a bat, 
and fly through the air till she was 
out of sight, as did her palfrey into 
a sea hog or porpoise, and instantly 
plunged itself to the bottom of the 
stream. 

To prevent the recurrence of a 
like disaster, it was ordained that 
the women should go on foot and 
follow the men henceforth, which 
custom is so religiously observed, 
that if by chance a woman is seen 
walking before a man, whoever sees 
her cries out immediately : "Tehi! 
Tegi!" which, it would appear, is 
the name of the enchantress who 
occasioned this law. 

First Witch. Thrice the brinded cat 

hath mew'd. 
Second Witch. Thrice and once the 

hedge-hog whin*d. 
Third Witch. Harpter cries: Tis time, 

'tis time. 



First Witch. Round about the cauldron 

go; 
In the poison'd entrails throw. 
Toad, that under cold stone 
Days and nights has thirty-one 
Swelter*d venom sleeping got. 
Boil thou first i' the charmed pot 
All. Double, double toil and trouble; 
Fire burn and cauldron bubble. 
Second Witch. Fillet of a fenny snake» 
In the cauldron boil and bake; 
Eye of newt and toe of frog. 
Wool of bat, and tongue of dog. 
Adder's fork, and blind-worm's sting» 
Lizard's leg, and howlet's wing. 
For a charm of powerful trouble. 
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. 
AIL Double, double toil and trouble; 
Fire burn and cauldron bubble. 
Third Witch. Scale of dragon, tooth of 

wolf. 
Witches' mummy, maw and gulf 
Of the ravin'd salt-sea shark. 
Root of hemlock digged i' the dark. 
Liver of blaspheming Jew, 
Gall of goat, and slips of yew 
Silver'd in the moon's eclipse. 
Nose of Turk, and Tartar's lips. 
Finger of birth-strangled babe 
Ditch-delivered by a drab. 
Make the gruel thick and slab; 
Add thereto a tiger^s chaudron. 
For the ingredients of our cauldron. 
All. Double, double toil and trouble; 
Fire burn and cauldron bubble. ' 
Second Witch. Cool it with a baboon's 

blood. 
Then the charm is firm and good. 
(Shakespeare, Macbeth, iv., i.) 

An old writer, speaking of the 
powers of witches, says: 

1. Some work their bewitchings 
only by way of invocation or impre- 
cation. They wish it, or will it; and 
so it falls out. 

2. Some by way of emissary, 
sending out their imps, or familiars, 
to cross the way, justle, afTrontt 
flash in the face, barke, howle, bite, 
scratch, or otherwise infest 

3. Some by inspecting, or look- 
ing on, or to glare, or peep at with 
an envious and evil eve. 

4. Some by a hollow muttering 
or mumbling. 

5. Some by breathing and blow- 
ing on. 

6. Some by cursing and ban- 
ning. 



t46o 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



7. Some by blessing and prais- 
ing. 

8. Some revengefully, by occa- 
sion of ill tumes. 

9. Some ingratefully, and by oc- 
casion of good tumes. 

10. Some by leaving something 
of theirs in your house. 

11. Some by getting something 
of yours into their house. 

12. Some have a more special 
way of working by several elements 
— earth, water, ayre, or fire. But 
who can tell all the manner of ways 
of a witch's working; that works 
not only darkly and closely, but va- 
riously and versatilly, as God will 
permit, the devil can suggest, or the 
malicious hag devise to put in prac- 
tice." 

One of the most amazing things 
connected with the persecutions of 
so-called witches, consists of their 
own confessions under the torture. 
It seems a miracle in itself that any 
persons who were in their senses 
should accuse themselves of things 
so contrary to nature and reason. 
One would think that, knowing 
they were to die anyway, no matter 
what they said, they took delight in 
fooling their judges as far as possi- 
ble. Thus, under the **witch-ham- 
mer" book of Pope Innocent VIII., 
which accused everyone not a 
priest of being a witch, a "child-eat- 
er" related the following ceremonial 
before the tribunal of justice: **We 
lie in wait," she said, "for children. 
These are often found dead by their 
parents, and the simple people be- 
lieve that they have overlain them 
in bed or that they have died of 
natural causes, but it is we who 
have destroyed them. For that pur- 
pose we steal babies and children 
out of the g^ve, boil them with 
lime until all the flesh is loosened 
from the bones, and is reduced to 
one mass. We make out of the 
firm part an ointment, and fill a bot- 
tle with the fluid; and whoever 



drinks of this belongs to our league, 
and is directly capable of bewitch- 
ing." Thus by "bewitchment," they 
first kill the child, and then make 
a "bewitching potion" out of its 
body. And people believed it '*Wc 
bewitch cattle by the touch," says 
another, "and make for such pur- 
poses all kinds of magical instru- 
ments, pictures, toads, lizards, and 
snakes. We lay these things under 
door-sills, and they spoil the milk 
in the house and produce disease in 
the cows." A few old women ad- 
mitted that they had made furious 
thunderstorms, and were immedi- 
ately burnt for it It was a damn- 
ing thing if the accused, when 
brought before the judge, did not 
shed tears. He at once decided die 
person could kill by a glance of the 
eye, and she was burnt on the spot 
But the records of the unspeakable 
atrocities of the superstiticm of 
witchcraft are endless. 

The folklore of the Canary Is- 
lands has the following story: 
There was a man who had a witch 
wife, but he did not know it One 
night he got up at midnight and 
missed his wife. He wondered 
much, but remained quiet Next 
night he resolved to watch what she 
did, and he saw her go into the next 
room, where she began to anoint 
herself, repeating: "From rafter to 
rafter, without God or St Maria!" 
She repeated this three times, and 
then disappeared through the rooL 
Said the husband to himself: "I 
will do the same to-morrow, so as 
jto follow her and see where she 
goes." Next night, after she had 
repeated the process and gone, he 
imitated her, only instead of saying, 
"without God and St Maria," he 
said, "with God and St. Maria." 
Consequently, when he rose to the 
ceiling, he hit himself with such 
force that he was greatly hurt, and 
when his wife returned in the morn- 
ing, she found him dying. 



i 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1461 



A correspondent from Teneriflfc, 
Canary Islands, sent the following 
story, which was told her by a poor 
blind man as his own experience: 
On the 19th of November, 1894, he 
came from the village of Realijo, 
conducting his donkey, laden with 
empty soda water bottles. In the 
house from which he had brought 
the bottles, he had been, in com- 
pany with others, making fun and 
laughing at the idea of witches, and 
he was one of the most scornful of 
all. "Let them come; I am not 
afraid!*' said he. Between 11 and 
12, he came to the town of Cabczas, 
and remembered saluting passers- 
by who spoke to him, when sud- 
denly he found himself on fine sand, 
ami knew by the sand that he was 
within a quarter of a league from 
the town. Then he felt himself 
held down and surrounded by peo- 
ple, and voices said: "Shall we 
throw him in the sea, for having 
spoken ill of us?'* and others an- 
swered: "No, let him go; he has 
done good to many." The voices 
were those of women and one man, 
and he thinks he knows the voice of 
one woman. Instantly he found 
himself in the gate of the Roman 
Catholic cemetery in the town, and 
he was able to guide himself back 
to the spot from whence he had 
been so suddenly taken; but his 
donkev had not been seen, and was 
not there. So he went back to the 
sandy place by Cabezas, and there 
was the donkey lying on the 
ground. 

One especial kind of witchcraft 
was the appearance of all kinds of 
things in all parts of the body, as 
thread and laces, worsted and yam, 
potsherds, needles and nails, nay, 
even living things, as lizards, toads. 
and mice, worms and frogs, that 
were believed to be "conjured" in- 
to the stomach. The witches cook- 
ed their own broth and prepared 
their own butter and salve, with 



which they made themselves invisi- 
ble. They made the witch-butter, 
co-operante diabolo, from the auro- 
ra-colored matter exuded from the 
bodies of children which they had 
stolen and carried off to the Blocks- 
berg. (This is exactly parallel with 
the idea still prevalent in India, 
elsewhere noted, of European gen- 
tlemen stealing fat black boys, to 
make seven drops of miraculous 
fluid to cure wounds.) 

The fifteenth, sixteenth and sev- 
enteenth centuries in England were 
full of the most devilish belief in 
witches, as was all Europe, and no 
one was safe from accusation, tor- 
ture, and death. Put to the torture, 
which was never ended until the 
person confessed his or her guilt, 
(although perfectly innocent), or he 
or she died, a state of hvsteria was 
produced that so affected the minds 
of the whole people that a sort of 
cataleptic state ensued, so that those 
under torture were partially insen- 
sible to every agony, to stab and 
blow, pinching and burning, twist- 
ing and screwing, racking and tear- 
ing, to which they were subjected 
by their loving and kind-hearted 
neighbors. As in hysterical cases, 
their bodies were sometimes blou'n 
up like a barrel without bursting; 
then again drawn in as if they were 
totally gone, and as suddenly again 
puffed up as with a pair of bellows, 
and with the loudest noises, as if 
struck, moved up and down and 
then sunk and swelled again. From 
the different parts of the bodies of 
the "bewitched." all sorts of mate- 
rials and working implements made 
their way, as egg-shells, hairs, cloth, 
yam, pins, needles, glass, while 
others for long periods took no 
nourishment at all, vet remained 
fat and in full strength. So has 
superstition been at the root of 
nine-tenths of all the mental and 
physical fears, labors, tortures, 
wickedness, and evil of this world. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Generally in the name of God. (En- 
nemoser. History of Magic.) 

If a witch wishes to go in the 

shape of a cat, she says thrice: 

"I shall go into on« cat. 
With sorrow and such and a black shot! 
And I shall go in the devils' name. 
Ay, until I come home again." 

To get out of a cat's stu^, she 

will say: 

"Cat, cat, God send thee a black shot, 
I was a cat just now. 
But I shall be in womans' likeness even 
now.*' 

To go in the shape of a hare» she 
says: 

"I shall go into a hare. 
With sorrow and such and muckle care. 
And I shall go in the devils' name. 
Ay, 'till I come home again." 

To get out of that shape, she will 

repeat three times: 

*'Hare, hare, God send thee care! 
I am in a hares' likeness just now. 
But I shall be in a womans' lik^iess 
even now." 

To ride on the wind, she takes 
winnowed straw or bean-stalks, sits 
astride of them^ and says: 

"Horse and Hattock, horse and go. 
Horse and pellaris hoi hoi" 

If she wants to go through the 

key-hole, she says: 

**Trip in a true ting, 
Troo the key-hole I go." 

Witches are so dangerous that 
you must never refuse them any 
request To determine whether a 
woman is a witch, have her sit 
down, and stick a fork in the floor 
under her chair while she is not 
looking; if she is a witch, she will 
not be able to move until you take 
up the fork. 

A belief that certain individuals 
possessed magical powers, and 
could exercise a supernatural influ- 
ence over their fellow-creatures, ex- 
isted in ancient Rome, and those 
who practiced, or rather pretended 
to exercise, such arts, were punish- 
able by the civil magistrate. It is to 
be observed that neither among the 



Roman nor the pagan nations d 
northern Europe, was witchcraft 
deemed an o£Fence against religion; 
in some instances, indeed, the witch 
was supposed to derive her powers 
from spirits friendly to mankind, 
and her profession, though feared, 
was held in honor by her infatuat- 
ed dupes. Upon the introduction 
of Christianity, witchcraft assumed 
a new form, though retaining all its 
old attributes. Instead of ascribing 
the supernatural powers of the prac- 
titioner to the gods, to Odin, to 
spirits of good or evil qualities, or 
to supposed mysteries in nature, the 
people imput^ them to the great 
fallen spirit mentioned in Scripture. 
This potent being, from a wicked 
desire to destroy all that was good 
and hopeful in man's destiny, was 
believed to enter into a compact 
with the aspirant witch, in which, 
for an irrevocable assignment of her 
soul at death, he was to grant all 
her wishes, and assist in all her ma- 
levolent projects. These new fea- 
tures in witchcraft thoroughly 
changed and prodigiously extended 
the superstition throughout Eu- 
rope. From being rather jq>ortive 
jugglery, or tridk in practical 
magic, and at most only a civil of- 
fence, it was recognized as a crime 
of the deepest dye, meriting the 
most severe chastisement which 
the ecclesiastical and civil power 
could inflict 

In his bull of 1484, Pope Inno- 
cent charged inquisitors and others 
to discover and destroy all such as 
were guilty of witchcraft This 
commission was put into the hands 
of a wretch called Sprenger, with 
directions that it should be put in 
force to its fullest extent Imme- 
diately there followed a regular 
form of process and trial for sus- 
pected witches, entitled "Malleus 
Maleficorum, or a Hammer for 
Witches," upon which all judges 
were called scrupulously to act The 



i 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES, 



1465 



edict of 1484 was subsequently en- 
forced by a bull of Alexander VI., 
in 1494, of Leo X., in 1521, and of 
Adrian VI., in 152^, each adding 
strength to its predecessor, and the 
whole serving to increase the agita- 
tion of the public mind upon the 
subject. The results were dreadful. 
A panic fear of witchcraft took pos- 
session of society. Every one was 
at the mercy of his neighbor. If 
any one felt an unaccountable ill- 
ness, or a peculiar pain in any part 
of his body, or suffered any misfor- 
tune in his family or affairs, or if a . 
storm arose and committed any 
damage by sea or land, or if any 
cattle died suddenly, or, in short, if 
any event, circumstance, or thing 
occurred out of the ordinary rou- 
tine of daily experience, the cause 
of it was witchcraft. To be accused 
was to be doomed, for it rarely hap- 
pened that proof was wanting, or 
that condemnation was not follow- 
ed by execution. Armed with the 
"Malleus Maleficorum," the judge 
had no difficulty in finding reasons 
for sending the most innocent to 
the stake. 

If the accused did not at once 
confess, they were ordered to be 
shaved and closely examined for 
the discovery of the devil's marks; 
it being a tenet in the delusion that 
the devil, on inaugurating any 
witch, impressed certain marks on 
her person ; and if any strange mark 
was discovered, there remained no 
longer any doubt of the party's 
guilt Failing this kind of evidence, 
torture was applied, and this sel- 
dom failed to extort the desired 
confession from the unhappy vic- 
tim. A large proportion of the ac- 
cused witches, in order to avoid 
these preliminary horrors, confesse<l 
the crime in anv terms which were 
dictated to them, and were forth- 
with led to execution. Other 
witches, as has been said, seemed to 
confess voluntarily, being probably 
cither insane persons, or feeble- 



minded beings, whose reason had 
been distorted by brooding over the 
popular witchcraft code. A few ex- 
tracts from the work of Dr. Hutch- 
inson will show the extent of these 
proceedings: 

"A. D. 1485— Cumanas, an in- 
quisitor, burnt forty-one poor wom- 
en for witches, in the county of 
Burlia, in one year. He caused 
them to be shaved first, that they 
may be searched for marks. He 
continued the prosecutions in the 
year following, and many fled out 
of the country. 

"About this time, Alciat, a fa- 
mous lawyer, in his Parergu, says: 
'One inquisitor burnt a hundred in 
Piedmont, and proceeded daily to 
bum more, till the people rose 
against the inquisitor, and chased 
him out of the country.' 

"A. D. 1488— A violent tempest 
of thunder and lightning in Con- 
stance destroyed the com for four 
leagues round. The people accus- 
ed one Anne Mindelin, and one 
Agnes, for being the cause of it 
They confessed and were burnt. 

"About this time, H. Institor 
says, one of the inquisitors came to 
a certain town, that was almost des- 
olate with plague and famine. The 
report went that a certain woman, 
buried not long before, was eating 
up her winding-sheet, and that the 
plague would not cease till she had 
made an end of it. This matter be- 
ing taken into consideration, Scul- 
tctus, with the chief magistrate of 
the city, opened the grave, ami 
found that she had indeed swal- 
lowed and devoured one-half of her 
winding-sheet. Scultetus, moved 
with horror at the thing, drew out 
his sword and cut off her head, and 
threw it into a ditch, and immedi- 
ately the plague ceased! and the in- 
quisition sitting upon the case, it 
was found that she had long been a 
reputed witch. 

"A. D. 1524 — About this time, a 
thousand were bumed in one year, 



24&I 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



in the diocese of Como» and a hun- 
dred per annum for several years 
together." 

From other authorities it is 
learned that the devastation was as 
great in Spain, France, and north- 
em Germany, as it was in the Ital- 
ian states. About the year 1515, 
five hundred witches were burned 
in Geneva in three months, and in 
France many thousands. 

The prosecution of witches was 
no less severe in England and Scot- 
land, where it began about the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century. **Bar- 
rington, in his observations on the 
statute of Henry VI., does not hesi- 
tate to estimate the ntmiber of those 
put to death in England on the 
charge of witchcraft, at thirty thou- 
sand." 

In the middle of the seventeenth 
century, a class of people sprang up 
which called themselves profession- 
ally witch-finders. They made a 
business of accusing persons with 
certain marks^ putting them to so- 
called tests, and committing them 
to the gallows or scaffold. For this 
''clearing the locality of suspected 
persons," they received big fees 
from the magistrates. One of these 
noted witch-finders was a certain 
Mathew Hopkins, who lived during 
the second half of the seventeenth 
century, and is recorded to have 
brought several hundred persons to 
death by these foul means. 

The following interesting article, 
entitled "Naia, the Witch of Roche- 
fort," by Charles G^niaux of Paris, 
which appeared in the **Wide 
World Magazine," October, 1899, 
demonstrated how deep-rooted the 
belief in witches is even in our days, 
and how a wily old woman, in the 
last year of the nineteenth century, 
manages to influence, keep in awe, 
and sdmost rule the inhabitants in 
and around Rochefort-en-Terre, in 
Brittany, by her supposed magical 
and supernatural powers: 



Scarcely had I arrived in Roche- 
fort-en-Terre, a delightful little 
town in Brittany, when I met an 
artist in search of landscapes. 

**You're looking for sorcerers?" 
he said. He knew my weakness for 
folklore and the like. "Very well, 
we have here what you want — Naia 
Kermadec, the *Witch of Roche- 
fort,' who is well known all over the 
country; only I can't be sure that 
you will be able to see her, for no 
one knows exacdy where she is. 
People have met her on the same 
day at places very far from one an- 
other, and it is difficult to explain 
how such an old woman can travel 
so fast over such considerable dis- 
tances. The good folks of Roche- 
fort are convinced that there is 
something supernatural in this. 

"They will tell you that Naia 
travels on a broom through the air 
^-or maybe tmderground — when 
she does not want to be seen going 
on her errands; that she fears nei- 
ther fire nor water, disappears when 
she likes, and takes any shape that 
may suit her purpose. Through 
her magical power, they say, she at- 
tracts young people, especially 
those who are in love." 

"How long has she lived here," I 
asked, "and where does she come 
from?" 

"Old people say they have always 
known her as she is now," returned 
my friend; "withered and bony 
through age. They remembered 
having heard of a family named 
De Kermadec, who had the repu- 
tation of knowing wonderfid secrets 
and were suspected of having been 
in league with the spirit of dark- 
ness. Well, Naia is supposed to be 
the last member of that old family. 

"I have spoken to her once," 
added my informant, "and I was 
astonished at her marvelous intel- 
ligence, her knowledge, and the in- 
formation she seems to possess, in 
spite of her retirement and isola- 
tioa" 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



i4$5 



For a fortnight I was disappoint- 
ed in my search for Naia. To all 
my questions, the peasants invaria- 
bly answered that they did not 
know where she was living at pres- 
ent. One morning at daybreak, 
however, a young boy knocked at 
my door. 

'•Make haste, sir," he cried; 
"make haste — the witch has come 
back to the old manor. If you like, 
I will take you to the ruins," he 
added. **I know where to find the 
*Door of Hell,' through which Naia 
goes out." 

I accepted his offer with pleasure. 
Some minutes later we were pro- 
ceeding at a brisk pace towards the 
witch's den. The ruins of the 
Chateau de Rieux are heavily 
clothed with ivy, and are situated 
on an abrupt and rocky hill, cov- 
ered with ancient oaks. Sometimes 
Naia is seen coming out of crannies 
in the rock, and sometimes disap- 
pearing in the crumbling towers or 
deep dungeons of the mediaeval 
stronghold. 

Suddenly my young guide ma- 
liciously ran away, laughing. I 
turned round hastily to call after 
him, and found myself in the dread- 
ed presence of the weird inhabitant 
of the ruins. 

There she stood in her majestic 
and withered ugliness, solemn and 
imposing as a pythoness of ancient 
times. In silence we looked at each 
other. Her eyes inspire awe; they 
are sunken, creamy in hue, and 
glassy, like those of the dead. Her 
large, bony hands rest on a thorn 
stick, and a kind of colorless shroud 
partly covers her head and shoul- 
ders, falling down to her feet Long 
locks of white hair escape in dis- 
order, from her hood. An indom- 
itable will is impressed on her 
wrinkled face, with its marked ex- 
pression of intelligence, which is 
still more striking than the horrid 
ugliness of her features. 

Naia was sitting in a niche car- 



peted with ivy, and her cold eyes 
were making a survey of my per- 
son. 

I felt compelled to come through 
curiosity, railing inwardly at the 
witch and at the stupid credulity of 
the peasants. 

Now, however, I was awed by 
this strange creature, and seized by 
a vague, oppressive wonder, whicli 
made my heart beat faster than 
usual. 

**Have no fear, my son, but ap- 
proach," she said, with much dig- 
ity and an ironical smile, as I stoo<l 
motionless at some distance from 
her. 

There was in her deep voice an 
unaccountable charm. It was at 
once soft and sonorous, with the 
expressive inflections of people ac- 
customed to speak in public. 

I told her how curious I was to 
get acquainted with her, and I tried 
cautiouslv to induce her to talk 
about her "marvelous" powers. 

She at once got up, looking very 
tall and dignified. 

"And thou, my sod, dost thou 
believe in supernatural gifts?" she 
asked. 

I wanted to be conciliatory, ao I 
answered with prudence. 

"It depends. I believe that cer- 
tain mysteries in nature are not yet 
explained, but I am rather like St. 
Thomas, who wanted to see before 
he believed." 

"Town folks arc such unbeliev- 
ers," retorted Naia, with an empha- 
sis. "They know a little, and fancy 
they know all. I like peasants best. 
I direct them in their business, and 
thev feel the benefit of it. When 
the priest is powerless, the husband- 
men come to me, and I tell them: 
trust Gnami," she went on, "he is 
powerful: Gnami dares heaven; he 
is stronger than death!" 
•Who, then, is Gnami?" 
'He is the one who obeys me — 
the one who flies through air at my 
order. Gnami is the human spirit 



€€^ 



**] 



M« 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



of man. I make him travel wher- 
ever I wish. I have only to thicdc 
and he executes my commands." 

"You must be very rich, Madame 
Naia, with such a great power." 

"My son, thou speakest like a 
mortal," she retorted, rather scorn- 
fully. "Those who can possess 
everything if they choose, have 
never any wish." 

"You have said just now that I 
was speaking like a mortal. Is it, 
then, that you consider yourself an 
immortal being?" I asked. 

"I do not remember ever having 
been a child, and Gnami, who exists 
in me, cannot die, for he is a spirit" 

I could see my questions were 
beginning to tire her. She refused 
point-blank to answer me when I 
tried to penetrate into her secrets 
and formula of incantation. Still, 
before I left, I persuaded her to let 
me take her photograph, and told 
her that it would be published in 
"The Wide World Magazine." She 
smiled, and gave me leave to come 
another time with my camera. 

I wanted to acknowledge her 
kindness by shaking hands with 
her, but she repelled me violently 
with her big stick. 

"Stand back," she screeched. 
"Do not touch me, for I bum!" 

At my own risk, I should have 
liked to try the experiment, but I 
saw it was impossible. Country 
people assert that they feel a violent 
shock if they touch her hand. 

When a peasant is uneasy about 
his wife, or any member of his fam- 
ily who may happen to be ill, he 
goes to Naia and tells her the de- 
tails of the complaint. Whereupon 
she makes a fire on the ground, and 
throws on the flames a handful of 
herbs from her pocket. A thick 
smoke rises in the air. With di- 
sheveled hair and haggard eyes, 
panting and breathing hard, the 
witch pronounces incoherent words, 
curses the elements, and calls with 
a strong voice, "Gnami I Gnami I" 



Naia, in such moments, is appar- 
ently insensible to pain. 

"I have seen her," a peasant told 
me, "as truly as I see you, placing 
her hands on the fire for several 
minutes and picking up red-hot 
coals, which she crushed with her 
fingers and scattered to the winds." 

She generally gives some of the 
cinders to those who consult her, 
with the injunction to apply them 
to the sick, whether it be a human 
being or an animal. 

At Pluherlin,asmall neighboring 
village, Naia saved an old man 
from a blazing fire. In vain his son 
had tried to penetrate into the burn- 
ing house, where the father was ly- 
ing in bed. Overpowered by the 
violence of the flames, the youth 
was obliged to retreat, and, mad 
with grief and despair, was crying 
bitteriy, when suddenly Naia stood 
by him. She whispered something 
in his ear; he nodded assent, and 
the witch, quietly entering the roar- 
ing furnace, delivered the okl man 
from a fearful death. 

But from that day the son chang- 
ed entirely. He became a drunk- 
ard and a reprobate. It was rumor- 
ed that Naia had made him sell his 
soul to the spirit of evil, as a condi- 
tion for the rescue of his father! 

Several times I directed my ram- 
blings in the country toward the 
ruin of the Chateau de Rieux, where 
Naia lived. The place suited her as 
well as she suited it. It looked un- 
canny and weird, like the super- 
natural being who had chosen it for 
her home. 

The castle, built in the Middle 
Ages by the powerful Seigneurs de 
Rieux — gjeat and terrible warriors 
— had gloomy cells and hiding- 
places, underground passages and 
dungeons, where mouldering bones 
had been found among rusty fetters. 

But to-day, of all the splendor of 
bygone times there remain only 
some crumbling walls, part of a 
tower, and a vast area covered with 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M^ 



sculptured stones, amidst an entan- 
gled mass of tree trunks, branches, 
boughs, and ivy festoons. But the 
underground part and the secret 
rooms (known only to the De 
Rieux family) are still in existence. 
Naia is evidently acquainted with 
them, and seeks there a shelter 
against the weather. This explains 
an incident which dreadfully fright- 
ened some country people one win- 
ter night when they were coming 
back from the fair of Malansac, in 
the neighborhood. 

To take a short cut, they thought 
of going across the fields, and with 
that intention went through by- 
paths disused for a good many 
years. 

Heavily laden, they were climb- 
ing the steep hill leading to Rieux, 
when one of them, stopping sud- 
denly, exclaimed "Fire! Fire!" in a 
terrified voice. 

And, sure enough, from the 
chinks in the ground flames and 
smoke were issuing, blackening 
and burning the grass and bushes 
on the surface, llie peasants also 
said that a strong smell of sulphur 
was spreading around ; but this may 
be set down as pure imagination. 

When they arrived at the farm 
house, the church bell was begin- 
ning to toll for the dead. On mak- 
ing inquiries, they learned that a 
young girl with a bad reputation 
nad just died suddenly. 

Summing up the incidents of that 
stirring night, the peasants attribut- 
ed to Naia the power of going down 
to hell when she liked, and of at- 
tracting there the souls of people 
who had died in a state of sin. 

The justice of peace of Roche- 
fort told me he had also seen, on 
several occasions, those suspicious 
clouds of smoke rising up from 
among the stones. The most plau- 
sible explanation is that Naia, in 
mnter, lights a fire in the under- 
ground parts of the ruins, to warm 
herself, and naturally the flames and 



smoke sometimes penetrate the 
chaos of stones and frighten the 
country people, who think they see 
an infernal fire. 

The dark passages frequented by 
Naia lead to some damp, broken 
stairs, descending into depths of the 
castle. 

On the day I photographed this 
entrance to Naia*s den. two quaint 
little Breton children were playing 
in front of the dark hole, not in the 
least disconcerted by its fateful and 
ominous renown. A large piece of 
rock almost bars the "Witch's 
threshold," which is also called 
"Hell's door." It is with great dif- 
ficultv that one scales that rock to 
enter the gloomy passage on the 
other side. Nor could I find any 
means of exit at the end of the cor- 
ridor, for the thorny bushes which 
tore the sleeves of my jacket pre- 
vented me from advancing any 
farther. 

As I extricated myself from their' 
treacherous embrace, I reflected 
that Naia's clothes must be made of 
very strong material indeed, to re- 
sist such daily assaults. 

The justice of peace, who has 
lived in the place for a score of 
years, told me he has always seen 
Naia wearing the same clothes, and 
never noticed any change in her 
face or appearance. The merchants 
in the town, and all about the coun- 
try, aflirm that "the witch" has 
never bought anything from them, 
that she has never been seen to eat 
or drink, and, as for her ck)thes, 
they simply never wear out like 
those of ordinary people. 

All the information I gleaned 
confirmed me in mv belief of the 
old creature's extraordinary ab- 
stinence. What, then, does she live 
upon? No one knows, for nobody 
has ever given her anything in the 
way of victuals. 

With great impatience, I waited 
for the time of mv interview. At 
last the promised morning arrived* 



1468 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



A storm was threatening. Black 
and heavy clouds were hanging low 
like hinereal draperies. 

I was directing my steps toward 
the ruins, when a sudden shower 
obliged me to take shelter under 
the vault of an old drawbridge. 
Moodily I gazed at the water, flow- 
ing down like little cataracts on the 
pebbles and green moss, when the 
water suddenly cleared up, and a 
glorious sun shone out on the re- 
freshed country. 

Rejoicing at this lucky change, 
I was preparing to resume my walk, 
when all at once a strong voice 
called out near me: 

"Good morning, my son!" 

Quite amazed, I turned quickly, 
and lol on my right Naia was stand- 
ing, with her arms lifted up toward 
heaven, and her eyeballs quite white 
in the sunken depths of their sock- 
ets. She was uttering uncouth 
words in that Bas-Breton language 
which I do not understand. 
, I own that, in spite of my incre- 
vdulity, I felt for a moment a kind of 
irrational fright at her sudden ap- 
pearance and uncanny bearing. 

"Stay as you are, please!" said I, 
having recovered myself. "I want 
to photograph you in that posi- 
tion." 

It was prosaic, but also interest- 
ing. With good grace she granted 
my request, muttering the whole 
time. We were alone, face to face, 
she with her tall figure erect and 
her arms uplifted ; I, under the cov- 
er of my camera, looking at the 
weird and fantastic figure before 
my eyes. 

Suddenly I thought I heard 
something talking behind me. I 
turned round, and the voice be- 
came silent, but the next moment 
it began again with great volubility. 
For the second time I turned my 
head, but still saw no one as far as 
my sight could reach. Very much 
puzzled and mystified, I looked at 
Naia. The witch had seated herself 



against a wall, her head hanging 
down on her breast, and her hands 
clutching her stick. She looked as 
if she were asleep. 

As I looked at her, the voice 
which had startled me before now 
came from above, and seemingly 
from the top of an oak. More and 
more puzzled, I sat quite near my 
strange companion, watching her 
closely. Her breathing was heavy 
and regular. She was evidently 
sleeping, for I spoke to her and she 
did not answer. 

At that moment a distant voice 
called out loudly, "Naia! Naia!" 

"Do you not hear? Someone is 
calling you!" I cried to the Witch 
of Rochefort. 

All at once the voices ceased, and 
my unearthly companion opened 
her eyes and rose up. 

I must explain this strange scene. 
An old doctor of the neighborhood, 
who had taken much interest in 
studying Naia and the peculiarities 
of her existence, told me that the 
witch was a most clever ventrilo- 
quist. She made use of her won- 
derful gift to impose on the creduli- 
ty of simple folks who go to consult 
her about their fortunes. 

"I cannot answer thee," she sajrs, 
"but Gnami, the spirit, is going to 
speak for me." 

Then "prophetic" words are 
heard dropping from heaven, or 
coming out of the earth; and the 
amazed countryman cannot do oth- 
erwise than believe. 

Naia's predictions have such ab- 
solute influence upon the simple, 
ignorant man that he unconsciously 
works out their realization with all 
his might, and often succeeds by 
that means in bringing them to 
pass. "It is in vain that I tried to 
enlighten the country people in 
Naia's doings," added the doctor. 
"They believe in witchcraft, and 
don't heed my warnings. Her pre- 
dictions have caused a great deal 
of harm sometimes, and I have a 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1469 



personal knowledge of a premature 
death which was the result of such 
•foretelling/ 

'*I was attending an old man who 
suffered from gout, and considered 
that he might still live on for sev- 
eral years; but I was reckoning 
without Naia. That man had a 
nephew, who was impatient to come 
into his inheritance. He went to 
consult the witch, and persuaded 
her to visit his uncle. So one night, 
when the quiet little town was 
asleep, Naia passed unnoticed 
through the deserted streets and 
knocked at the door of old Pieric. 
His nephew opened it, and, with a 
feigned terror, pretended to go into 
a swoon before the apparition that 
passed over the threshold. 

*The witch, wrapped up in a 
shroud, and bearing a red light in 
each hand, came toward the old 
man's hod. 

•• Tieric!' she called out, in a 
sepulchral voice, 'attend to the sal- 
vation of thy soul, for thou shalt die 
when the belb ring for mass next 
Sundav!' 

**Vou can fancy how that trick 
frightened the poor invalid! Next 
dav he told me of this diabolical vis- 
itation, and I coukl see he was al- 
most out of his mind. 

" 'It is really absurd,' I protest- 
ed; 'some wicked person has been 
playing on your ignorance and cre- 
dulity. I certify that you have still 
many years to live.* 

*• *You say it to comfort me!' he 
declared, with tears; 'but I know I 
am lost — the ghost told me so !' 

•'On the Sunday morning 1 went 
to see him. He was very bad and 
almost delirious. I could not help 
getting angry. 

** 'You arc a fool. Picric,* I cried; 
•you are simply killing yourself, 
when I affirm that you might still 
live on for a good many years, if 
you kept quiet* 

*I am going to die!' he repeat- 



•« 



ed, with tearful obstinacy. 'It has 
been predicted by the ghost. . .' 

"I felt greatly impressed. For 
many years I had been in practice, 
but never before had I witnessed 
anything so heartrending. 

**When the church bell began to 
call the people to mass, Pieric's face 
became convulsed, and he sobbed: 

** *Mercy, O Lord, mercyl . . 
I am not vet ready to die!" 

" *You 'shall not die, Pieric,' I 
cried, putting into the words all the 
strength of my conviction. 

"But when the bells left off ring- 
ing, the old man uttered a dreadful 
crv, and fell back dead on his bed. 

"You have been told," the doctor 
went on, "that the witch can put 
her hands into the fire without feel- 
ing any pain. That is true to a cer- 
tain extent, and without doubt is 
another trick of the old crone to 
impose upon country folks. It is 
proved that a certain astringent 
preparation, mixed with a fat sul>- 
stancc and spread on the skin, acts 
like an isolating medium between 
the ner\ous sensibilitv and the fire." 

I now come back to my interview 
with the famous "Witch of Roche- 
fort." She had taken me amonp: 
the ruins and we were seated on 
trunks of trees in a place carpeted 
with ivy, which she called her 
**drawing-room." While I was 
questioning her, a pretty girl called 
Yvonnette, a young goat-keeper, 
who lived at a short distance from 
the ruins, came to ask for a consul- 
tation. After she had gone, happy 
in her heart and smiling at the 
prophetess's predictions, I asked 
Naia if she would also tell me mv 
good fortune. 

After some minutes of medita- 
tion, the witch spoke like the tene- 
brous oracles of antiquity. I was 
pleased to find an allusion to my 
travels through Algeria. But how 
coukl she have known? And she 
wouldn't take the money I offered 
her. 



Gambling. Ca«ls. Games. 



CHAPTER XX. 



BASEBALXr— A mascot is an 
indispensable member erf a baseball 
club. 

If a baseball team meets a funeral 
on the way to play, they will win 
the game. 

If a baseball team meets a load of 
barrels on the way to play, they 
will surely be defeated. 

Baseball players often pull the lit- 
tle finger for luck; some teams will 
never permit all members to sit 
down together. Many baseball 
players consider it an ill omen if a 
dog crosses the diamond before the 
first ball is pitched. 

Some baseball players believe 
that it is an omen of bad luck if one 
of the nine gets shaved on the day 
the game is to be played. 

BETTING— Sporting men have 
a belief that if they can rub the 
wool on the head of a blind negro, 
they will have better luck with the 
bookmaker. 

If you make a bet on the way to 
business, you will suffer from your 
own imprudence that day. 

A sportsman put his name down 
in the Club Derby Sweep, opposite 
No. 6S. He draws the winner. 
Next year, coming up late to town, 
he finds every number occupied ex- 
cept 68. He puts down his name 
there, and draws the winner again. 

If you meet a blind man on going 
to the track, tip him, or you will 
not win that day. 

If you are a green hand at "play- 
ing the races," just cast your eyes 



on the names of the horses, and the 
very first thought of will be a win- 



ner. 



Never tear up your pasteboards 
at the races, or you will never pick 
out a winner. Keep them, they are 
lucky. 



Women who bet on the 
have faith in some particular mes- 
senger boy, and will not let anyone 
else place their commissions. "'Oh, 
where is my lucky boy?" they will 
cry, and if he fails to turn up, they 
wUl not bet 

Should you have the good for- 
time to dream of a horse, do not bet 
on it the first time it runs; but on 
the second time put all the money 
you can raise on it, for it will sorely 
win. 

If you are betting on a card, try 

your luck by hitting the tips of your 
forefingers together without look- 
ing at them, and saying: *'Hit or 
miss," and if at the moment you say 
"hit," your fingers hit, you will win; 
but if they miss, you will lose. 

If you meet a funeral while go- 
ing to the race track, do not on any 
account pass through it, as it is the 
worst of luck. Wait until it passes, 
or better still, turn and go away 
with it 

One who bets on the races re- 
sorts to many devices to foretell the 
winner. If two start, he throws up 
a dime, and names heads for one 
and tails for the other. If more than 
two start, he writes their numbers 
on small pieces of paper, and press- 
ing them between his hands, blows 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1471 



them away; the last to leave his 
hand will be the winner. 

BILLIARDS— To chalk the 
large end of your cue, will insure 
success in playing billiards. 

When engaged in a game of bil- 
liards or pool, he who keeps the 
chalk in his hand and chalks his cue 
while his opponent is playing, will 
lose the game every time. 

CHARMS AND OMENS RE- 
LATING TO GAMES AND 
GAMBLING— It will bring you 
bad luck to shuffle your coins or 
checks. 

A hand with four clubs will never 
bring good luck to the player. 

The gambler's wife wept when 
her husband won the first pot 

To drop the nine of spades when 
playing cards, is a sign that you 
will quarrel with your love. 

To sit in a rocking chair to play 
cards, is bad luck. 

The hair of a suicide worn as a 
charm, will bring good luck to 
gamblers. 

Gamblers throw pennies away, as 
they think them unlucky. 

On the way to play cards, a gam- 
bler considers it very unlucky to 
pass a beggar on the street without 
giving him something. 

It is an old belief that it is lucky 
to play cards with a hat on. The 
devil is said to be always present 
at a card game, and to wear no hat 
would be a sign of respect to him, 
which would surely bring bad luck. 

When you play cards, and you 
drop a red one, it is good luck; but 
if you drop a black one, bad. 

Opening a new deck of cards 
with one in it with the face turned 
to you, means victory in the game. 

In playing cards, if you often hold 
three aces in your hand, you will 
change your residence. 



Bad luck folk)ws a black jack in 
cards. 

If a black deuce is turned, knock 
it with your knuckles before anyone 
else touches it, and vou will secure 
four or more trumps. 

It is a sign of death to have a 
long line of black cards dealt to one 
at cards. 

If you get into a passion when 
playing cards, you will have more 
bad luck ; for the demon of bad luck 
always follows a passionate player. 

1, 2, 3, 4, played in succession at 
cards, kiss the dealer for luck. 

To a gambler who passes the 
blind, ill luck will ensue. 

To play cards on the table with- 
out a tablecloth, is unlucky. 

Card players believe that good 
luck is assured them, if they can lay 
their finger on the two of clubs. 

He who lends money at play will 
lose. 

He who borrows money at play 
will win. 

Never play against a consump- 
tive person in any game of cards, as 
you will meet with poor success. 

Whoever lends or loses money 
out of his pockets, will win no more 
that week. 

If a gambler finds a coin, he will 
risk everything, for it is the best of 
luck. 

If clubs are trumps, they will 
turn up on three successive deals. 

In playing cards, walk straight 
from the table and make a round 
turn, if playing for money. 

There is a superstition at Monte 
Carlo that immediately after a sui- 
cide, all those playing against the 
bank will win. There is. therefore, 
a perfect rush for the tables when 
the lugubrious news is known. 

Card players believe that there 
never was a good hand at cards 



I47« 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



when there was the four of clubs in 
it, for that is the devil's four-post 
bedstead. 

- If you wish a person to win at 
cards, stick a crooked pin in his 
coat 

To wear your hat backwards in 
any outdoor game, generally gives 
good luck. 

Gamblers carry a battered coin 
wrapped up in a torn banknote, for 
luck. 

It is good luck, while playing 
cards, to pull down your vest 

To drop a card on the floor when 
playing, is a bad omen. 

To sing while playing cards, is a 
sign that your side will lose. 

A card between two of equal 
value, denotes the holder will be 
jailed. 

To put a needle in a man's coat 
without his knowledge, will bring 
him good luck at cards. 

Three aces denote change of 
places; three nines, change of times; 
three jacks, old friends back; three 
kings, money brings. 

A piece of crimson ribbon tied 
around the thtmib, is believed by 
players at Monte Carlo to make 
them win. 

If a card player tips a card table 
over, he will have no luck. 

To stroke a black cat's tail seven 
times, will bring good luck at cards. 

It is believed that a fetish made 
of the skin of a black snake and 
worn around the wrist, will bring 
good luck and fortune to gamblers 
and sporting characters. 

It is considered unlucky to gam- 
ble in a room where there is a wom- 
an, unless she is gambling too. 

Never lend a man money to play 
against yourself, for you will surely 
lose. 



Don't play at a table with a cross- 
eyed man, whether he is your part- 
ner or opponent ; you will lose. 

In playing a game of cards, it is 
generally lucky to hold a black 
deuce. 

In playing cards, one is apt to 
have bad luck under one's own 
roof. 

A gambler who carries a lizard 
with two tails, can never lose, and 
can gain ever3rthing he plays for. 

Gamblers think it brings luck to 
have a friend touch their hand when 
playing. 

Some gamblers think it is un- 
lucky to have any person standing 
near during play, while others think 
if a person looks on who never 
plays cards, he will bring good luck. 

Among card players, and espe- 
cially gamblers, it is considered bad 
luck to have any person put a hand 
or foot on the chair on which they 
are sitting. 

If the first card you take up b 
trumps, it is bad luck. 

If the third card you take op b 
trumps, it is good luck. 

To stand behind a player and 
sneeze, is a sure sign of ill luck to 
the player. 

Many gamblers wear a fine cat- 
skin upon their breasts, hung from 
their necks, which they consider 
gives them good luck. 

There is an Irish belief that if a 
gambler hides beneath the tendrils 
of a briar, and invokes the aid of 
the prince of darkness, he will suc- 
ceed at cards, no matter how he 
plays. 

If you are a card player and hap- 
pen to have no table in your room, 
never play on the bed ; it is attended 
by misfortunes innumerable. 

A "mascot" is carried for luck» 
by some baseball teams and other 
athletic associations. 



t 

J 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M73 



Some gamblers carry a human 
knee-bone for luck, and some a toe- 
bone. 

He who has the stone out of a 
bat's back, will have luck at cards. 

He who has an owl's heart about 
him, will have luck at cards. 

Never lay your cigar on cards or 
checks, or you will have bad luck. 

To win at cards, place a small 
red feather in the inside of your hat. 

It is unlucky for a dog to get un- 
der the table when you are playing 
cards. 

Gamblers and speculators wear 
cat-skin for luck. 

If a gambler sees a cat, he gener- 
ally stops playing for a while, to 
change his luck. 

He that has a mole*s foot in his 
bag, is said to be lucky at cards. 

A rabbit's foot is lucky to a gaiti- 
bler. 

If, in playing cards, you are un- 
decided what to do, and have two 
cards of equal value but of different 
suit, it is lucky to take the first 
card, not to reach over. 

If, in playing cards, you are un- 
decided what to play, lay down 
your cards, give them a shove, and 
play the one that goes furthest. 

To find the ace of spades of a 
deck of cards lying on the ground 
by itself, is accounted ill luck, espe- 
cially if the spade points toward 
you. It is an omen of deceit and 
treachery. If the card is face down, 
it is an omen of hidden treacherv. 

A singular trial of the *'hoo<loo- 
ing" power of a cross-eyed person 
was recently made in New York. 
A cross-eyed tramp asked a gentle- 
man for enough money to buy a 
drink. He refused, but said: **1 
will tell you how to get ten dollars 
in ten minutes, if you care to know." 
"I do," sakl the tramp. "Very 
well; go over by that door and 



stand close beside it, and do not 
move for any cause except if a man 
will give you ten dollars to do so." 
The tramp went at once, and very 
soon a man was seen to approach 
the door, but as soon as he saw the 
cross-eyed man, he dodged away in 
a hurry. Pretty soon another man 
went up to the door, but he, too, 
left as if shot. Two or three times 
this was repeated, when at last 
somebody inside noticed it, and 
came to the door to look for the 
cause of these sudden retreats. As 
soon as he saw the tramp he order- 
ed him away, but he remained im- 
perturbable, and said he would go 
when he was paid ten dollars. Tlie 
proprietor stormed, but it did no 
good, and as two other men had 
come and gone away in haste, the 
owner of the place gave the tramp 
his ten dollars and bid him begone. 
As he sauntered away, a friend of 
the gentleman who had arranged 
the affair asked in amazement what*^ 
it could mean. "It is a gfambling 
place," he replied, "and a gambler 
will not stake a cent if he sees a 
cross-eyed man on his way to play. 

I knew what I was about, and you 
see how it worked." 

CHESS — Playing chess unex- 
pectedly, or under unusual condi- 
tions, foretells embarrassed affairs. 

If you play chess on your birth- 
day, it is a sign of loss of friends. 

If you win in playing chess with 
your rival, it forebodes success in a 
difficult undertaking. 

COUNTERS — In gambling, to 
kiss a counter will sometimes bring 
good luck. 

It is unlucky to pick out counters 
for other persons. 

CRAPS — In playing craps, snap 
your fingers twice, and either 7 or 

II will turn up. Snap three times 
for big Joe. 



1474 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



CRICKET— One of the latest 
developments of the use of charms 
in British Guiana is an oil, which is 
rubbed on the bats of cricket play- 
ers to ensure victory in a match. 

CROQUET— In playing cro- 
quet, never "hit the white horse," 
if you do not want your opponent 
to hit your ball. 

DICE — Blowing into a dice-box 
brings good luck« 

The natives of India are fond of 
playing dice; they have a goddess 
named Apsaras, who gives them 
fortune and good luck. 

Carry a dice in your pocketbook, 
and you will always have money. 
(New England.) 

In playing dice, rub the dice on 
a red-head^ person, to bring you 
good luck. 

The origin of the Chinese custom 
of painting the "fours" on their 
dice red, is accounted for, accord- 
ing to the Wa Kan san sai dzu e, 
by the following story: An em- 
peror of the Ming dynasty (A. D. 
1368-1643) played at sugoroku 
with his queen. He was almost de- 
feated by her, but had one way of 
winning through the dice turning 
"fours," He cried and threw the 
dice and they came as he desired, 
whereupon he was exceedingly 
glad, and ordered that the "fours" 
thereafter be painted red, in remem- 
brance of his winning, red being 
the lucky color in China. 

Lucky and unlucky omens of 
finding dice lying upon the ground: 

If you find a dice with one spot 
up, you will shortly receive a letter 
or document of great importance. 

Two spots up: You will take a 
long journey that will be of much 
benefit 

Three spots up : A great surprise 
is in store for you; also you will 
soon sleep in a strange bed. 



Four spots up: Is a rather bad 
omen. The finder will soon meet 
with ingratitude from a source he 
least expects. 

Five spots up: Changeableness 
in domestic and family affairs, and 
inconstancy in love. 

Six spots up: A very good omen. 
You will shortly receive money 
that was unexpected, and peace and 
prosperity is in store for you. 

DOMINOES— If you arc un- 
lucky at dominoes, take the double- 
six, mention the name of a promi- 
nent person, make a wish, and your 
luck will change. 

FARO — In faro, if backing the 
jack and it comes out the first thing, 
you had better stop at once, or you 
will lose all you have. 

GAMBLING — It is considered 
bad luck to talk to a friend when 
he is gambling. 

Good luck in gambling, bad luck 
in the household. (French and 
German.) 

A tourist fell asleep at Ventimig- 
lia station, dreamed of 13, hurriai 
back to Monte Carlo, and backed 
13 for the maximum. It came up 
three times running, and he was 
"on" every time. 

The Navajo Indians believe that 
if the sun shines on any player 
while playing their favorite gam- 
bling game, the one on whom the 
rays fall will be stricken blind. 

All gamblers believe in "the fatal 
hand." This hand consists of 
knaves full on red sevens (in 
poker), and is regarded as a warn- 
ing of speedy death. 

It is said, to give your money to 
a man who has never played csu-ds, 
and let him place it for you, will 
bring good luck. 

A gambler does not dare to curse 
the cards, or abuse them, or bum 
them, or in any wise ill treat them. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1475 



Some gamblers will never play 
without sitting on the joker. 

In Monte Carlo, a favorite super- 
stition says that if you are lucky 
enough to break the bank, cease 
playing at once, for such good luck 
as that will surely be followed by an 
influx of bad luck of some kind. 

GAMES IN GENERAL— You 
are sure to win, if you will keep si- 
lent while playing a game. 

HYENA — In some parts of Af- 
rica, the howling of a hyena during 
a game of chance, is unlucky. If 
counters are used, thev must be 
washed three times or thrown away. 

LOTTERY— If you win any 
kind of a prize, an excellent offer 
will be made you. 

Odd numbers in a lottery are 
lucky. 

If you give a present before in- 
vesting in a lottery, you will win. 

The middle and poorest classes 
in Malaga believe that it will be 
lucky to place a lottery ticket under 
the pedestal of their patron saint. 

If you start out to buy a lottery 
ticket, have some one throw an old 
shoe after you, and you can secure 
a priz^. 

LUCK CHARMS— If you wear 
a penny which has been given to 
you, in your stocking, you will win 
at cards. 

Money carried for three days in 
a man's shoe or a woman's stock- 
ing, can be invested in any gam- 
bling game with absolute surety of 
its winning powers. 

LUCK-CHANGING— If steam- 
lioat negroes, playing cards, have 
bad luck, they will get up and turn 
around three times and sit down on 
a quarter. 

If gamblers were unsuccessful, 
they would retire and tie a knot in 



the tail of their shirt, when their 
good luck would at once return. 

If you are losing in cards, think 
of the gallows in all its particulars, 
and your luck will change. 

If you are having a streak of bad 
luck, take a small woolen rag, spit 
on it and bum it, and it will change 
your luck. 

If losing at cards, it is said to 
change the luck if you throw a pen- 
ny or some other small object of 
trilling value, over the left shoulder. 

If luck in cards is against you, 
take the first queen you draw and 
wish three times, and the last time 
name some favorable female. Your 
luck will change. 

If you push a card out of the mid- 
dle of the pack, it will change the 
luck. 

Men turn the front of the hat to- 
ward the back, to get a change of 
luck in playing cards. 

If you ^re having bad luck at 
cards, buy a new pack, pay for it 
yourself, and you will have good 
iuck. 

If a gambler is having bad luck, 
the luck will change if he will 
change his talisman ^om one pock- 
et to the other. If the bad luck 
should still continue, he must pile it 
up with his poker chips. 

MARBLES — It is always good 
luck to use a cinder or glassy for a 
shooter, when playing a game of 
marbles. 

In playing marbles, two persons 
playing together must not shoot 
from opposite sides of the ring, as 
it is unlucky. 

In marble games, it is ill luck to 
pass in front of the players. If the 
marble splits when you shoot it, 
stop playing at once. It is an ill 
omen. 



1476 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



PARCHESI— In parchesi, turn 
the dice-box three times around. 
It will prevent a third double 
throw, 

PLAYING CARDS — Playing 
cards unexpectedly, or under un- 
usual conditions, foretells a pleasant 
and profitable discovery. 

It is unlucky to sit opposite the 
"jimmers" (hinges) of a table, when 
playing cards. 

It is unlucky to play cards in bed. 

If you have a pack of cards stolen 
from you, you will have bad luck 
for some time. 

To slap cards down in a game 
with a "don't-care" manner, will 
give you bad luck. 

It is unlucky to cut an honor for 
a trump card. 

To give away a pack of worn-out 
cards, will bring you bad luck. 

To give away a pack of bran-new 
cards, will bring you good luck. 

Cards will not lie. What falls to 
the floor will come to the door. 

The nine of diamonds is called 
the "curse of Scotland," because 
their last queen taxed heavily all 
persons to pay for nine jewels; and 
every ninth king was wicked. 

Card players believe that if you 
bum a pack of cards, they will 
never give you any more luck, and 
will mock you to the last; you will 
have as many unlucky days as there 
are even spots on the cards. 

To place a pack of cards on the 
bed, is said to bring a curse on the 
house, or to foretell a death. 

When you have a pack of cards 
that have seen its best days, do not 
give them away, but bum them 
with salt and pepper. 

It is said to be very lucky to find 
a playing card of either hearts or 
diamonds. 



Lucky and unlucky omens of 
finding cards lying upon the 
ground: 

Ace of Hearts — Face up, good 
news; down, pleasure mixed with 
trouble. 

King of Hearts — Face up, a per- 
son in higher position than yourself 
is trying to assist you; face down, 
his endeavors will prove futile. 

Queen of Hearts — Face up, a 
woman of good reputation and 
honor desires to assist you; face 
down, if you are unmarried, you 
will meet with an unexpected ob- 
stacle in the way of marriage; &un- 
ily dissensions if married. 

Jack of Hearts — Face up, a man 
of light complexion seeks to favor 
you; face down, approaching mis- 
fortune and discontent 

Ten of Hearts — Face up, gain, 
success and happiness; fatce down, 
joy of short duration. 

Nine of Hearts — Face up, good 
omen, joy, good management, and 
harmony; face down, sorrows and 
quarrels of short duration. 

Eight of Hearts — Face up, lucky 
omen; if married, your childnm will 
be honest, virtuous, and beloved by 
all; if unmarried, you will be suc- 
cessful in your undertakings. Face 
down, there is trouble in store for 
you; if you marry, your partner 
will be fickle and cause you much 
sorrow. 

Seven of Hearts — Face up, your 
life will be one of quietness, and 
pure love will exist between your 
partner and yourself; face down, an 
isolated life, with much sadness. 

Ace of Clubs — Face up, you will 
shortly hear news of an inheritance, 
and you will accumulate worldly 
goods rapidly; face down, joy, mix- 
ed with tears. 

King of Clubs — Face up, a man 
who is just and upright will seek 
to protect you from slander; face 
down, you will encounter great dif- 
ficulties. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1477 



Queen of Qubs — Face up, an in- 
telligent and distinguished lady will 
take a great interest in your welfare ; 
face down, hatred, jealousy, and 
cruelty from some of your friends. 

Jack of Clubs — Face up, if un- 
married, make your preparations to 
get married, for you will soon have 
a proposal ; face down, you will ex- 
pect to be married, but not to the 
one you expect 

Ten of Clubs — Face up, success 
in all your tmdertakings; face down, 
your success will only be partly 
complete. 

Nine of Clubs — Face up, you will 
have doings with the law that will 
prove eminently successful; face 
down, beware of those who would 
draw you into lawsuits, for you will 
not win. 

Eight of Clubs — Face up, a beau- 
tiful woman or a handsome man ad- 
mires your qualities; face down, 
some of your intimate friends will 
bear watching. 

Seven of Clubs — Face up, your 
life will be one of economy and hon- 
est gain; face down, a slight delay 
in your business transactions in the 
near future. 

Ace of Diamonds — Face up, a 
package or a present of good value ; 
face down, disappointment in the 
delay of an expected article. 

King of Diamonds — Face up, 
you will shortly meet a quarrelsome 
man, whom you should avoid, as he 
18 liable to do you some injury; face 
down, an approaching danger which 
will be difficult for you to escape. 

Queen of Diamonds — Face up, 
a light-haired woman with a wicked 
disposition will scandalize you: face 
down, all the falsehoods and slan- 
ders she can utter will not harm 
you. 

Jack of Diamonds — Face up, one 
of your trusted friends is a faithless 
traitor to you ; face down, bad news 
fax>m or by a deceitful man, that you 



will not believe at first, but which 
will nevertheless be true. 

Ten of Diamonds — Face up, a 
profitless journey ; face down, a dis- 
agreeable omen. 

Nine of Diamonds — Face up or 
down, a bad card. Much opposition 
in the near future, and if engaged, 
your match will be broken off. It 
portends misunderstandings and 
quarrels. If you see it, don't touch 
it. 

Eight of Diamonds — Another 
bad card, full of anxiety and morti- 
fication, whether face up or down. 

Seven of Diamonds — Face up or 
down, slight sorrows and small vex- 
ations. 

Ace of Spades — Face up, death; 
face down, death of someone not 
very dear to you. 

King of Spades — Face up, a 
hypocrite, a man of religious pre- 
tensions, or a sanctimonious lawyer, 
is tr>'ing to do you an ill turn; face 
down, those that seek to do you ill 
will not succeed. 

Queen of Spades — Face up, some 
woman will put obstacles in the way 
of your wishes being fulfilled; face 
down, she will be foiled in her at- 
tempts. 

Jack of Spades — A worthless and 
ill-bred man with a dissolute dispo- 
sition will meet you ; he may be fas- 
cinating, but is likely to prove dan- 
gerous. Face down, one or more 
persons of the male sex will under- 
mine you if they can. 

Ten of Spades — Face up. nothing 
more than small difficulties will 
trouble vou; face down, vou will 
soon overcome an enemy. 

Nine of Spades — To find this 
card in any position on the earth, 
foretells misfortune and trouble. 

Eight of Spades — Face up. dan- 
ger of death to the finder, to a rela- 
tive, or to a dear friend; face down, 
you will feel much hurt and be ag- 
grieved. 

Seven of Spades — Face up, por- 



I47S 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



tends quarrels with your wife or 
husband; if unmarried, anger and 
unpleasantness between you and a 
lover. Face down, sadness, follow- 
ed by great joy. 

The small cards do not signify 
anything. 

POKER— If you hold three of a 
kind three times in succession, you 
are bound to be "broken." 

To kiss a chip before putting it in 
the pot, will cause it to come back 
and bring the rest of the pot with it 

In playing poker, it is good luck 
to draw to a red or a black eight 
spot, as you will always better them. 

If you are playing poker and are 
losing, exchange a large chip for 
some small ones from a lucky play- 
er, and your luck will soon change. 

Jacks and sevens are called the 
"dead man's hand." In a poker 
game, it is very unlucky to hold 
them and win the pot. 

When playing poker, keep a cop- 
per penny lying on the table, and 
they can never "break" you. 

To hold a diamond flush and 
have it beaten, stop playing, for you 
cannot possibly win. If you "stick" 
after that, you will have to borrow 
money to buy your breakfast. 

It is unlucky to win the first game 
at poker. 

Among those who play poker, it 
is considered that when you hold 
a very good hand and all pass out, 
you should play on, or you will be 
very unlucky ever after in cards. 

When playing poker, if you hold 
two red jacks, a red queen, and the 
ace and deuce of diamonds, it is a 
sign that you will not live to play 
the game out! 

When playing poker, should you 
hold a jack full on red sevens, it 
means death, and is called "a dead 
man's hand." 

In playing a little game of draw, 



you can get luck by dealing from 
right to left, instead of from left to 
right The people will not object 
as they will call it a piece of super- 
stition; but you will win, all the 
same. 

An old poker superstition is to 
the effect that the same man will 
beat the same man and lose to the 
same man during the game. 

PUZZLE — If you work a puzzle, 
you will receive an important letter. 

QUOITS — ^To pitch quoits, is an 
unlucky game; it will alwa3rs call 
vexations of some sort, dday in 
business, etc. 

SEVEN-UP— It is bad luck to 
give away a turned knave in playing 
"seven-up." 

SHUFFLING, CUTTING 
AND DEALING— To have the 
deuce of trumps cut, is good hick 
for the dealer. 

It is bad luck to look at CKie's 
cards until they all have been dealt 

To blow through a pack of cards 
when shuffling, mil bring you good 
luck. 

You will never have luck at a 
game of cards, if the first hand dealt 
you contains the four of clubs. 

To cut the cards to the left, is a 
sign of heavy loss to the dealer. 

Faced cards in the deck are un- 
lucky for the dealer. 

In playing cards, do not take 
them up when they are dealt to you, 
until everyone else around the table 
has taken up his, and you will be 
lucky. 

An even cut is unlucky for the 
dealer. 

A "slobbery" cut is good for the 
dealer. 

WHIST — ^To cut an honor for 
trump: "When quality opens the 
door, then poverty follows behind.'* 



J 



Times and Seasons. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



ADVENT— At Old Shop, near 
New Harbor, Newfoundland, exists 
the old belief that "The cock does 
not crow during Advent." 

Advent, signifying the coming of 
Jesus Christ as Saviour, is the first 
season of the ecclesiastical year, in- 
cluding the four Sundays immedi- 
ately preceding Christmas. 

The Advent season has been 
much written about. In Normandy, 
it was formerly the custom for the 
farmers to fix upon some day in 
Advent for the purpose of exorcis- 
ing such animals as prove injurious 
to the crops. Armed with a lighted 
flambeau the children used to run 
over the fields, flourishing their 
torches in the branches of the trees, 
burning the straw placed under- 
neath, and crying out: 

''Mice, caterpillars and moles, 

Get out, get out of my field; 

I will burn you beard and bones. 

Trees and shrubs, 

Give me bushels of apples.'* 

(ST.) AGNES' DAY — (Jan. 
Jlst.)— John Keats relates to St. 
Agnes* eve charms in the following 



''They told her how upon St Agnes' 

eve. 
Young virgins might have visions of 

deUght 
As supperless to bed they must retire 
Nor look behind nor sideways." 

St Agnes' day is a festival of the 
church of Rome, in honor of St. 
Agnes, who was a ve^ young and 
spotless maid, who suffered martyr- 
dom under Diocletian, in the year 
306. Legends tell us that a few days 
after her death her parents, going 



to make offerings of affection at her 
tomb, beheld a vision of angels, 
amidst which stood their daughter, 
with a snow-white lamb by her side, 
hence the custom of bringing snow- 
white lambs covered with fleece, 
and laying them upon the altar on 
St. Agnes' day at Rome. The 
fleeces of these lambs are often 
shorn, and afterwards converted in- 
to palls, which are highly believed 
as amulets. The legend of St. Ag- 
nes', whose lamb is probably 
founded on the resemblance of the 
name Agnes to Agnus, which is the 
Latin word for lamb. Throughout 
the Christian world, and in England 
as much as elsewhere, it was cus- 
tomary for girls, on St. Agnes' eve, 
to endeavor to divine who shall be 
their husbands. This was called 
"Fasting St. Agnes' Fast." The 
proper rite was to take a row of 
pins, and pull one out after another, 
saying a pater noster, and sticking 
one pin in the sleeve. Then, going 
to rest, without food, their dreams 
were expected to present the image 
of their future husbands. Keats, as 
author of 'The Eve of St. Agnes," 
the custom is thus alluded to: 

"They told her how upon St Agnes' 
eve. 

Young virgins might have visions of 
delight, 

And soft adornings from their loves 
receive. 

Upon the honied middle of the night. 

If ceremonies due they did aright; 

As, supperless to bed they must retire 

And couch supine their beauties, lily- 
¥rhite. 

Nor look behind, nor sideways, but re- 
quire 

Of heaven with upward eyes for all that 
they desire. 



1480 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



ALL FOOLS' DAY — (April 
1st.)— In the Tyrol, a bundle of 
straw is buried on the first of April, 
to insure good crops the coming 
season. 

For a Persian not to extinguish 
the domestic fire on April 1st, and 
rekindle it from the temple fire, was 
to court ill luck for the year. 

All Fools' day is the first of April 
Those who fall an easy victim to 
tricks played them on that day by 
others^ are called April fools; in 
Scotland, they are called gowks 
(cuckoo), from the saying, ''hunting 
the gowk"; in France, "Poisson 
d'Avril," meaning the April fish 
mackerel, from which we have 
adopted the saying: "You silly 
mackerel" Our terms "gudgeon 
and "sucker," are analogous, refer- 
ring to the young fish early in the 
fishing season, which is easily 
caught Some explain the origin 
of this day's customs by the uncer- 
tainty of the weather; others, by the 
mockery trial of our Redeemer, 
who was sent hither and thither, or 
as they say in Germany, "from Pon- 
tius to Pilate." The latter especial- 
ly is, however, improbable, as simi- 
lar tricks are played in Hindustan 
at the Huli festival on the 31st of 
March. Roman mythology tells the 
following fable in connection with 
the "Cerealia," a festival held at the 
beginning of April, as an allegory 
of seed-time. Proserpina was play- 
ing in the Elysian fields when Pluto 
suddenly seized her and carried her 
with him to the lower regions, 
where he made her his wife. Her 
mother Ceres heard the echo of her 
screams and went in search of the 
voice; but it was mockery, and all 
searching in vain. At last, Ceres 
learned what had become of her 
daughter, and by persistent entrea- 
ties to the father of the gods, ob- 
tained the permission for Proserpina 
to spend one-half of the year with 
her mother in the light of the upper 



world. That time is the spring and 
summer season, while in bll the 
daughter of the goddess of fertility 
has to retire to the dark regions, 
thus symbolizing the process oi 
vegetation. 

A current belief connects April- 
Fools' Day with the "mistake" that 
Noah made in sending out his first 
dove, before the waters had abated. 
This occurred, according to He- 
brew legend, on the first day of the 
ok! Hebrew month that corresponds 
to our April. In memory therecrf, 
forgetful or careless people were 
sent upon some sleeveless errand, 
similar to that ineffectual message 
upon which the dove was sent by 
Noah. 

A plausible conjecture ascribes 
the origin of the custom to France. 
The French had been the first to 
commence the New Year on Janu- 
ary 1st, instead of March 25th. Be- 
fore that change was made, the 
merrymaking culminated on the oc- 
tave of the feast, April 1st, when 
visits were paid and gifts bestowed. 
When the change was made, in 
1564, many people who had forgot- 
ten or overlooked it, were made 
fools of by paying them mock cere- 
monial visits and presenting them 
with pretended gifts. This custom 
was kept up in ^fter years, and help- 
ed to continue by a trait of human 
nature, which is to be foimd in all 
peoples and in all ages, that of hu- 
mor and mockery. 

ALL-HALLOWS DAY — It 
was supposed that on All-Hallows' 
eve, a disembodied spirit was seated 
on every stile and every crossroad. 
(Wales.) 

It is evil to eat blackberries after 
Hallowe'en night, for on that night 
the spirit, called ptica, comes oat 
and defiles them. 

In Scotland, the red end of a fiery 
stick is waved around in mystic fig- 



i 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1481 



tires on Hallowe'en, to secure good 
luck. 

In the Western Isles^ it is consid- 
ered bad luck to go out of doors on 
Hallowe'en. 

On All-Hallow eve, the fisher- 
men of the Orkney Islands sprin- 
kled what was called '*forespoken 
water" over their boats when they 
had not been successful. They also 
made a cross on their boats with tar, 
for luck. 

All Saints' Day was observed by 
the Norman fishermen with great 
solemnity, even to a late period. 
Seamen who ventured out to sea on 
this day were said to have the ''dou- 
ble sight," that is, each one beheld 
a living likeness of himself seated in 
close contact, and if he was engaged 
in any work, the phantom was do- 
ing the same. 

Two hazel-nuts I threw into the flame. 
And to each not I gave a sweetheart's 

name; 
This with the loudest bounce me sore 

amazed. 
That in a flame of brightest color 

blazed; 
As blazed the nut, so may thy passion 

grow. 
For 'twas thy nut that did so brightly 

glow. 

The Spell, by Gay. 

Jean slips in twa wi' tentie ee, 

Wha 'twas she wadna tell 
But this is Jock and this is me. 

She says into hersel'; 
He bleezed owre her, and she owre him. 

As they wad ne'er mair part, 
Till fuff! he started up the lum, 

And Jean had e*en a sair heart 

To see't that night 
— Halloween, by Bums. 

On Hallowe'en, take a pure white 
bowl that no lips have touched save 
those of a newborn infant. Fill the 
bowl with water, and drop in the 
letters of the alphabet. At midnight, 
repeat: 

"Kind fortune tell me where he is, 
Who my future lord shall be; 
From this bowl all that I claim 
Is to know my lover's name.^ 

Lock the bowl away carefully. In 



the morning, blindfolded, pick out 
as many letters as there are in your 
own name, and if you can make a 
name out of the letters, that will be 
the name of your future husband. 
(Trinity and Catalina Bays, New- 
foimdland.) 

These glowing nuts are emblems true 
Of what in human life we view; 
The ill-matched couple fret and fume. 
And thus in strife themselves consume; 
Or from each other wildly start. 
And with a noise forever part. 
But see the happy, happy pair. 
Of genuine love and truth sincere; 
With mutual fondness, while they bum. 
Still to each other kindly turn; 
And as the vital sparks decay. 
Together gently sink away: 
Till life's fierce ordeal being past. 
Their mingled ashes rest at last. 
Nuts- Burning, All Hallo weve, 

by Charles Graydon. 

Nutcrack night, as Hallowe'en 
was often called, was the most pop- 
ular in all the year among the youth 
of the "North Countrie" of Britain. 
Nuts were distributed with lavish 
hand, and cracked and eaten in 
abundance, besides being made to 
decide the fate of many a lad and 
lassie. In the words of Bums: 

'The auld guidewife's weel-hoordit nits 

Are round and round divided. 
And mony lads' and lassies' fates 

Are there that night decided: 
Some kindle, couthie, side by side. 

And bum thegither trimly; 
Some start awa' wi' saucy pride. 

And jump out-owre the cnimly 
Fu' high that night." 

The nuts were placed in the hot 
ashes or along the bar of a grate, 
and when they burned peacefully 
side by side, the happy fate of the 
couple was assured; should one or 
both of them crack and jump away 
the thoughts of a successful court- 
ship might as well be abandoned. 

Not satisfied with nut-cracking, 
the pulling of the kail was also a 
part of the evening's sport. With 
closed eyes, the young people made 
a raid on the goodman*s kail stalks, 
that perhaps had been allowed to 
stand for this very purpose. Upon 



I48a 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



the nature of the stalk pulled de- 
pended the appearance and disposi- 
tion of the mate for life. Should a 
stalk be well formed and straight, 
the finder was considered fortunate, 
especially if a quantity of earth 
clung to the roots, which indicated 
that a goodly amount of earthly 
goods was to accompany the union. 
If, however, the stalk was crooked 
and runty, the finder was mortified 
at the thought of being mated for 
life with a ''crooked stick" ; and was 
doubly mortified should the pith of 
the kail taste bitter instead of sweet, 
as that was a sure indication of a 
disagreeable disposition. 

Other spells more weird by far 
were tried that night Why should 
they not be, when that was the night 
of all the year that spirits walked 
abroad and fairies were most bold? 
Not only did disembodied spirits 
make free with the rights of earth, 
but well-regulated spirits still occu- 
pying human tenements of clay, 
manifested a disposition to leave 
their habitation for the space of time 
it would take to appear to their fu- 
ture mate, whose Hallowe'en spells 
called them forth. 

Dire were the consequences at- 
tending some of these spells. The 
imagination or a practical joke 
sometimes caused the ''speirer" of 
fortune a shock that was lifelong in 
its effect Among these spells was 
that of eating an apple at midnight 
before a looking-glass, which was 
practiced by some maidens with the 
expectation of seeing the appear- 
ance of the future husband looking 
over their shoulder in the glass. 
Bums writes: 

**Wec Jenny to her g^ranny says, 
'Will ye go wi* m*, granny? 

I'll eat the apple at the glass 
I gat frae Uncle Johnny.* " 

Her granny indignantly puffs her 
pipe and responds: 

"Ye little skelpie-limner's face! 

I daur ye try sic sportin'. 
As seek the foul thief ony place. 

For him to spae your fortune: 



Nae doubt but ye may get a sightl 
Great cause ye have to fear it; 

For mony a ane has gotten a fright 
And lived and died deleerit 
On sic a night" 

'TMo doubt "wee Jenny" was 
frightened from seeking to cast her 
fortune for that night, but by the 
space of another year she woi^ be 
more bold and anxious. 

Presumably it was the same 
"Uncle Johnny" — a bachelor of 
long standing---that presented the 
looking-glass to Jenny, who tried 
that night in vain to duinge his fate 
by endeavoring with closed eyes to 
stick his finger in the dish contain- 
ing clear water, or even in the dish 
of colored water, but who for the 
third time picked the empty dish, 
thus indicating that neither maid 
nor widow was to fall to his lot The 
result is comically set forth by 
Bums: 

"In order, on the clean hearth-stane. 

The luggies three were ranged. 
And every time great care was ta'en 

To see them duly changed: 
Auld Uncle John, who wedlock's joys 

Sin Mar's year did desire. 
Because he gat the toom dish thrice. 

He heaved them on the fire 
In wrath that mgbxj* 

Yotmger men, more boki than 
Uncle Johnny, tried charms that 
took more courage Sowing hemp- 
seed and harrowing it in with what- 
ever utensil came handiest, was 
done alone by the brave. While 
harrowing it in^ he repeated the 
words: 

"Hemp-seed, I saw thee, hemp-seed, 
I saw thee. 
And her that is to be my true love 
Come after me and draw thee." 

On looking over his left shoul- 
der, he saw the appearance of the 
one he was to marry in the attitude 
of pulling hemp. 

Bums says "Fighting Jamie 
Fleck" swore by his conscience — 

"That he could see the hemp-seed by 
the peck;" 

ccordingly — 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



IhS3 



<« 



The aald guideman raught down a 

poke. 
And out a handfo' gied him." 

This **haiidfu'" Fighting Jamie 
took, and stole away unseen to the 
bam, where he procured a fork with 
which to harrow it in. He bravely 
commenced to sow the hemp-seed 
and harrow it in, repeating the usual 
words, and — 

"Although his hair began to arch," 
he kept on and — 
**Whistied up Lord Lenox' march 
To keep his courage cheerie." 

Almost before the charm had 
time to work, he hears a **squeak" 
and *'gnintle" that causes him to 
peep over his shoulder, the effect 
being that — 

"H« roared a horrid murder-shout 

In dreadfu' desperation I 
And young and auld cam rinnin' out 

And hear the sad narration: 
He swore 'twas haltin' Jean M'Craw, 

Or crook-backed Merran Humphie, 
Till, stop— she trotted through them 
a'— 

And wha was it but Grumphie 
Asteer that neght!" 

Fighting Jamie was fain to hide 
his head at home after the sad joke 
played on him by the innocent pig. 

Few carried to a successful issue 
their Hallowe'en spells. The maid- 
en who was brave enough to steal 
out to the kiln and throw in a skein 
of yam, a loose thread of which she 
retained in her hand and wound 
over an old skein, was sure to drop 
the yam and fly with all speed to 
the house if, when she neared the 
end of the skein, it was caught and 
held, as she hoped and expected it 
would be. She should have held to 
the vam and asked, "Who holds?" 
when an answer would have come 
from the depths of the kiln giving 
the full name of her future husband. 

The observance of All-Hallow- 
e'en is dying out in Great Britain. 
It never was observed properly in 
the United States. As belief in su- 
perstitions died out, the spells that 
had been practiced gave place to 



practical jokes, and Hallowe'en 
came to mean merely a license to 
destroy property and annoy peace- 
able citizens. 

In some places, dipping for ap- 
ples, burning nuts, and pulling cab- 
bage stalks are still observed, but 
the Nutcrack Night of Bums's time 
has disappeared forever. (Self Cul- 
ture Magazine, Nov., 1899.) 

Have you ever heard the legend of the 

gates of Hallowe'en, 
Why on lawns and trees and roadways 

on that night they're always seen? 
Many years ago it happened, when the 

witches still held sway 
And on Hallowe'en kept revel from the 

dusk to break of day. 
On a lonely hill they gathered, far away 

from farm or town. 
Where they hurried on their broom- 
sticks, hundreds of them sweep- 
ing down. 
Till the hill was dark with fig^ures, and 

the woods for miles around 
Shook with terror as they echoed every 

wild, unearthly sound. 
But one year a hardy farmer, moving 

far and farther out. 
Found that hill, and by the autumn had 

it tightly fenced about 
With a fence of toughened cedar, and 

that he need never wait 
To take down the bars, he also made 

a high and heavy gate. 
It was tall and fine and handsome, 

strong with iron bars and locks. 
Ready to withstand all dangers, from a 

spell to earthquake shocks. 
Not a witch had thought ol danger, and 

on Hallowe'en they came. 
Ready with new pranks and eager for 

each wild and magic game. 
From their broomsticks they dis- 
mounted at the bottom of the hill 
And in laughing groups moved upward, 

unaware of danger still. 
But the foremost quickly halted, gave a 

shriek of wild dismay, 
For a gate, all barred and heavy, stood 

there right across their way. 
"Open for us." loud they shouted, but 

the gate was true and tried. 
Nor for witches nor for broomsticks 

would it fling its portals wide. 
Long they beat at it and shouted, but 

the gate held firm and fast. 
And 'twas only spells and magic served 

to get them up at last. 
For though many tried to climb it. all 

their broomsticks stubborn grew. 



I4&4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



And the fence, so bold and haughty, 

quite refused to let them through. 
Then they met in angry council, and 

they placed on every gate 
Such a curse that since that autumn 

year by year they rue their fate 
Not a one can rest untroubled in its 

place on Witches' Night, 
Every one must leave its hinges, though 

its locks be firm and tight 
That's the story. And the moral? Oh, 

if any's to be seen, 
Go and ask your gate about it, on the 

night of Hallowe'en. 
(Mary A. Dickerson, in the Geveland 
Plaindealer, Oct 28, 1899.) 

If you eat a large apple under an 
apple tree at midnight on Hallow- 
e'en, wearing only a bed-sheet, you 
will never take cold. 

It is a sign that to whatever quar- 
ter a bull faces as he lies on Hallow- 
e'en, thence the wind will blow the 
greater part of the winter. 

Take a wash-basin of water and 
put a dark cloth over it on Hallow- 
e'en ; turn off the gas and go to bed. 
Take the cloth off the basin quick- 
ly, and you will see the face of yotir 
future husband. 

On Hallowe'en, run up and down 
the lane three times with a hand 
mirror, and you will see your love 
therein. 

Children born on St. John's night, 
Hallowe'en, have power to see spir- 
its and converse with fairies. 

If you weave your hair in a weav- 
er's braid of many strands, on the 
eve of Hallowe'en, you will that 
evening meet your future husband. 

Wind a ball of yam, throw it out 
of the window on Hallowe'en, and 
say: "I draw, who pulls?" and the 
man you will marry will come and 
pull it away from you. 

In the Western Isles, in Hallow- 
e'en time, a distaff is put under the 
head of a young man to make him 
ciream of the one he will marry. 

In Wales, a great fire is built on 
Hallowe'en, and each member of 
the family throws a white stone 



which has been marked, into it In 
the morning a search is made for 
them, and ifone is missing, the one 
who threw it will never see another 
Hallowe'en. 

On Hallowe'en, name two nuts 
for sweetheart and swain, and bum 
them; if they bum quietly, the two 
will marry; but if either or both 
jump, the couple will quarreL 

On Hallowe'en, three sauoers are 
placed on a table. One is filled with 
sand, one with water, and one is left 
empty. A young man or woman 
is blindfolded and led to the table. 
If the hand is placed in the empty 
saucer, it is a sign that the person 
will never marry; if placed in the 
water, the futtu^ partner will be 
young; if in the sand, a widow or 
widower. 



"Turn your shoes toward the street. 
Tie your garters on your feet 
Place your stockings under the bed. 
And you will dream of the one yoa will 
w«d." 

The future can be told on Hal- 
lowe'en by the following: Go into 
the garden and pull up a cabbage 
by the roots. If it is a close whhe 
cabbage ready to eat, you wUl have 
an old, bald-headed husband; but 
if it is green and open, you will have 
a young man. If much dirt sticks 
to the roots, you will be rich, but U. 
it pulls up clean, poor. 

If a youth and a maid go into a 
garden on Hallowe'en and knee! 
on a spoon and say: 

"All hail to thee, moon all hail to thee, 
I pray thee good moon now show to 

me 
The one who my future spouse shall 

be," 

the individual will appear. 

If a youth or maid go into the 
garden on Hallowe'en and pull up 
a cabbage, their future partner will 
be indicated by its being straight or 
crooked, fresh or old, with dirt 
clinging to the roots or not. If the 
latter is the case, the future hus- 



.vi 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



i.;S5 



band will be rich according to the 
amount of dirt that clings to the 
root. 

Lead melted and dropped in wa- 
ter^ will take curious forms, and by 
these one can foretell the occupa- 
tion of one*s future mate. 

For Hallowe'en festivities, a cake 
is baked with several articles in it» 
which have the following significa* 
tion to the finder: 

A ring as a sign of marriage 
within a year. 

A penny as the sign of future 
wealth. 

A thimble as the sign of no mar- 
riage. 

A key as a sign of a journey. 

A button as the sign that the 
finder will be a sweetheart forlorn. 

The "sark sleeve" is a weird Hal- 
lowe'en custom in Scotland. You 
must go alone to a south-running 
stream where three lairds* land 
meets, and dip your shirt sleeve in 
the water. Cjo to bed in sight of a 
fire, and hang your sleeve to dry. 
The apparition of your partner wUl 
appear and turn the sleeve. 

All-Hallows' Day, or AU Saints' 
Day, is the first of November, orig- 
inally a Koman Catholic holiday, 
introduced because of the impossi- 
bility to keep a separate holiday for 
every saint. This day was probably 
chosen because it was one of the 
great heathen holidays of the North, 
the ancient festival and the begin- 
ning of winter, it having always 
been a policy of tlie Christian 
church to supplant heathen holidays 
bv Christian. In Southern Ger- 
many, the first and the second of 
November CAll Saints' " and "All 
Souls' ") are devoted to the memory 
of the dead, by decorating the 
graves. In some countries, special 
cakes and sweet biscuits are baked 
on this day; in Tyrol, for instance, 
such in the shape of hares or horses ; 
in Bavaria, they are long cakes, 
pointe<l on both ends and called 



"Seelenspitze." In Belgium, poor 
children place tables with candles 
and pictures of the Madonna, in 
front of their houses, and receive 
money from the passers-by, to buy 
**cakes for the poor souls in purga- 
tory." 

The night before All-Hallows' 
Day is Hallowe'en, particularly in 
Scotland, as well as in England and 
America, the time of all times when 
supernatural influences are suppos- 
ed to prevail. The many supersti- 
tions and customs connected with 
Hallowe'en originate more or less 
in the old Druidical festivities of 
that night. Reddall gives the fol- 
lowing description in his handbook 
of "Fact, Fancy, and Fable": 

"The Druids for leagues round 
gathered in snow-white robes at the 
altar of stones on some hill. Here 
rested an emblem of the luminary 
they worshipped, and on the altar 
was the sacred fire which had been 
carefully kept alive during the past 
year. The Druids grouped them- 
selves around it, and at a given sig- 
nal quenched it, amid absolute si- 
lence on the part of the assembled 
people. Then a new fire was kin- 
dled on the cairn, the multitude 
raised a mighty shout, and from 
every eminence for miles around, 
other fires blazed into view. The 
same night the fire was put out in 
every cabin and farm-house, only to 
be rekindled with embers from the 
sacred fire of the priests, which was 
believed to protect each homestead 
from peril so long as it remained 
burning. In those days, faitli in the 
existence of fairies and goblins, 
witches and spirits, was very strong; 
and as the Druidic faith faded be- 
fore the advance of Christianity, the 
heathen festivals lost much of their 
old grandeur and former signiti- 
cance, and took on a lower charac- 
ter. So, on the night of October 
31, the simple country folk believed 
the fairies came out ot their grottoes, 
witches and goblins gathered iu for- 



I486 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



est glades, or plotted against man- 
kind in the shadows of ruinous 
castles and keeps. By a very nat- 
ural transition, the Hallowe'en fire 
came to be looked on as a charm 
against these sprites. So late as the 
seventeenth century, it was custom- 
ary for farmers to make the circuit 
of their fields with a lighted torch 
in hand, to protect them from harm 
during the year, chanting or sing- 
ing a doggerel rhyme the while. 

For the reason that these unseen 
magic powers were deemed to be so 
near at this season^ Hallowe'en was 
thou^t to be the night of all nights 
on which to pry into the secrets of 
the future, and thus arose all those 
simple ceremonies by which it was 
claimed that one's fate might be 
learned. Of course, no sensible 
person now believes that by crack- 
ing nuts^ ducking one's head in a 
tub of water for apples, dropping 
melted lead in a goblet, pulling 
kale, or eating an apple before a 
mirror, anything supernatural or 
ghostly will be seen or heard. But 
the pleasant fireside revelries sur- 
vive, though they have lost much of 
their superstitious significance. 

Great bonfires are still kindled in 
many places, around which the vil- 
lagers join hands in a merry dance. 
Then, as the fiames subside into a 
pile of glowing embers, the real fun 
begins. The first ceremony in Scot- 
land consists in ''pulling the kale." 
Kale is a sort of cabbage. Lads and 
lassies go out in couples, hand in 
hand, with eyes shut, and pull the 
first head of kale they touch. The 
fact of its being crooked or straight, 
large or small, is said to be emblem- 
atic of the height and figure of the 
coming husband or wife. If any 
earth clings to the roots, that means 
money; while the sweet or bitter 
taste of the heart of the kale denotes 
the disposition of the prospective 
life-partner. 

Burning the nuts is another 
equally famous charm. Two hazel 



nuts are placed in the fire, having 
been previously named for the par- 
ticular lad and lass about to try 
their fortune. Accordingly, as they 
bum quietly side by side, or crack 
and sputter and break apart, will be 
the result of the wooing. Says 
Bums: 

"The anld gudewife's weel hoarded nits 

Are round and round divided. 
And monie lads' and lasses' fates 

Are there that night decided. 
Some kindle, couthie, side by side. 

And bum thegither trimly; 
Some start awa' with saucy pride. 

And jump out owre the chimlie." 

When nuts lie still and bum to- 
other when put in the fire on 
[allowe'en, it prognosticates a 
happy marriage or a hopeful love. 
If on the contrary they botmce and 
fly asunder, the sign is unpropitious. 

^'These glowing nuts are emblems tme^ 
Of what in human life we view; 
The ill-matched couples fret and fame. 
And thus in strife themselves consome; 
Or from each other wildly start. 
And with a noise forever part. 
But see the happy, happy pair. 
Of genuine love and truth sincere; 
With mutual freedom while they bom. 
Still to each other kindly torn; 
And as the vital sparks decay. 
Together gently sink away. 
Till life's fierce ordeal being past* 
Their willing ashes rest at last** 

In England, the following charm 
is frequently tried: Three dishes 
are taken; one is empty, one is filled 
with clear water, and the third with 
dirty water. A boy is blindfolded 
and led to the hearth, where the 
dishes are set in a row. Then he 
dips the left hand in one of the 
dishes — ^if in the clean water, she 
will be a widow; if in the empty 
dish, he will remain ''a horrid old 
bachelor." The trial should be 
made three times, the dishes being 
shifted about meanwhile. 

In the country districts of Scot- 
land, much faith is reposed in this 
formula: Go to a south-running 
stream, and dip your sleeve in it at 
a spot where the lands of three 
lairJs come together. Then go 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



MS; 



home, hang the wet garment before 
the fire, and go to bed in full view 
of it. Keep awake, and some time 
near midnight you will be rewarded 
by seeing an apparition, bearing an 
exact likeness to the future hus- 
band or wife, come and turn the 
sleeve, '*as if to dry the other side 
of it" 

There is a mirth-provoking game 
played in England on Hallowe en — 
perhaps in this country, too, for 
aught the writer knows to the con- 
trary. A hoop from a flour-barrel 
is taken, and around it are fastened 
alternately, at regular intervals, ap- 
ples, cakes, candies, and candle- 
ends. The hoop is then suspended 
from the ceiling and set to revolv- 
ing. The players gather in a circle 
round it, and each in turn tries to 
bite one of the edibles. The boy or 
girl who is so unfortunate as to 
seize one of the candles, pays for- 
feit. 

There was a very popular way of 
trying one's luck on Hallowe'en by 
putting in a pot of mashed potatoes 
a ring, a thimble, and a sixpence. 
All got a spoon and supped the po- 
tatoes out of the pot. Whoever ^ot 
the ring was sure to be mamed 
within the year; the thimble signi- 
fied an old maid, and the sixpence, 
a legacy. When the ring was found 
some laid down their spoons, afraid 
the thimble would come their way. 

A large tub was half filled with 
water and set in the middle of the 
floor. A **deils dozen" of well- 
rounded apples were put into the 
water in the tub. Those who were 
to take part in the sport took off 
their upper garments — boys, their 
jackets, and the lassies, their short 
gowns. Then, turning about, with 
their hands tied behind their backs, 
they tried to catch an apple with 
their teeth as it floated in the water 
in the tub. It was rather a difficult 
task, and often both boys and girls 
got thoroughly drenched during 
the fun. 



A small stick about two feet long 
was suspended from the center by a 
string from the ceiling. At one end 
was a lighted candle, and at the oth- 
er an apple. It was hung about the 
height of your mouth, and spun 
quickly around. Then, with your 
hands tied behind your back, you 
had to take a bite of the apple in 
passing. 

Hallowe'en was called the 
•'Witches' Night," "the Devil's 
Sunday," when his Satanic majesty 
was supposed to have full charge of 
all mundane things. He assembled 
all the witches together. To these 
assemblies he rode on a goat, with 
black human countenance. Before 
going to this place, the witches 
anointed themselves with a prepara- 
tion of the fat of murdered unbap- 
tized infants. Then riding on a cat 
or broomstick, they flew up the 
chimney and rode to the place of 
meeting. At the feast, they ate no 
bread nor salt, drank out of horses' 
skulls, and danced back to back. 
The devil supplied the music from 
a bagpipe — the bag, a hen's skull, 
and cats' tails for a chanter. After 
indescribable orgies, they returned 
home as they came. To keep their 
husbands in ignorance of their ab- 
sence, a stick was laid on the bed, 
which the husband mistook for his 
wife. The banquet hall was lighted 
with torches. Their light was taken 
from the fire which burned between 
the horns of the goat. At the close 
the goat burned itself out. The 
ashes were divided among the 
witches, to use in their incantations. 
All Scotch boys will remember how 
tired the cats were the day after 
Hallowe'en. Some pitied their mis- 
erable appearance ; others were mad 
at them for carrying the witches. 

The lads and lassies, particularly 
of Scotland and Ireland, and tlie 
young people of Wales and Eng- 
land, as well as the youth of this and 
other countries, liave for centuries 



I4S8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



hailed the night of Hallowe'en^ the 
last night in October, as prophetic 

The first ceremony of Hallowe'en 
among the Scotch is the pulling of 
a stock or plant of kail. All the 
company go out and, with closed 
eyes, each pulls the first plant of this 
kind he or she is able to lay hold 
oL Its being big or little, straight 
or crooked, is prophetic of the size, 
shape, and other characteristics of 
the grand object of all the Hallow- 
e'en spells — the husband or wife. If 
any earth remains clinging to the 
root, that signifies fortune, and the 
state of the heart of the stem, as per- 
ceptible to the taste, is indicative of 
the natural temper and disposition 
of a futtire spouse. 

Burning nuts is a famous Caledo- 
nian charm. Two hazel nuts, sacred 
to the witches, one bearing the 
name of the lad and the other of the 
lass, are laid in the fire, side by side, 
and accordingly as they burn quiet- 
ly together or start away from one 
another, so will be the progress and 
issue of the courtship. 

Certain forms must be observed 
to insure the success of a given spell, 
and in the following one there must 
be no departure from the formula: 
A maiden should steal out, entirely 
alone, to the kiln, and throw into 
the pot a ball of blue yarn, holding 
fast to the end. She should then be- 
gin winding the yam until it resists, 
whereupon she should demand, 
"Who holds this yarn?" An an- 
swer will be returned from the kiln- 
pot, naming the Christian and sur- 
name of her future spouse. 

Another test is for her to take a 
candle, and, going alone, by its light 
only, stand before a mirror and eat 
an apple. Some traditions say one 
should comb one*s hair instead of 
eating the apple. The conditions of 
the spell being perfect, a shadowy 
face, supposed to be that of the 
maiden's future husband, will be 
seen in the glass, as if peeping over 
her shoulder. 



Another Scotch ceremony, into 
which the uncanny largely enters as 
an element, is described as follows: 
One or more go out, as the case 
may be (for this is a social spell), to 
a south-running spring or rivulet, 
where "three lairds' lands meet," 
and dip the left shirt sleeve. Go to 
bed in sight of a fire and hang the 
wet sleeve before it to dry. Lie 
awake watching carefully, and 
about midnight an apparition hav- 
ing the exact figure of the grand ob- 
ject in question will come and turn 
the sleeve, as if to dry the other side 
of it 

An interesting Hallowe'en divina- 
tion that solves matrimonial doubt 
and banishes uncertainty, is accom- 
plished by arranging diree dishes 
upon the hearth. Into the first is 
put clean water, into the second 
clouded or muddy water, while the 
third is left empty. The candidate 
is securely blindfolded and led to 
the hearth where the dishes are. The 
left hand is dipped, and if by chance 
it be in the clean water, the wife that 
is to be will come to the bar of mat- 
rimony a maid; if in the muddy wa- 
ter, a widow; but if in the empty 
di^, it foretells with equal certainty 
no marriage at all. This ceremony 
is three times repeated, the arrange- 
ment of the dishes being each time 
changed. 

To the old Scotch Hallowe'en 
superstitions, there has been added 
other formerly unattached supersti- 
tions, until it is now difficult, if not 
impossible, to trace whence came 
many of the observances that mark 
the closing day of October. In cer- 
tain parts of the world, the old 
Druid fires are still lit on Hallow- 
mas eve, but without knowing that 
the surviving custom is a relic of 
paganism. In Ireland, as well as in 
Scotland and Scandinavia, Hallow- 
e'en observances are current, one of 
them being the ceremony of the 
making of the dumbcake. Several 
young women should each take a 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1489 



handful of wheaten flour and add 
water and salt to make a dough, 
which should be kneaded by them 
with their left thumbs, unbroken si- 
lence being maintained by all the 
company. Each one must then roll 
her cake up and spread it thin and 
broad, making on it with a large 
new pin the initials of her name. 
The several cakes are then set be- 
fore the fire, and each cakemaker 
sits quietly in a chair as far removed 
from the cakes as the room will per- 
mit. This must all be done soon 
after 11 o'clock at night, and be- 
tween that time and 12 o'clock, each 
person turns her cake once, and a 
few minutes after midnight the hus- 
band of her that is to be first mar- 
ried will appear and lay his hand on 
the part of the cake marked as 
aforesaid. A supplement to the 
dumbcake ceremony will show the 
occupation of a girfs future lord 
and master. This consists in melt- 
ing a quantity of lead and in pour- 
ing the molten metal carefully 
through a symbolic brass key into 
cold water. The shape assumed by 
the resultant metal mass indicates 
the trade, business or profession of 
the longed for knight. 

The matter of occupation or so- 
cial state is also determined by tak- 
ing a walnut, a hazel nut and a nut- 
meg, and grating them well to- 
gether. Mix them with butter and 
sugar, and of the plastic mass make 
small pills, of which exactly nine, 
no more, no less, must be taken on 
retiring. If a maiden dreams of 
riches, she will marry a wealthy 
man; of white linen, a clergyman; 
of darkness, a lawyer; of o<ld noises 
and tumuhs. a tradesman; of thun- 
der and lightning, a soldier or a 
sailor, and of rain, a servant. 

Ducking for apples and the at- 
tempt to secure, by means of the 
mouth only, an apple balanced up- 
on a stick suspended from the ceil- 
ing, upon the other end of which is 
placed a lighted candle, provokes 



much laughter and no little spirited 
competition. 

For a girl to know if she will 
marry within the year, she must ob- 
tain a green pea-pod in which are 
exactly nine peas; hang it over the 
door, and if the next man guest en- 
tering be a bachelor, her own mar- 
riage will follow within twelve 
months. This spell is sometimes 
tried at other times than at Hallow- 
e'en, but the conditions then are 
generally considered less favorable. 

Three small rings should be pur- 
chased by a maiden during the pe- 
riod of a new moon, each at a dif- 
ferent place. She should tie them 
together with her left garter and 
place them in her left glove with a 
scrap of paper, cut heart-shaped, on 
which her sweetheart's name has 
been written in blue ink. The whole 
should be placed under her pillow 
when retiring Hallowe'en, and she 
will dream of her sweetheart if she 
is to marry him. 

The future is sometimes prognos- 
ticated on Hallowe'en by candle 
omens. If a candle burns with an 
azure tint it signifies the presence 
or near approach of a spirit or 
gnome. A collection of tallow ris- 
ing against the candlewick is styled 
a winding sheet, and is deemed an 
omen of death in the familv. A 
spark at the candle denotes that the 
obser\'er will shortly receive a let- 
ter. 

Two cambric needles are named 
on Hallowe'en and skillfully placed 
in a vessel of water. If thev float, 
swimming side by side, the course 
of true love runs smooth for those 
they represent. If they sink both 
together, or if one sinks and the 
other floats, the persons will not 
marrv' each other. 

.•\ printed alphabet is cut into its 
individual letters, which are placed 
in water, faces downward. On the 
morrow, the initial letters of the 
favored opposite will be found 
versed. 



1490 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Peel an apple so that the skin re- 
mains in unbroken sequence. Whirl 
this skin three times around the 
head so that when released it passes 
over the left shoulder and falls to 
the floor, assuming the initial letter 
of the chosen one's name. 

Many young girls fill the mouth 
with water on Hallowe'en and walk 
or run around the block, being 
careful not to swallow the water or 
suffer it to escape from the mouth. 
If a girl succeeds in doing this, the 
first man met on returning home 
will be her husband. 

To ascertain one's standing with 
a sweetheart, select at random an 
apple and quarter it, carefully gath- 
ering the seeds from the core. Ac- 
cording to the number found the 
following formula is used: 

1, I love; 2, I love; 3, I love, I 
say ; 4, 1 love with all my heart ; 5, 1 
cast away; 6 He loves; 7, She loves; 
8, They both love; 9, He comes; 10, 
He tarries; 11, He courts; 12, He 
marries; 13, Honor; 14, Riches. 

At some of the American col- 
leges for women, it is customary to 
celebrate Hallowe'en with straw 
rides^ games and an annual sheet 
and pillowcase party, where the illu- 
minations are grotesque pumpkins 
containing candles, and where cakes 
containing mystic rings, beans and 
a coin are served with the refresh- 
ments. 

ALL SOULS' DAY— (Novem- 
ber 2nd.) — Two persons walking 
around a dark room at midnight on 
All Souls* Day, November 2nd, will 
never meet again. 

If you take a chip of a tree on All 
Souls' Day and find it moist, a se- 
vere winter is sure to follow; but 
if it is dry, a mild winter. 

On All Souls' eve, the cabbage 
must be housed, no matter what the 
weather, or ill luck will follow. 
(^Belgium.) 

The Bretons believe that on the 



eve of All Souls' Day, there arc as- 
sembled more spirits in every house 
than there are grains of sand on the 
seashore. 

In Malaga, the night of "All 
Souls' Day" is called "the night for 
moving the jaws." The beds of the 
poor are highly ornamented, which 
is intended solely for the purpose of 
a repose during this night of the fes- 
tivity, of those souls which have 
been released from purgatory. The 
neighbors remain outside the door 
and are provided with boiled chest- 
nuts, thereby keeping their jaws in 
motion until the following morning. 

The Duke of Buckingham was 
executed on All Souls' Day, 1483 
Shakespeare lets him say, on his 
way to the scaffold (King Richard 
III., V. 1): 

"...All-Souls' day is my body's dooms- 
day. 

This is the day that, in King £dward*» 
time, 

I wish'd might fall on me, when I was 
found 

False to his children or his wife's allies; 

This is the day wherein I wish'd to bll 

By the false faith of him whom most I 
trusted; 

This, this All-Souls' day to my fearful 
soul 

Is the determined resi^ite of my wrongs. 

That high All-Seer which I dallied with 

Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my 
head. 

And given in earnest what I begged in 
jest 

Thus doth he force the swords of wicked 
men 

To turn their own points on their mas- 
ter's bosoms: 

Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on 
my neck: 

*When he/ quoth she, 'shall split thy 
heart with sorrow. 

Remember Margaret was a prophet- 



ess. 



> *» 



(ST.) ANDREW'S DAY— (No- 
vember 30) — On St. Andrew's day. 
place a glass full of water on the 
table; if it runs over, the next year 
will be wet; but if not, dry. 

German girls have a "project" 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1491 



called "hair-snatching." They as- 
certain the color of the hair of their 
future husband by going at mid- 
night on St. Andrew's eve, and 
opening the door a little, putting 
out their hands, and snatching into 
the dark. When they draw their 
hands in, they find a lock of hair 
therein, and that will be the color. 

St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30) is 
retained to the Apostle Andrew. 
Some relics of the apostle are said 
to have been carried by a Greek 
devotee named St. Regulus, to Scot- 
land, where they were placed in a 
church built at a place which sub- 
sequently became St. Andrew's. It 
was probably from this cause that 
St. Andrew was later considered as 
the patron saint of Scotland. 

On the eve of St. Andrew's day, 
maidens used to strip themselves, 
and sought to learn what sort of 
husband they were to have by pray- 
ing: "Oh, St. Andrew, cause that 
I obtain a good pious husband; to- 
night show me the figure of the 
man who will take me to wife." 

(ST.) ANDREA'S DAY— Mart- 
in Luther told how, on St Andrea's 
day, young maidens would strip 
themselves naked in his country, so 
as to find out what sort of a hus- 
band they were to have. They 
prayed to St. Andreas to send them 
a good one: 

'To Andreas all the lovers and the lusty 
wooers came 

Believing through his aid and ceremo- 
nies done. 

While to him th«y presents bring and 
conjure all the night 

To have good luck and to obtain their 
chief and sweet delight.*' 

(ST.) ANN'S DAY— (July 26th) 
— If, on St. Ann's day, the ants are 
building up their sand-hills, it is a 
sign of coming severe winter. 

On the feast of Saint Ann, one 
may make a hard trial to get the 
sign ami omen of marriage. Pre- 
pare yourself three days previous to 



the feast of this female saint, by liv- 
ing on bread and water and sprigs 
of parsley, and touch no other thing 
whatever, or your labor will be in 
vain. The eve begins at the sixth 
hour. Go to bed as soon as con- 
venient, and speak not a word after 
you begin to undress. Get into bed, 
lie on your left side, with your head 
as low as possible, and repeat the 
following verse three times: 

"Saint Anne in silver cloud descend 

Prove yourself a females' fnend. 

Be it good or be it harm. 

Let me have knowledge from the charm. 

Be it husband one, two, three. 

Let me in rotation see. 

And if fate decrees me four, 

(No good maid would wish for more,) 

Let me view them in my dream 

Fair and clearly to be seen; 

But if the hateful stars decree 

Perpetual virginity. 

Let me sleep on and dreaming not» 

I shall know my single lot' 



99 



(ST.) ANTHONY'S DAY— 
(Tanuary 17th) — In Belgium, on St. 
Anthony's day, the girk go to his 
shrine to pray for husbands, while 
lacrosse players celebrate it at Hai- 
nault 

On the eve of St. Anthony's, take 

a slipper in your right hand and, 
standing with your back to the door 
leading to the street, throw it over 
your right shoulder; if the toes 
point toward the door, it is a sign 
that you will be married before an- 
other year has passed. 

In some parts of England, the 
people used to go, on St. .'\nthony's 
day, and have the horses, wagons 
and carriages blessed by the priest, 
who dipped a brush in the holy wa- 
ter and praying over the animals, 
protected them for a year from al! 
harm. A similar ceremony is per- 
formed at Rome, at the shrine of 
St. Anthony. 

A N N U N C I ATION DAY— 
(March 25) — On Annunciation day, 
the Greeks clean the house with 



1493 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



holy water and bum incense before 
dressing, for good fortune. 

In Malta exists the belief that an 
^gg Isiid on lady-day (March 25) is 
an effective remedy for all kinds of 
wounds. The egg, to effect its heal- 
ing power, must be hid in a dark 
place^ and kept there until the end 
of the year, before being put to use. 

ASH WEDNESDAY — Lucky 
to have pancakes on Ash Wednes- 
day. (Alleghany.) 

In Spain, and other countries 
where Ash Wednesday is a special 
feast, a small paper-covered coffin 
containing a small fish or morsel of 
meat or sausage, is carried in pro- 
cession through the town and 
buried with great ceremony, as a 
symbol of the burial of all worldly 
pleasures and desires, and of the be- 
ginning of the fasting-time. 

Ash Wednesday is the first day 
of Loit, so called from the custom, 
introduced by Pope Gregory the 
Great, about 690, of sprinkling 
ashes on one's head as a sign of 
repentance and renunciation of the 
world's pleasures. The ashes were 
said to be obtained from the burn- 
ing of the Christmas greens which 
had adorned the churches since 
Christmastide. The day preceding 
Ash Wednesday was g^ven to mer- 
rymaking and mummery, and called 
Cameval, meaning "came vale," or 
"farewell to meat," as on the next 
day would begin fasting time. 

In olden times, people believed 
that they would turn into donkeys 
before Martinmas, if they did not 
eat yellow jam on Ash Wednesday. 

To bathe on Ash Wednesday, 
will secure freedom from fevers and 
toothaches. 

ASCENSION DAY— On Holy 
Thursday, rain is holy water and 
good for sore eyes. 

In Nottinghamshire, it is believed 
that an egg laid on Ascension day 



will protect the house from fire or 
evil ^iritSy if placed on the rooL 

A stroke of lightning will find its 
way to whatever you work oo, oo 
Ascension day. 

If you sewy or even thread a nee- 
dle on Ascension day, your hoose 
mil be struck by lightning. 

On Ascension day, everybody 
gives crickets to his fnends. If the 
cricket chirps during the day, it is 
an omen of good luck. If it does 
not, bad fortune will follow its pos- 
sessor until next Ascension day. 

Welsh miners believe it onlucky 
to work on Ascension day. 

In Sicily on the eve of Asoensba 
day, the women place crosses made 
of mugwort on the roofs, believing 
that during the night Christ will 
bless them. 

Ascension day is the forti^h day 
after Easter, on which the ascensioo 
of Christ is commemorated. Some- 
times called Holy Thursday. It is 
also called Bounds Thursday, be- 
cause on that day, by an old cus- 
tom, the parish bounds are marked. 
This day is also popularly known as 
Holy Thursday, though frequently, 
but incorrectly, the Thursday before 
Easter, Maundy Thursday, is so 
called. 

Here and there, as at Tissington 
in England, rivers are still sprii&ed 
with flowers on Holy Thursday, 
probably a relic of the Roman Fon- 
tinalia, though this festival was held 
on the 13th of October, in honor of 
Fons, the god of springs, when 
garlands were thrown into the 
springs and laid round the wells. 

"The shepherds at their festivals 
Carol her goodness loud in rustic lays 
And throw sweet garland wreathes into 

her streams. 
Of pansies, pinks, and gaudy daffodils." 

On Ascension night, in Bulgaria, 
one of the oldest women in the bm- 
ily goes to the graves of their an- 
cestors, and selecting the last bur- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1493 



iedy lies down on the grave with her 
face to the mound, and remains in 
prayer and invocation for some 
time. Then she draws some blood 
from her left breast over the heart, 
and waits. The blood helps the 
spirit hovering around to gather 
strength, and he appears in form, 
and answers her questions and gives 
counsel, as well as sends his bless- 
ings to the family. So imbued are 
the natives with this belief that, 
when they are in perplexity, they 
will put off a decision until the cere- 
mony can be gone through on the 
appointed night, and will abide by 
the decision of the ghost. 

Upon Ascension day, great num- 
ber of the middle classes go out into 
the fields in Portugal, to gather 
poppies, wheat, and olives, which 
possess the virtue of giving them 
bread to eat all the year, if they 
keep the bunch in the house. The 
crowds are usually so large that the 
farmers are obliged to place guards 
about their fields. These bunches 
can be bought, but the virtue lies in 
gathering them yourself. 

There is also a Portuguese leg- 
end that upon this day, between 12 
and 1 o'clock, the nesting birds 
leave their nests to sing an anthem 
of praise. In the churches of Lis- 
bon, on Ascension day, cages con- 
taining singing-birds are placed 
about the altar or other places, and 
while the organist plays, they war- 
ble sweet music of song and praise. 

At Neuhaus, in Bohmen, there is 
an old institution which provides 
that, on Holy Thursday, a mess of 
sweet pottage should be given to 
the poor, in the courtyard of the 
castle ; tliis mess consisted of some 
kind of pulpous fruit, with honey; 
after which everyone had as much 
small beer to drink as he desired, 
and beside this, received seven 
pretzels. Many thousand poor peo- 
ple assembled on this day, and were 
all feasted in this manner. When 



the Swedes, in the Thirty Years' 
War, had subdued the town and 
castle, and neglected the distribu- 
tion of this meal to the poor, the 
"White Lady" appeared and began 
to cause such ;. disturbance that tlie 
inhabitants of the castle could no 
longer endure it. The g^ard were 
dispersed, beaten and thrown to the 
ground by a secret power. Now, 
when no means could be devised to 
remedy this evil, one of the vil- 
lagers told the commander-in-chief 
that the poor had been deprived of 
their yearly feast, and advised him 
to let it be instantly prepared, ac- 
cording to the custom of their pre- 
decessors. This was done ; the dis- 
turbance ceased, and nothing more 
was heard of it. The legend of this 
"White Lady" is as follows: 

In the ancient castle of Neuhaus, 
in Boehmen, among the pictures 
of the old and celebrated family of 
Rosenberg, there is found a por- 
trait which very exactly resembles 
the White Lady. She is clothed af- 
ter the fashions of those times, in a 
white habit, and was called Perchta 
or Bertha von Rosenberg. She 
was bom between 1420 and 1430; 
her father was Ulrich IL, and her 
mother Katharina von Warten- 
berg,, who died 1436. 

Bertha was married in the year 
1449 to John von Lichtenstein. a 
rich baron in Hcyermark. But 
as her husband led a very vicious 
and profligate life. Bertha was un- 
happy. Her marriage proved a 
constant source of grief to her, and 
she was obliged to seek relief 
amongst her relatives. Hence it 
was that she could never forget the 
insults and indescribable distress 
she had endured, and thus left the 
world under the influence of this 
bitter passion. Her portrait is to 
be met with in several Bohemian 
castles in a widow's white dress, 
which corresponds with the appear- 
ance of the White Lady. She is 



1494 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



most frequently seen in Roumlaw, 
Neuhaus, Trzebon, Islerbocka, 
Bechin and Tretzen, which are all 
Bohemian castles, inhabited by her 
descendants. 

ASSUMPTION DAY— (August 
15th)— On Assumption day, in Bel- 
gium, the priest blesses bunches of 
flowers and herbs. When these 
herbs are burnt on charcoal and 
used to fumigate the cattle, it will 
preserve them from witchcraft and 
disease. 

The Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin is a festival of the Romish 
church, and celebrated on the fif- 
teenth of August, in commemora- 
tion of the ascension of the Virgin 
into Heaven. 

The day of the Assumption is 
one of the feasts peculiar to Bel- 
gium, as the cult of the Blessed 
Virgin is a marked custom of the 
whole country, which was known of 
old as **Terre de Marie" (Mary- 
land). 

(ST.) BARBARA'S DAY— (De- 
cember 4th) — On St. Barbara's day 
(Dec. 4th), the villagers in South- 
em Germany and Austria gather 
branches of fruit trees, placing 
them carefully on one side. If 
these are budded out on Christmas 
day, it is a sign of a fine harvest. 
Every young girl has one of these 
branches, and the owner of that 
which buds into leaf or flower first 
will be the first married. In certain 
villages, so much importance is at- 
tached to the branches that they 
are forced into flower in a heated 
room, and are used as presents 
from the young men to their sweet- 
hearts, as declarations of love and 
promises of marriage. 

(ST.) BARNABAS' DA Y— 
(June 11th)— The day of St. Bar- 
nabas the Apostle, is a holiday of 
the Church of England. To this 



day, which was, in the time of old 
style, the longest day of the year, 
refers the following ancient rhyme: 

Bamaby bright. 

The longest day and the shortest night. 

(ST.) BASIL EVE— In Albania, 
on St Basil's eve, an expectant 
mother sits and watches the fire, 
so that she may suffer no pain. 

(ST.) B A RT H O L OMEWS 
DAY---(August 24th)— Upon the 
24th of September, the feast of St 
Bartholomew, there is a grand 
^'romaria," a procession of peasants 
from Oporto to Mathosinhos, Por- 
tugal, on the ocean, where they 
bathe. They believe that one bath 
upon that day is of more benefit 
than on any other. 

St Bartholomew's day (August 
24th) was marked, in the Middle 
Ages, by the custom of distributing 
small knives among the people, in 
memory of St. Bartholomew*s 
death, who was supposed to have 
been flayed alive. This day has ob- 
tained a horrible celebrity in con- 
nection with the massacre of the 
Protestants in Paris in 752. 

(ST.) BERTHA'S DAY— (Jan- 
uary 6th) — See Epiphany. 

BIRTHDAY— It is unluckj- to 
g^ve a birthday present to sick per- 
sons; they will not live to see an- 
other birdiday. 

In India, it is considered lucky 
to eat salt on your birthday. 

It is a good sign for you to forget 
yotu- birthday and let it pass. 

A man's twenty-first birthday is 
said to be an index to his future 
life. If it is clear, he will be fortu- 
nate; if stormy, unfortunate. 

If you prick your finger on your 
birthday, take three drops of the 
blood, let them flow on a napkin 
and keep it, and you wQl have good 
luck as long as you possess it 




spectral Huntsman of North Germany urilk His Flying Hounds, 
the Gabriel Ratchets. Anyone Hearing the Yelp of 
the Hounds was Doomed to Early Misfor- 
tune or Death. 




Figure Representing the Typical Witch of iSth Century 
Witchcraft. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M9S 



It is a common custom to bake a 
ring in a birthday cake; the person 
of the birthday party who gets the 
slice with the ring in it, will be the 
first to marry; if already married, 
it will be an omen of good luck. 

If you eat a bunch of primroses 
on your birthday, you will have 
good health. 

If there is a new moon on your 
birthday, you will meet a distin- 
guished stranger. 

To eat on one's birthday a couple 
of duck's eggs that have been boil- 
ed or preserved in a certain red 
mixture, will turn the unlucky 
times to good ones. (China.) 

A cake shaped like a peach is 
given to a relative on his birthday, 
so that he may live long and be 
happy. (China.) 

Eat a bowl of vermicelli on your 
birthday, and you will live the long- 
er. (China.) 

If a person dies on his or her 
birthday, it is believed by many to 
be a stu-e sign of his or her salva- 
tion. 

If the wind howls on your birth- 
day, you will have many troubles 
during the year. 

If a Scotchman sees a sword on 
his birthday, he is destined to be 
hung. 

In Poland, every individual is 
supposed to be subject to some par- 
ticular destinv or fate, which it is 
impossible for him to avoid. The 
day of the month on which he was 
horn is alwavs associated with its 
particular stone, and bad or good 
fortune indicated therefrom. 

In Gloucestershire, England, ex- 
ists the old belief that it is luckv 
when the birthday tallies with the 
date of the year. This can only oc- 
cur up to the year — 31 in a cen- 
tury, no month having more than 
thirty-one days. 



King Philip of Macedon used to 
celebrate his birthday with extra- 
ordinary joy, as the most favorable 
to him, for once on that day he had 
a triplicity of good tidings: First, 
that he was victor in the chariot 
race in the Olympic games ; second, 
that Parmenio, his general, had 
gained a most important victory; 
and third, that his queen, Olym- 
pias, was delivered of a son, Alex- 
ander. 

The celebration of the anni- 
versary of an individual's birth, 
though customary among the an- 
cients, was originally frowned upon 
by the Christians. Nor was this to 
be wondered at. To the early fol- 
lowers of Christ, the world was a 
hard and cruel one. They were op- 
pressed and persecuted and mar- 
tyred alike by Jews and by pagans. 
It was no benefit to them to be 
bom. Death was the true deliver- 
ance. To die was to pass from a 
life of sorrow and humiliation into 
endless glory. Moreover, birth was 
in its very essence a degradation, 
inasmuch as it implied an assump- 
tion of that heritage of original sin 
which Adam has bequeathed to all 
his descendants. Thus, Origen, in 
a homily on Leviticus xii., 2, as- 
sures his hearers that "none of the 
saints can be found who ever held a 
feast or a banquet upon his birth- 
day, or rejoiced on the day when 
his son or his daughter was bom. 
But sinners rejoice and make mer- 
ry on such days. For we find in 
the Old Testament that Pharoah, 
king of Egypt, celebrated his birth- 
day with a feast, and that Herod, in 
the New Testament, did the same. 
But the saints not only neglect to 
mark the day of their birth with 
festivity, but also, filled with the 
Holy Ghost, they cu»-se this day, 
after the example of Job and Jere- 
miah and David." 

It was not the birthdays but the 
deathdavs of the saints that were 



HS6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



made the occasions of the church 
festivals in their honor. Neverthe- 
less, the term birthday was applied 
by the early church to these festi- 
vals. "When you hear of a birth- 
day of saints, brethren," says Peter 
Chrysologus, "do you not think 
that that is spoken of in which they 
are bom of earth, in the flesh, but 
that in which they are bom from 
earth into heaven from labor to rest, 
from temptations to repose, from 
torments to delights not fluctuat- 
ing, but strong and stable and eter- 
nal, from the derision of the world 
to a crown of glory. Such are the 
birthdays of the martyrs that we 
celebrate." 

While such was the temper of 
the leading teachers in the church, 
it is only natural that the Christians 
thought little even of the immacu- 
late birth of Christ or the equally 
immaculate birth of the Virgin 
Mary. Indeed, it was not till the 
fourth and ninth centuries respec- 
tively that even the dates of these 
events were agreed upon. 

Ruskin says: "From the mo- 
ment when the spirit of Christianity 
had been entirely interpreted to the 
Western races, the sanctity of 
womanhood worshipped in the 
Madonna, and the sanctity of child- 
hood in union with that of Christ, 
became the light of every honest 
hearth and the joy of every pure 
and chastened soul." 

With the celebration of Christ's 
Nativity returned the celebration of 
the nativities of ordinary mortals. 
(Walsh, Curiosities of Popular 
Customs.) 

BLACK FRIDAY— There are 
several days called Black Friday. 
In America the 24th of September 
is so called in commemoration of 
the Wall Street crisis, New York, in 
1869. In England, also a commer- 
cial panic has given one Friday that 
name, namely the 11th of May, 



1866, when Overend, Gumey & 
Co. stopped payment A third 
Black Friday is the 6th of Decem- 
ber in commemoration of the land- 
ing of the Pretender in England in 
1745. 

BLACK MONDAY— In Eng- 
lish history this title is given specif- 
ically to Easter Monday, the 14th 
of April, 1360, on which day Ed- 
ward III. ^with his hoast lay be- 
fore the City of Paris, which day 
was full darke of mist and haile and 
so bitter and cold that many men 
dyed on their horses with cold; 
wherefore unto this day it hath 
beene called Blacke Munday." 
(Stow's Annals, p. 264.) By exten- 
sion the term was also applied to 
every Easter Monday. It is used 
in this sense by Shakespeare: 
^^Then it was not for nothing that 
my nose fell a-bleeding on Black 
Monday last." (Merchant of Ven- 
ice, iL 5, 25.) But at present Black 
Monday is generally understood in 
England in its s4>plication to the 
first Monday after the long vaca- 
tion, when school-boys return to 
their studies. The term was appro- 
priate enough in those earlier un- 
happy times when learning was 
considered a thing that could be 
whacked in from above or spanked 
in from below, and only scant at- 
tention was paid to the creature 
comforts of the victims. (Walsh, 
Curiosities of Popular Customs.) 

These times are rather pleasant- 
ly recalled in an article on ^^Black 
Monday" contributed to Dickens' 
Household Words, vol. vi., p. 669 
(1853). A few paragraphs may be 
quoted : 

"Cases do now, I believe, fre- 
quently occur in which the pains of 
school are more than counterbal- 
anced by its pleasures; in such 
cases degenerate boys fly in the 
face of the poet, and go willingly to 
school, abolishing the due observ- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M97 



ance of the ancient institution of 
Black Monday. I am for due ob- 
servance of the ancient fasts and fes- 
tivals, and feel quite sure that 
there is no better reason why Gun- 
powder Treason should be cele- 
brated than why Black Monday 
should never be forgot. 

"There may be many who keep 
the day dull now, I don't deny that 
I believe there are many; but in my 
younger days the proper celebra- 
tions of it was a rule absolute, and 
there were no exceptions. The eve 
of Black Monday used to be kept 
on Saturday, when the school-box 
was packed. We then used to get 
out our books with solemn faces. 
They were not done with yet, we 
felt; ere long they would give 
plague to us, and the first day of 
plague would be the day most fitly 
called, on the same principle that 
gave a title to the Black Assizes, 
Black Monday." 

"Another penance undergone by 
school-boys of the last generation, 
that ought to be shirked by boys in 
this, was the great washing of feet 
and heads upon Black Monday 
Eve. the Saturday night previous. 
Sunday intervened always as a day 
of quiet rest. We were to go so 
clean to school that our legs on 
that last Saturday night were par- 
boiled, and our heads were 
scrubbed so that the skin felt to be 
coming off about our ears. This 
penance was the more acutely felt 
as we knew well that when we got 
to school on Black Monday even- 
ing our heads would be again raked 
severely with a smalNtoothcd comb. 
On the Sunday before Black Mon- 
day was the Feast of Uncles, when 
we would take care to go out and 
say good-by to any relative who 
had not paid his nephew's tax for 
the half-year then to commence, 
liefore getting into bed on Sunday 
night, we always counted up our 
shillings and half-crowns, and put 



the money into a big purse made 
by a little sweetheart with blue eyes 
and fairy feet, then put the purse 
into a pocket of the new and strong 
school trousers that lay, neatly fold- 
ed by ? mother's hand, ready for 
wear next morning, on a chair by 
the bedside. Then we got into bed, 
and lay awake so long that we 
caught the mother's face over our 
own attempting a sly kiss at the 
grown people's bedtime; then we 
fell asleep. We dressed next morn- 
ing, hurriedly roused by candle- 
light, in frost and cold, were made 
to swallow eggs and toast and ham 
and boiling coffee, and rolled off in 
a hackney-coach through dark and 
snowy streets to the Swan with 
Two Necks, Lad Lane. From the 
place we were booked— or I was 
booked, for it will be seen that I 
have slipped insensibly from gener- 
alities into a recollection of my in- 
dividual experience — from that, 
place I was booked otitside to Mill- 
stone." 

(ST.) BONIFACE'S DAY — 
(May 14th)— The day of the week 
on which the 14 th of May happens 
to fall is deemed unlucky through- 
out the year, by the Scotch. 

(ST.) BRIDGETS D A Y — 
(February 1st.) — If the lark sings 
on St. Bridget's day, it is a good 
omen and a sign of fine weather; 
whoever hears it the first thing in 
the morning, is sure to have good 
luck all that day. 

(ST.) BULLIN'S DAY— "If the 
deer rise up dry and lie down dry 
on St. Bullin*s day, there will be a 
good harvest." 

GALLOP MONDAY — Gallop 
Monday is the Monday before 
Shrove Tuesday, so called because 
it was customary to have callops of 
bacon and eggs for dinner. 

GANDLEMAJ;— (February 2d) 
— ^Thcre is a curious belief in Barre. 



X49B 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Vermont, that as far as the sun 
shines into the house on Candle- 
mas day, so far will the snow blow 
in before the spring sets in. 

If women dance in the sun at 
Candlemas, their flax will be good 
that year. 

On Candlemas day, if you hear 
a bell toll for a funeral, the number 
of strokes will tell you the number 
of days that will elapse before you 
hear of the death of a friend. 

If Candlemas is dark, look for a 
wet summer, or as they say, in Ger- 
many, plant flax on the motmtains. 
If Candlemas is bright and clear, 
look for a bright summer and plant 
the flax in the ditches. 

If the ground hog sees its shad- 
ow on the 2nd of February, there 
will be six weeks more of cold 
weather. 

If the sun shines on Candlemas 
day, the flax will prosper. 

If, on the second of February, 
the goose finds it wet, the sheep 
will have grass on March 25th. 

On Candlemas day throw cards 
and candlesticks away. 

On Candlemas day, in conse- 
quence of the celebration of Mary's 
purification by candle-bearing, it 
became customary for women to 
carry candles with them when, after 
child-birth, they wanted to be 
churched. This old custom of the 
Christian church is based upon an- 
cient Roman rites in which candles 
were carried. 

The people of the Hebrides Is- 
lands had an odd way of keeping 
Candlemas day. They wrapped a 
sheaf of wheat in woman's clothes, 
put it to sleep at night with a club 
beside it, mistress and maids cry- 
ing: "Brud has come and Brud is 
welcome." Then they set it afire, 
and if the impression of the club 
could be found in the ashes in the 



morning, it was an assurance of a 
good crop and prosperous year. 

As late as the end of the eight- 
eenth century candles were burned 
in the Protestant Churches on 
Candlemas day, and when they 
were brought in, **God send us the 
light of Heaven," was repeated. 
The portion of the candle that was 
left unbumed on these occasions 
was supposed to have power over 
all evil influences and of scaring off 
evil spirits from the rooms of the 
sick and dying. 

"If Candlemas day be calm and fair. 
The half of the winter is gone, and 

mair, — 
If Candlemas day be dark and foul. 
The half of the winter is done at Yule." 

"The Dutch people say that on Candle- 
mas day. 

You should have half your wood and 
half of your hay.** 

Candlemas is the feast of the 
Purification or of the Presentation 
of Christ in the temple, held on 
February 2d. The day is celebrated 
in the Roman Catholic church with 
a great display of candles in allu- 
sion to the saying of Simeon about 
the infant Christ, that he would be 
a light to lighten the Gentiles. 

(ST.) CATHERINE'S DAY— 
(November 25th) — In Belgium, on 
the 25th of November, if St Cath- 
erine appears in a white veil (snow), 
the winter will be hard. 

If a single woman fasts on St. 
Catherine's day (November 25th), 
she will get a good husband. If a 
woman who has a bad husband, 
fasts on that day, she may hope to 
reform him or have him depart 

On the evening of St Catherine's 
day (Nov. 25) a number of young 
girls, not exceeding seven, nor less 
than three, assemble in a room, 
where they are sure to be safe from 
interlopers. Just as the clock strikes 
eleven they must take from their 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



M99 



bosom a sprig of myrtle, which 
must have been worn there all day, 
and fold it up in a bit of tissue pa- 
per; then light up a small chafing 
dish of charcoal, and on it each 
maiden must throw nine hairs from 
her head, and a paring of her toe- 
and finger-nails; then each must 
sprinkle a small quantity of myrtle 
and frankincense in the charcoal, and 
while the odoriferous vapor rises, 
the myrtle, which is consecrated to 
Venus, must be fumigated with it. 
Then they must all go to bed while 
the clock is striking twelve, place 
the myrtle exactly under their 
head, and they will be sure to 
dream of their future husband. The 
charm will not be successful unless 
all the girls who partake of it are 
virgins, and unless the ceremony 
takes place in strict silence. 

(ST.) CECILIA'S DAY— The 
eve of Saint Cecilia is said to be 
fortunate for beginning a new piece 
of music, or opening a concert hall 
or music store. 

Persons bom on St Cecilia's day 
will become great musicians. 

CHRISTMAS — In Dewsbury, 
in Yorkshire, the bells used to be 
rung on Christmas eve in token that 
the devil died when Christ was 
born. 

It is believed by many people in 
Belgium that bread that is baked 
on Qiristmas, and put away, will 
keep fresh and good until next 
Christmas. 

To win the favor of the fairies a 
bowl of mush is set out of doors on 
Christmas eve. (Sweden.) 

If anyone ejects his refuse on 
Christmas eve, he will clear a horse 
or a cow as profit during the year. 
(Belgium.) 

On Christmas day take twelve 
onions, one for each day of the 
twelve and put salt on each one; 



which ever one is wet at the end of 
the twelve days designates the cor- 
responding month to be wet. 

In Sweden, if anyone passes a 
house on Christmas night and asks, 
"Is anyone to die here?" there will 
be a death in the house. 

To pick up nuts or apples from 
the ground at Christmas will bring 
sores to you. 

Those who quarrel on Christmas 
day or night will have no luck in 
friendship, love, or pocket 

Never refuse to take or give shel- 
ter in Christmas time. 

On Christmas eve all the shoes 
must be carefully placed together 
in order so that all may live in har- 
mony throughout the year. 

Nothing that is sown on Christ- 
mas eve perishes, although it 
should be sown in the snow. (Neth- 
erlands.) 

In England to send away the 
carol singers from your door with- 
out any money, forebodes ill luck 
for you. 

No person who squints should be 
allowed in the room on Christmas 
eve, nor any barefooted person in 
the hall. 

To the nests of the fowls and 
geese in which Yule straw is laid, 
no martens nor any witchcraft dare 
appear. 

The Yule straw strewn on the 
earth promotes the growth of fruit 
and com. 

If a stone is put on every fruit 
tree on Christmas eve, the trees 
will bear the more. 

The straws of the Yule sheaf are 
thrown one by one to the ceiling 
bv the master of the house at Yulo 
tide. As many as lodge in the raft- 
ers, so many will be the sheaves of 
rye from the next harvest (Nor- 
way.) 



1500 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Sneezing on Christmas day is 
considered a favorable omen. 

It is unlucky to spin or to carry 
the spinning wheel from one side 
of the house to the other on Christ- 
mas. 

Thunder during Christmas week 
means that there will be much snow 
during the winter. 

At Quitzow, in Mecklenburg, it 
is considered unlucky to speak of 
the fox, unless calling him "long- 
tail," during the twelfths. 

If a squinting or a barefooted 
person comes to the house while 
the yule log is burning, ill luck will 
follow. 

He who steals anything safely at 
Christmas can steal safely all the 
year. 

If at Christmas a scythe is placed 
in the fodder, the witches can do no 
harm to the cattle. 

On Christmas eve set a vessel 
containing water outside of your 
window, and when the water 
freezes it will form an object that 
will show your future husband's 
occupaticm. 

He who walks into the com on 
Christmas eve hears all that will 
happen in the village that year. 

On Christmas eve the women 
run about and strike a "swinish 
hour." If the great hog grunts, it is 
a sign that the future husband will 
be an old man; but if a small one 
grunts, he will be young and hand- 
some. 

Water drawn on Christmas eve 
will change to wine, or preserve 
its sweetness through all the year 
to come. 

*The wish that is spoken at Yule-tide 
Shall not be crossed nor yet denied." 

In Sweden at Christmas every 
visitor must partake of the Yule 
feast or he wUl carry off the Yule 
joy. 



If on Christmas night the wine 
ferments heavily in the barrels, a 
good wine year is to follow. 

If yew is accidentally brought 
into the house at Christmas among 
the evergreens, it is looked upon as 
a sign that a death will occur in the 
family before the end of a year. 

A death in the parish at Christ- 
mastide is the sign of many deaths 
during the year. 

Eggs laid at Christmas time will 
produce large, beautiful chickens. 
(Netherlands.) 

To laundry a Christmas present 
takes out the good luck. 

Nothing sown on Christmas day 
¥rill perish although sown in the 
snow. (Netherlands.) 

In Germany beer poured on 
white flour out of doors on Christ- 
mas eve, will bring good luck for 
the year. 

In Sweden it is considered to be 
unlucky to leave webs of linen out 
of doors at Christmas time, to 
bleach, for it renders the ground 
barren. 

Gilded nutmegs are exchanged 
on Christmas in some places for 
luck. 

In Ireland the one who first an- 
nounces the crowing of the cock on 
Christmas morning will be the 
luckiest. 

Ill luck will attend those who 
blow the fire at Christmas vntii un- 
clean hands. 

For a household to be out of oil 
or fish on Christmas day is a sig^ of 
misfortune. 

Seven grains of com g^ven in 
Russia to a horse on Christmas will 
cause him to be healthy and fauth- 
ful all the vear. 

If the good wife bums the cakes 
on Christmas, she will die in the 
year. (Bohemia.) 



.^kLjtl-t 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1501 



In Yorkshire, at Christinas eve, 
the good dame produces a fresh 
cheese on which is carved a rude 
cross. This cheese will bring luck 
to the house. 

People in Gloucestershire, Eng- 
land, usually examine their pews 
carefully, to be sure that every ves- 
tige of Christmas greens was re- 
moved before Candlemas day, be- 
cause it was considered a sure sig^ 
of death if one leaf remained. 

Food from the Christmas supper 
is thrown on the fire and a branch 
of cherry is left there for luck, in 
Albania. 

One should never lend anything 
on the day before Christmas as it 
mav be used for enchantments. 
(Bohemia.) 

A London saying is that a white 
Christmas makes a brown Easter. 
In Germany exists the saying: 
**Green Christmas — white Easter." 

To save a piece of wood from a 
Christmas fire and keep it all the 
year to light the Christmas fire 
next time will bring good luck. 

The planets stand still while the 
beasts of the field kneel and pray 
for them on Christmas night. 

An old-fashioned document says 
that you must take your horse to 
the river on Christmas morning 
and make it walk against the cur- 
rent. Throw an apple into the 
stream below, and if it hits the 
horse, it will be strong during the 
coming year. 

A cricket chirruping on Christ- 
mas is a sign of good luck for the 
coming year. 

The peasants in the north of 
Europe bake at Christmas time 
bread in the shape of a boar, for 
luck. 

In some parts of England, the 
belief is current that the sheep walk 
in procession on Christmas eve. 



In Scotland, if a bannock baked 
for anyone at Christmas, breaks in 
the middle, he will not live till 
another Christmas. 

European peasants hold to the 
notion that the oxen are always 
found kneeling on Christmas morn- 
ing. 

The one who finds the single 
raisin put into the Christmas pud- 
ding, will marry first. 

"Christmas on the balcony, Eas- 
ter near the firebrands." 

Bread baked on Christmas eve 
will never become mouldy. 

In Lincolnshire, if all the Yule 
cake is eaten on Christmas eve and 
none saved for Christmas day, the 
year will be unlucky. 

He who eats a raw egg, fasting, 
on Christmas morning, can carry 
heavy weights. 

In Prussia to insure luck eat the 
roe of the carp on Christmas eve. 

Oatmeal and water eaten by the 
Irish on New Year's mom will save 
them from sickness for the year. 

In the Northeast of Scotland 
great exertions are made to secure 
meat for the Christmas dinner; if 
it should be wanting, the cattle will 
not thrive. 

To dream of a black cat at 
Christmas is a sign of alarming ill- 
ness. (German.) 

If you eat com on Christmas day, 
you will have good crops that year. 

If the dog howls the night be- 
fore Christmas, it will go mad with- 
in a year. 

If on Christmas you take a fir 
stick, thrust it in the fire, let it burn 
partially, and put it under the bed. 
your house will not be struck by 
lightning during the following sum- 
mer. 

A green Christmas makes a fat 
churchyard. 



X502 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



If, on Christinas day» the farm- 
er's wife will grease the heads of 
her geese, she will have a good 
flock the next year. 

If, at Christmas, the gnats are 
flying, at Easter there will be ice- 
bergs. 

If you seat an odd number of 
guests at the Christmas supper» 
some of them will become enemies 
before the next year is out 

Who steps into a hank of cotton 
on Christmas day will have bad 
luck and sickness. 

Let not the light go out on 
Christmas eve, or one in the house 
will die. 

On Christmas night no one 
should go to bed lest the witches 
should carry one off. 

A hoop coming off a cask on 
Christmas eve shows that some oae 
in the house will die that year. 

If, when lights are brought in 
on Christmas eve, anyone has a 
shadow with only half a head, he 
will die in half a year. As much 
head as one has in the shadow so 
long will one live. 

In Anspach it is believed that if 
the Christmas candles cast the 
shadow of any person in such a 
manner as to make him appear 
headless, he will die before another 
Christmas. 

Make little sand heaps with a 
thimble for each member of the 
family on Christmas eve, and whose 
heap has fallen in by the next 
morning is sure to die during the 
year. (Prussia.) 

If a barefoot boy comes into the 
house while the Yule log is burn- 
ing, it is a bad sign. 

The ashes of the Yule log should 
be kept for good luck. 

For real good luck kiss the old- 
est person in the house on Christ- 



mas day and the youngest on New 
Year's day. 

The house-keeper should go to 
the fruit tree on Christmas eve and 
shake the tree, saying: "Tree, wake 
up, wake up, and give us plenty of 
fruit next year." 

It is unlucky to be the first home 
from church on Christmas. That 
person will be the first to die. 

It is an old superstition that if 
you die in Christmas week, your 
soul will go to Heaven. 

It is a bad omen for anyone to 
leave the table at Christmas supper 
until all have finished. 

From Christmas day until New 
Year's day nothing that runs 
around may be set in motion, there- 
fore to spin or wind at that time will 
bring bad luck. 

If, on Christmas night, at twelve 
o'clock all the cattle rise up and 
continue standing for some time, 
and then lie down again, it is a sign 
of plenty in the year to come. 

In France the Yule log is sap- 
posed to protect from evil all per- 
sons who are seated around it, and 
this charm extends throughout the 
year. 

The ashes of the Christmas oak 
log have mysterious virtues and 
are always saved. 

The maiden who marries on 
Christmas day need have no fear 
for the future, for her luck is in- 
sured. 

At 12 o'clock of Christmas eve 
animals are endowed with speech 
and prophecy. 

To bathe on Christmas day will 
secure freedom from fevers and 
toothaches. 

To dream of a black cat at 
Christmas time is the sign of an 
alarming illness during the coming 
year. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1503 



If the head of the house will go 
out on Christmas eve and hit three 
blows on the wood block with his 
axe, the foxes will let the chickens 
alone for the coming year. 

On Chcistmas morning the serv- 
ant should be sent to draw water 
from the well, pull com from the 
shock, and dig kale in the garden, 
to insure prosperity to the family. 

On Christmas day take a piece 
of both rye bread and wheat bread, 
and lay a knife on each piece; on 
what piece the knife will rust, is a 
sign that there will be plenty of 
ttuit kind of grain. 

In Servian Christmas celebra- 
tions a cake in which a silver piece 
has been concealed is broken, and 
he to whom it falls, is considered 
the happiest and luckiest of the 
party. 

In some places it is the custom 
to make for Christmas night a so 
called "fraternal bed" on the floor 
in which the children and domestics 
sleep together on Yule straw. 

A cup of whatever cheers Christ- 
mas revellers poured about the 
roots of fruit trees, will insure a 
good crop. 

If you give a coin to a beggar on 
Christmas day, it will bring great 
good luck to you. 

**\Vhcn Christmas is white the grave- 
yard is lean. 

But fat is the graveyard when Christ- 
mas is green.'* 

In Brittany it is unlucky to bake 
bread on St, Thomas* day. 

In Prussia the clothes-lines must 
not be hung aloft on Christmas day 
or New Year's on penalty of bad 
luck. 

Scales from the Christmas carp 
carried in the pocket will keep the 
purse full all the year. (Prussia.) 

In Dcwsbury, in Yorkshire, the 
bells used to be tolled on Christ- 



mas eve, in token that the devil 
died when Christ was bom, at the 
very time when the Puritans sup- 
posed the devil to be more active 
than usual. 

The Yule log was supposed to be 
a protection against evil spirits, and 
it was considered a bad omen if the 
fire went out before the evening 
was over. 

You should set the Christmas 
candles on the highest shelf in the 
room. 

It is unlucky to use ivy for 
Christmas decorations. 

Be stu-e to have cheese and cake 
in the house on Christmas, and let 
no one tempt you to cut it before 
the proper time, as it would bring 
very bad luck. 

To have luck every one in the 
house must stir the Christmas pud- 
ding, beginning with the oldest 
even if she be a servant 

In Anspach, Germany, when the 
Christmas candles are lighted on 
the Christmas tree, one has only 
to observe the shadows to know 
who will die in the year, for those 
who will, will appear with the heads 
off. 

On Christmas eve make a little 
heap of salt on the table and leave 
it over night. If it melts, you will 
die next year; if it remains undi- 
minished, you will live. 

In the Netherlands they say that 
if vou take a stick of wood from the 
Are which has not been quite 
burned up on Christmas eve and 
put it under the bed, it will protect 
the house from lightning for the 
year. 

In Skrandinavia there is a pretty 
custom to place all the shoes of the 
family in a row before the Christ- 
mas fire at night, as an omen that 
the family will live in peace and 
harmony for the whole year. 



I5Q4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



In Sweden, it is unlucky to let 
the fire or candles go out on 
Christmas. 

It is unluclcy to leave any of the 
dishes dirty on Christmas eve. 

Who eats nuts without honey on 
Christmas day will lose his teeth; 
others say that he who does not eat 
honey and garlic Christmas eve will 
have a sore throat 

As many mince pies eaten 
Christmas week, so many happy 
months next year, but each one 
counted must be made by different 
hands, and eaten in different 
houses. 

To eat Christmas pudding in 13 
different houses before the first of 
January is a sign that you will have 
joy and prosperity during the com- 
ing year. 

The Yule candle was burned at 
the Christmas feast until twelve 
o'clock, and then, if any remained, 
it was carefully preserved for the 
"death-wake" of the head of the 
family. If it went out before 
twelve, woe would follow. 

At Christmas it used to be the 
custom to set little bowls of Yule 
porridge and other eatables on the 
floor of the bam together with a 
jacket for the "Tomtegubbe," a 
household spirit, in order that he 
might continue to bring prosperity 
to the house. 

The practice of kissing under the 
mistletoe arose from the belief that 
whatever was done under the mis- 
tletoe would never become known, 
as that plant would seal the lips of 
anyone who went under it. 

If after a Christmas dinner you 
shake out the tablecloth on the 
bare ground under the open sky, 
crumbwort will grow on the spot. 

If you put all the silver you pos- 
sess on the table set for the Christ- 
mas-day feast, the light, shining on 



it from the "Yule-fire" will bring- 
good luck and cause the silver to 
increase. (Sweden.) 

It is unlucky to spin or sew on 
Christmas eve. 

English maidens believe that if 
they do not receive at least one kiss 
under the mistletoe on Christmas 
day, they will not marry for a year. 

Be sure to wish some one a mer- 
ry Christmas before you put your 
shoes and stockings on. 

Christmas decorations must be 
removed and cleared away, bef^e 
Candlemas day, February Zd, or 
bad luck will follow. 

To insure luck in love the mistle- 
toe used in the Christmas festivities 
must be burned by the crfdest un- 
married member of the family. 

If a leaf or berry of the Christ- 
mas decorations are found in a 
chtu-ch pew, it is a sign that some 
one who sits in that pew will die 
during the coming year. 

If when sitting at table on 
Christmas eve, you wish to know 
whether any of those present will 
die before next Christmas, go out 
silently and peep through one of 
the window panes; the person who 
appears sitting at table without a 
head, will die in the following year. 

From a curious old song we 
learn that it is peculiarly unfortu- 
nate when Christmas falls on Sat- 
urday, and just the reverse when it 
falls on Sunday. 

On Christmas night Albanians 
waive their idea that it is unlucky 
to pile wood on top of each other, 
and pile it as high as the safety of 
the house will permit, as this night 
neutralizes all evil influences. 

To grind grain on the night be- 
fore Christmas is unlucky, for the 
nymphs are out in all the streams, 
and if they find a mill going they 
would stop it, and break it, or else 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCJES^'CES. 



ISPS 



grind it with such furious force that 
the mill-stones would burst. (Hof- 
berg, "Swedish Folk-Lore/*) 

In Albania, on Christmas eve 
the largest log that can be found is 
brought in and all the family rise 
and greet it with these words: 

** Welcome our log! God has destined 
thee for his Christmas fire. 

Bring good luck to us and to our 
flocks." 

When the heavenly host told the 
shepherds at Bethlehem of the birth 
of Christ, a deep g^oan was heard 
all through the Isles of Greece, as 
it denoted that great Pan, the god 
of the woods, was dead. 

To bring good luck to a house on 
Christmas eve, every stranger who 
enters should strike the Yule log 
with a piece of iron, saying: "For 
as many sparks as fly out of thee 
let there be as many oxen, horses, 
sheep, goats, chickens, pigs, and 
bee-hives." 

Tlie Scandinavians have a belief 
that Thor and all the other gods 
and goddesses come to earth on 
Christmas night 

In Scandinavia it is believed that 
on Christmas eve a beautiful blue 
flower drops from heaven. This 
can only be found by g^eat pa- 
tience, but if once secured and 
brought to the bedside of the ill or 
dying, it will restore health once 
again to the sufferer. It can only 
be found by the pure in heart. 

As you hang your stocking up, 
wish and say: 

"Christmas faj of Christmas daj. 

Let me wish what wish I maj; 

If I think with love of you, 

You will make my wish come true." 

In Germany is a superstition that 
vagabond witches wander in the 
darkness on Christmas eve, seeking 
to draw the minds of the people 
from the sacred festival ; drums are 
beaten to drive them away. 



In the Azores wheat, maize, and 
beans are put in water on Christ- 
mas eve, and the way they germi- 
nate will indicate what crops may be 
expected the following year. 

On Christmas night the wives 
and sweethearts of mariners will re- 
pair to the seashore and keep their 
gaze toward those points of the 
horizon where they suppose them 
to be, while uttering the magic 
words which are to secure their 
husbands and lovers against the 
perils of the fickle element 

In Sweden if any one will go on 
the path leading to the church on 
Christmas morning at sunrise, he 
or she will see all the funerals that 
will pass that way during the next 
year, how the crops will g^ow, and 
what the meadows and pastures 
will produce; also whether or not 
any fires will break out within the 
parish. 

A Servian who visits his neigh- 
bor on Christmas day, strikes the 
oak log which is always found 
burning, on that day. with a piece 
of iron, saying: "For as many 
sparks as come out of you, let there 
be as many oxen, horses, sheep, 
goats, pigs, and bee-hives." 

A Christmas spell: Steep mistle- 
toe berries, to the number of nine, 
in a mixture of ale, wine, vinegar 
and honey; take them on going to 
bed, and you will dream of your 
future lot. A storm in this dream 
is very bad; it is most likely you 
will then marrv a sailor, who will 
suffer shipwreck at sea; but to see 
either sun, moon or stars, is an ex- 
cellent presage; so are flowers: but 
a coffin is an index of a disappoint- 
ment in love. 

If straw is drawn at Christmas 
from the roof of an inherited dwell- 
ing, taken to the bam and 
thrashed, and grains of com be 
found in it, it betokens good luck 
for the coming year. 



x5o6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



In the country between Adelep- 
sen and Norden, in Hanover, it is 
believed that the hop becomes 
g^een on Christmas night and 
comes forth even from under the 
deepest snow, but that afterwards 
nothing more of it can be seen. 

On Christmas eve in Ireland, the 
people hardly go to bed, and if a 
man hears the first cock crow, he 
gets a cup of tea; but if a woman 
hears it, she gets a cup of whiskey 
for luck. 

The sound of church-bells will 
be heard at Christmas wherever a 
church has stood, though no ves- 
tige of its ruins remains. A city 
that is sunk under the sea has its 
church-bells ring, and if you are in 
a boat over the place, you can hear 
them ringing down below, hun- 
dreds of feet 

On Christmas eve and New 
Year's eve when the clock beg^ins 
to strike 12, the doors, especially 
the front and back doors, should be 
opened, that the bad spirits may 
pass out and the good spirits come 
in. As soon as the clock has done 
striking, shut the doors to keep the 
good spirits in. 

On Christmas day, take the first 
piece of bread you cut and put it 
away, and you will have plenty of 
bread in the house the whole year. 

In Servia a cake of unleavened 
bread is baked for Christmas and a 
coin hid in it; the one who gets it, 
will be the happiest, the belief be- 
ing that the coin always goes to the 
one with the most peaceful mind. 

At the birth of Christ on Christ- 
mas eve, the bees are said to stir in 
their hives and hum a great song of 
praise, but one must not disturb 
them, for, as they are careful not to 
intrude upon the celebrations of 
mankind, so man must not inter- 
fere with their celebration of the 
birth of the Christ child. 



Persons bom on Christmas day 
were believed to have the power (rf 
seeing and commanding spirits. 

A Bohemian Christmas charm is 
to take a branch of elder and sing: 

"Sweet elder I shake, I shake! 
Tell me ye dogs that wake, 
Where is my lover to-night?^ 

Then in whatever direction the 
dogs bark, there your lover is. 

In obedience to the general belief 
in the potency of Christmas night to 
bring good husbands to their 
daughters, mothers will besmear 
their faces with honey, accompany- 
ing this with certain formulas of 
words which must never vary, A 
word too many or a word too little 
would cause the charm to fail at its 
purpose. 

When the Christmas loaves are 
cut, all the pieces and crumbs are 
divided among the poultry, cattle, 
and other animals that they may be 
fruitful and healthy; some bits are 
flung into the streams that the 
water may remain pure; another 
part buried under a tree in the or- 
chard that the ground may be fer- 
tile. The last crumbs are thrown 
into the fire so that it may do no 
damage. 

In the mining districts of Europe 
the miners declare that a solemn 
Mass is celebrated on Christmas 
eve by beings not human, in the 
cavern which contains the biggest 
lode of ore, that it is brilliantly 
lighted by candles of a miraculous 
material, and that the service is 
weirdly chanted by unseen choris- 
ters. 

The Glastonbury thorn was a 
great wonder in England, being 
supposed to bloom regularly on 
Christmas day. The monks of the 
Abbey represented it as the staff of 
Joseph of Arimathea, which, being 
inserted by him in the ground, had 
miraculously sprouted into a living 
tree. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



ISO? 



In France it is the custom at 
Christmas to take twelve grains of 
corn and name them for the com- 
ing twelve months of the year. 
These are placed on a slightly heat- 
ed shovel beginning with the one 
bearing the name of the month of 
January. When a grain jumps on 
the shovel it is a sign that g^ain will 
be dear that month, but if the grain 
does not jump it is a sign that g^ain 
will be cheap in that month. 

At New Perlican, people have 
been into the stables at midnight 
of Christmas and seen the cattle on 
their knees with eyes upturned to 
heaven, and have been driven away 
by unearthly voices. This belief, 
strangely enough, is also found 
among the American Indians. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Harrison in his 
"Sketches of Upper Canada,"* an 
Indian at midnight, creeping cau- 
tiously along in the stillness of a 
beautiful moonlight Christmas eve, 
said when questioned, "Me watch 
to see the deer kneel ; this is Christ- 
mas night, and the deer fall upon 
their knees to the Great Spirit, and 
look up." 

If at Christmas a woman boils 
green kale and conceals the ladle 
with which she has stirred it, under 
her apron, and goes to the church 
door just as the priest is saying the 
Pater nostcr, she will discover who 
arc the witches of the place. They 
will be known by the extraordinary 
headgear which is invisible to all 
but her. She must only stay a mo- 
ment though, for if she remains, the 
devil will threaten and persecute 
her all the year. (German.) 

Manv and curious are the weath- 
er omens peculiar to Christmas- 
tide. We are told in the old "Hus- 
bandman's Practice," that "when 
Christmas day comes while the 
moon waneth it shall be a very 
good year; and the nearer it Com- 
eth to the new moon, the better 



shall the year be. If it cometh when 
the moon increaseth, the worse and 
harder shall the year be." 

In Sweden cakes and ale are set 
out in the snow for "Nysser" a red- 
capped "troir* who visits the earth 
at Yule tide and brings good luck 
to those who remember him. (A 
troll is a supernatural being repre- 
sented as of diminutive size and 
said to inhabit hills, caves and like 
places.) 

In Rutlandshire and the midland 
counties it is said that "a green 
Christmas brings a heavy harvest/' 
A full moon about Christmas time 
was not considered a good omen; 
hence the jingles: 

''Light Christmas, light wbeatsheaf ; 
Dark Christmas, heavy wheatsheaf." 

"Bright Christmas, dark bams; 
Dark Christmas, light barns.*' 

In mediaeval England it was cus- 
tomary to commence all great 
Christmas feasts by the solemn 
bringing in of the boar's head as 
the initial dish. In many of the 
public schools and universities in 
England the boar's head is still re- 
tained as the great dish of the 
Christmas banquet; and Queen 
Victoria had this custom retained at 
her Christmas dinner, which for 
over fifty years consisted of the his- 
toric dishes of a baron of beef and 
woodcock-pie, preceded by the cer- 
emonial bringing in of a boar's 
head. This custom is a relic of the 
pre-Christian Druidical times, when 
a boar was killed at the festival of 
the winter solstice and sacrificed to 
Freya, the goddess of peace and 
plenty, who was supposed to ride 
upon a boar with golden bristles. 

The Christmas tree was first 
brought to England from Germany 
by Coleridge, or at least he was the 
first who called public attention to 
its beauty and significance in a let- 
ter from Ratzburg, North Ger- 
many. It was taken up by a few 



iSo8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



leading families and has grown in 
popularity every year since. The 
Germans claim it as peculiar to 
themselves, and as having g^own 
out of their Christian history. They 
identify it with the apostolic labors 
of St. Matemus, one of the earliest, 
if not the very earliest, of their gos- 
pel preachers. They have a legend 
of his sleeping under a fir tree, and 
of a miracle that occurred on that 
occasion. But the Christmas tree 
is traceable to the Roman Satur- 
nalia, and was probably introduced 
into Germany by the conquering 
Roman legions. 

"Some say that ever 'gainst that season 

comes 
Wherein our Saviour's birth is cele- 
brated. 
The bird of dawning (the cock) singeth 

all night long; 
And then, they say, no spirit can walk 

abroad; 
The nights are wholesome; then no 

planets strike. 
No &iry takes, nor witch hath power 

to charm. 
So hallow'd and so gracious is the 

time." 
(Shakespeare, Hamlet, L, i.) 

In Russia, during Christmas tide 
young g^rls go to listen under the 
windows of their friends; if they 
hear something good, they take it 
as a prediction of happiness during 
the year; but if bad, the contrary. 
Some, more brave than the others, 
go to the church-doors and listen; 
and if they hear or imagine they 
hear singing or music, their nerves 
being worked up to a high pitch by 
the terror of it, they take it as a 
good or a bad sig^ according to 
what they hear. If they imagine to 
hear a wedding-march, they will be 
married; but if a funeral-dirge, they 
will die. On Christmas eve, Rus- 
sian peasants take a hen into a 
dark room where they have already 
placed on the floor flour, bread, 
gold, silver, and other objects, and 
watch whatever the hen picks at, 
and this will then be indicative of 



the future husband. If gold, he will 
be very rich; if bread, he will al- 
ways get enough, etc. If she picks 
at water, he will be a drunkard. 
Another Russian custom is the toL- 
lowing: A girl takes off her left 
shoe and throws it over the gate 
rail; then she runs and looks to see 
in what direction lies the toe of the 
shoe. It is in that direction that 
she will be married and live. But 
if the toe of the shoe lies toward the 
gate, she will not be married that 
year, but stay at home. 

In Malta exists the belief that 
persons bom on Christmas eve, 
will ever after be transformed on 
that night into "gaugaus," some 
kind of ghost or spirit, while 
asleep, and in that state wander 
about, frightening other people and 
playing all sorts of pranks. Tow- 
ard the dawn of morning the ^'gau- 
gau" retiu-ns, and the person will 
awake in the morning exhausted 
and unconscious of wluit has taken 
place during the night This form 
of punishment is thought to have 
been inflicted upon the persons be- 
cause our Saviour does not like to 
have any persons bom at the same 
time he was bom. To get rid of 
this annual transformation the per- 
son must take a sieve and stay 
awake from ten o'clock at night un- 
til Christmas morning at dawn, 
counting the holes. 

It used to be supposed that the 
ox knew all about Christmas and 
was accustomed to kneel in wor- 
ship of the new-bom child every 
Christmas morning. It was be- 
lieved that if man did not go to 
worship, the animal world did so. 
The old English carol says: 

O God, that made all creature. 
How art Thou become so poore. 
That on this hay and straw will lie. 
Among the asses, oxyn. and l^e! 

Howitson in his "Sketches of 
Upper Canada" mentions a curious 
instance in which this credulity ap- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1509 



peared. He tells how on Christmas 
eve he met an Indian at midnight, 
cautiously creeping along, and as 
he went he made a sign to keep 
still. In answer to his inquiries the 
Indian said, "We watch to see the 
deer kneel. This is Christmas 
night and all the deer fall upon 
their knees to the great Spirit and 
look up to Heaven." 

The prediction about Christmas 
found in a Harleian MSS. of the 
fifteenth century applied well to 
the Christmas of 1896. 



"If Crystcmas day on Thursday be 
A wyndy wyntcr yc shall sec, 
Of wynds and wcdcrs all wrecked 
And harde tempestes stronge and 

thycke. 
The somcr shall be goode and drye. 
Corn and bestes shall multyplye; 
Thmt ycre ys good Undes to tylhc; 
And kynges and prynces shall dye by 

skylle. 
What childe that day shall borne bee, 
He shall have happe ryght wellc to the. 
Of dedes he shalbc goode and stabylle. 
Of speche and tonge wyse and reasoo- 

abylle. 
Who so that day any thefe aboute. 
He shalbe shente wythowtyn dowte; 
And yf tekenes on that day betide, 
Hyt shal sonc fro the glyde." 

"If Christinas day on Monday be. 
A great winter that year you'll see. 
And full of winds both loud and shrill. 
But in summer, truth to tell. 
High winds shall there be and strong. 
Full of tempests lasting long: 
While battles they shall muhiply 
And great plenty of beasts shall die." 

It is customary in Polish villages 
to strew straw over the Christmas 
eve supper table, and for the young 
people to pick out a straw there- 
from blindfolded or in the dark. 
Should the straw be green, the 
maiden will expect to wear a bridal 
wreath, or the young man to lead 
a bride to the altar. If dry, there 
will be long waiting or no marriage 
at all. In other Polish districts 
wine, water, and beer are placed on 
the table by a merry maiden who 
retires to a comer with a mirror 



and waits until the midnight chime 
is struck. Then will enter a man 
behind her who will drink. If 
wine, he will be rich; if beer, well 
to do; if water, poor; but if no man 
appears at all, the maiden shivers 
with horror, for she is destined 
soon to become the bride of death. 
On New Year's eve the young men 
place themselves before the open 
fire, and bending down, look back- 
wards through their legs. Should 
a woman appear in the back- 
ground, it is the one whom they 
will marry; but if they see the 
shape of a coffin, it forebodes for 
them death during the year. 

Not a leaf or branch of anything 
used as Christmas decorations 
should be allowed to remain after 
Candlemas eve, for as many leaves 
as are left, so many gobUns you 
will see. 

"Down with the rosemary and so, 
Down with the bays and misletoe, 
Down with the holly, ivy, all 
Wherewith ye dress the Christmas Hall: 
That so the superstitious find 
No one least branch there left t>ehind: 
For look, how many leaves there be 
Neglected there, maids trust to me. 
So many goblins shall ye see!" 

The cocks on Christmas night 
crow all night long. One will be- 
gin and ask : "Have you heard the 
news?*' and all the cocks in the 
neighborhood will answer: "The 
Christ is bom I Yes, we have heard 
the news I He comes. He comes!*' 

On that one blessed night the 
aspen tree has rest and its leaves 
cease to quiver. 

Herod for one hour ceases to 
clank his chains. 

On that night Pontius Pilate's 
ghost, which has wandered all the 
year on the summit of Mt. Pilatus 
vainly striving to wash his hands, 
can cease and take his rest till 
dawn. 

The Wandering Jew for that 
happy respite hears no more the 



I5XO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



goading voice, "Onward, ever on- 
ward I" 

The daughter of Herodias 
doomed to spin an eternal circle of 
frantic dance around the North 
pole, drops on her knees and rests 
for this single night. 

In Italian folk-lore there is an old 
woman whose name is Befana. She 
is a sort of a wandering Jew and 
Santa Qaus combined. She is the 
good fairy who fills the children's 
stocking with presents when Jan- 
uary 6th comes around. If the chil- 
dren are naughty she fills their 
stockings with ashes, but she is 
compassionate and sometimes re- 
lents, and returns to comfort the 
little penitent with g^fts. Tradition 
says that she was too busy sweep- 
ing to come to the window when 
the three wise men of the East 
passed on their way to oflFer hom- 
age to the new-bom Saviour, but 
said she could see them when they 
came back. For this lack of rever- 
ence she was duly punished, for 
they went back another way and 
she has been watching for them 
ever since. At one time her effigy 
was carried through the Italian 
streets, but the custom is now al- 
most wholly disused. She is used 
as a bug-bear for the little ones by 
Italian mothers. 

Yuletide has been held as a sa- 
cred festival by numberless nations. 

Christians hold December 25th 
as the anniversary of the birth of 
Jesus. 

China on the same day celebrates 
the birth of Buddha, son of Maya. 

Druids held during the winter 
solstice the festival of Nolagh. 

Egypt held that Horus, son of 
Isis, was bom towards the close of 
December. 

Greece celebrated in the winter 
solstice the birth of Demeter 
(Ceres), Dionysos (Bacchus), and 
Herakles (Hercules). 

India, numerous Indian tribes 



keep Yuletide as a religious fes* 
tival. 

Mexico holds in the winter sol- 
stice the festival of Capacrame. 

Persia at the same period hon- 
ors the birth of Mithras. 

Rome celebrated on December 
25th the festival "Dies Natalis Solis 
Invicti," while several Christmas 
customs have been taken over, in a 
modified form, from the Roman 
Saturnalia, (q. v.) 

Scandinavia held at Yuletide the 
festival called Jul, in honor of 
Freya son of Odin. 

As apparent from above, the 25th 
of December has long been held by 
almost every people in high festival 
as the time of the winter solstice. 
This day was chosen for the Chris- 
tian festival of the Nativity during 
the reign of Antoninus Pius (13^ 
161, A. D.), "in order to divert a 
long and general pagan practice to 
the birth of Christ in Bethlehem," 
or as Chrysostom says: "that the 
Christians might perform their holy 
rite^ undisturbed, while the heathen 
were busy with their profane cere- 
monies." In reality the birth of 
Christ must have occurred in stmi- 
mer, as the Bible tells of the flocks 
in pasture, while as a matter of fact 
the end of December is a most se- 
vere winter season in that country. 

The following is a Provengal 
legend referring to the birth of 
Christ: On the day when the Vir- 
gin bore the Christ child, the moth- 
er of a poor little blind g^rl heard 
the great news and determined to 
go to see the Holy Babe. When 
she was about to start, her little 
girl pleaded to go with her, but she 
told her she could not go, for she 
was blind. The child pleaded with 
tears to be allowed to go, but the 
mother was obdurate until her lit- 
tle girl said, ''I know I am blind, 
dear mother, and cannot see the 
Holy babe, but are eyts needed to 
adore Him? I still could touch His 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



151 1 



hand if you would only let me go!" 
Touched by these words the moth- 
er yielded and the two went to 
where the little one lay. And when 
they came to the manger and the 
little girl knelt and touched Him, 
in love and awe, she felt His tiny 
hand laid softly upon her beating 
heart, and instantly she saw her 
Lord. 

Another charming legend of the 
birth of Christ in the old Provengal 
tongue was that a mother who had 
a little babe, felt that she ought to 
give its cradle and pillow to her 
Lord, but on seeing how her own 
child would be deprived of its bed 
she hesitated. But the babe itself 
spoke from the cradle, saying: "Go, 
go, quick! Take my kisses and my 
bed to Jesus my Saviour." After 
having presented them with these 
words to the Virgin, who received 
them with thanks, the woman be- 
came very happy, for God's bless- 
ing fell upon her, and when her 
little boy g^ew up, he became one 
of the Apostles. 

The Yule swain is a kind of San- 
ta Qaus among the Lapps. He is 
eleven feet high, and rides on a 
goat. He appears on St Thom- 
as's day, and continues his visits till 
Christmas eve ; but where he comes 
from and whither he goes nobody 
has the least idea. 

St. Nicholas is the Santa Glaus 
of the Germans and Hollanders. In 
Holland his dav, which is the 6th 
of December, is celebrated by mak- 
ing presents to relatives and 
friends, the same as we do on 
Cliristmas day. In Germany St. 
Nicholas is supposed to be the serv- 
ant of the Christ Child, who ap- 
Brars on the evening of the Gth of 
ecember to inquire about the be- 
havior of the children; good chil- 
dren receive apples, nuts and can- 
dy, naughty children are punished 
with the switch. (See St. Nicholas' 
Day.) 



The Yule log is a g^eat log of 
wood which was laid in olden times 
across the hearth-fire on Christmas 
eve. This was done with certain 
ceremonies and much merry-mak- 
ing. Upon it being conveyed to the 
baronial hall every person who 
passed raised his hat to it, inasmuch 
as it was typical of good promise 
and of irritating feuds and heart- 
searing wrongs which it would met- 
aphorically biun out. 

"Ever at Yulctidc, when the great log 

flamed 
In chimney comer, laugh and jest went 

round." 

(Aldrich, Wyndham Towers.) 

(ST.) CHRISTOPHER'S DAY 
(July 28th)— The 28th of July is the 
day of St. Christopher, who bore 
the infant Saviour on his shoulder, 
but to whom had been attributed 
in Belgium some characteristics of 
the Scandinavian god Thor, as he 
is propitiated by the peasantry as a 
patron against the tempests by 
which their crops are so much en- 
dangered. 

In France, St (Thristopher has 
inherited some of the attributes of 
the Gaulish Hercules, but this does 
not extend to the Flemish parts of 
Belgium where northern manners 
still rule. 

(ST.) CLEMENT'S DAY (Nov. 
23d)--St. Clement's Day (Nov. 
23d) is in honor of martyr Clement, 
who is said to have been tlirown 
into the sea with an anchor fixed 
about his neck. Hence, the anchor 
is assigned to him as an emblem. 
St. Clement is held as the patron 
saint of blacksmiths. It was for- 
merly customary for boys and the 
lower class of people generally, to 
go about on this day begging for 
liquor, wherewith they made a re- 
gale at night. Hence, the day was 
marked in some old almanacs by 
the figure of a pot. 



I5I3 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



CONFIRMATION DAY — To 
be in the company of distinguished 
people on your confirmation-day, is 
a sign of happiness and honor in 
marriage. 

CONCEPTION OF THE 
BLESSED VIRGIN (December 
8th) — ^The eighth of December is 
the Roman festival in commemora- 
tion of the conception of the Bless- 
ed Virgin. 

CORPUS CHRISTI— If a sick 
person lies in the way of the sacra- 
ment on Corpus Christi, he will re- 
cover. (Greece.) 

A young swarm of bees leaving 
the hive on Corpus Christi day will 
build a monstrance in the honey- 
comb. (Luxembourg.) 

Corpus Qiristi is one of the 
greatest festivals of the Romish 
Churchy held on the Tuesday after 
the Trinity Sunday in celebration of 
the doctrine of transubstantiation. 

In Catholic countries the Blessed 
Sacrament is carried in procession 
through the towns with much cere- 
mony and picturesque detail, and 
which was usual in the earlier times 
to consecrate the day with mystical 
plays in which the chief characters 
of the procession made their ap- 
pearance. In many Catholic places 
the houses were adorned on this 
day with flowers, pictures of Saints, 
church figures and the like, and 
many altars are built in street cor- 
ners and in neighboring places. 

(ST.) CRISPIN DAY (October 
25th) — St Crispin Day is cele- 
brated on the twenty-fifth of Octo- 
ber in honor to the two brothers, 
Crispin and Crispinian, two young 
missionaries of the third century. 
Crispin and Crispinian are the pa- 
tron saints of the shoemakers. 

CROMDUFF SUNDAY — 
When St. Patrick visited Ireland he 
fotmd the people worshipping an 



idol called "Black Crom." The fes- 
tival is even now kept up at the be- 
ginning of August and is called 
"Cromduflf Sunday." There were 
twelve idols of stone around him^ 
and himself of gold. (Eltcxi, "Or- 
igins of English History.") 

DATES AND DAYS, MIS- 
CELLANEOUS— Unlucky is the 
year ending in nine. 

It is very unlucky if any unwont- 
ed accident occurs at either of the 
following events: Birth, death, or 
marriage. 

The day on which the Romans 
suffered their memorable defeat by 
the Cambrians was long considered 
a most unlucky day and no general 
if he could avoid it, would begin a 
battle on that day. 

Alexander the Great conquered 
Darius on the 6th of April, won a 
great victory at sea on the 6th of 
April, and died on the 6th of April 
The father of Alexander the Great 
took Potides; Parm^io, his gen- 
eral, overthrew the Illyrians and his 
horse was victor at the Olympic 
games all on the 6th of April. Al- 
exander was bom on this date and 
the prophets foretold that he who 
was bom on the date of such g^eat 
victories would prove invincible. 

Any event that occurs on a date 
that is divisible by three will turn 
out well 

The Emperor Charles V. was 
bom on the day of Matthew the 
Apostle, on the 24th of February, 
1500. On this day he was very 
lucky all through his life, for he 
took King Francis in battle, won 
the victory at Biccoque, was elected 
and then crowned Emperor on that 
day. 

Antipater Sidonius, the Greek 
poet, was seized with a fever every 
year for one day only, his birthday, 
and after living to be an old man, 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1513 



died on that day of the same com- 
plaint. 

Astronomers say that the 1st of 
August, the 4th of September, and 
the 11th of March are most injuri- 
ous to let blood. 

The 10th of August, 1st of De- 
cember and 6th of April are peril- 
ous to those who surieit themselves 
in eating or drinking. 

The last number of the year in 
which you were bom will be lucky 
to you. Thus if you were bom in 
18G4 the fourth of the month, the 
fourth day of the week and so forth 
will be lucky. 

"In every future year of our Lord, 
When the sum of the figures it 
twenty-five, 
Some warlike kingdom will draw the 
sword. 
But peaceful nations in peace shall 
thrive.- 

Thomas k Beckett was appoint- 
ed Archbishop of Canterbury by 
Henry II. He was appointed on 
Tuesday, was brought face to face 
with the peers of Northampton on 
Tuesday, was banished from Eng- 
land on Tuesday, foretelling his 
martvrdom; he came home from 
exile on Tuesday; he was killed at 
the altar on Tuesday and was can- 
onized a Saint on Tuesday. 

It has often been observed that 
some event of importance, either 
good or evil, is sure to happen to 
a woman in her 31st year; therefore 
she is advised to be circumspect in 
all her actions during that year. If 
she is a maiden or widow, it is 
probable that she will marry this 
year; if a wife, that she will lose her 
children or husband. She will 
either receive riches, or travel into 
a foreign land; at all events, some 
circumstance or other will take 
place during this remarkable year 
of her life, that will have great 
effect on her future fortunes and 
existence. 



The like is applicable to men in 
the 42nd year. The ancient Astrol- 
ogers did allege that there were 28 
days in the year which were re- 
vealed by the Angel Gabriel to 
the good Joseph, which have ever 
been remarked to be very fortu- 
nate days, either to purge, let 
blood, cure, wounds, use merchan- 
dise, sow seed, plant trees, build 
houses, or take journeys in long 
or short voyages, in fighting or 
giving battle or skirmishes. They 
also do allege that children bom on 
any of those days can never remain 
poor all their lives, scholars who 
enter college on any of these days 
will become the most learned in the 
world, and those who are put to 
any craft or trade on these days will 
become perfect artificers and rich. 
Also those who are put to mer- 
chandise will become wealthy with- 
out any failure. The days are as 
follows: Jan. 3, 13; Feb. 5, 28; 
Mar. 5, 22, 30; April 5, 22, 29; May 
4, 28; June 3, 8; July 12, 15, 18; 
Aug. 12; Sept. 1. 7, 24, 28; Oct. 4, 
15; Nov. 13, 19; Dec. 23, 26. (These 
dates do not by any means agree 
with other lists given, but on the 
authority of the Angel Gabriel, 
most people will prefer them.) 

(ST.) DAVID'S DAY (March 
1st) — Upon St. David's day put 
barley in the clay. 

If you build a hot fire in your 
oven on the first day of March, 
your hands will never chap. (Per- 
sia.) 

St. David's day is believed by the 
English to be a lucky day to make 
loans on interest, or enter into any 
profitable transaction. 

St. David's day is unlucky to 
make your will or plant trees. 
Dreams on St. David's night are 
sure to come to pass. 

The English believe that anyone 
bom on St. David's day will travel 



X5I4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



much and have forttinate chances. 
Prosperity will depend much on the 
use made of these advantages. 

On the first of March the Al- 
banians will eat no vegetables, but 
cakes and sweetmeats, as this will 
insure a fine summer. 

The North Albanians tie bits of 
red silk and threads of red about 
their little fingers and big toes on 
the first of March, as that will bring 
them the best of luck during the 
year. 

In Albania, on the eve of the 
first of March, a particular leaf is 
thrown in the fire named the name 
of a member of the family. If it 
bums with a crackling noise, the 
person will be lucky; but if quietly, 
it is a bad omen. Aiiother custom 
is to throw a clod of earth in which 
a few drops of wolfs milk is 
kneaded, at the door of the bam 
so that the cows and goats will milk 
well that year. The next morning 
the cows are well whipped with 
cherry branches, to make them en- 
joy good health. On the first day 
of March, the Albanians wash 
themselves with wine to prevent 
any vermin from touching them, 
and then impale a flea on a new 
needle so that no other flea will 
dare to come near them. 

St. David's Day (Mar. 1) is con- 
fined to the Welsh, whose patron 
saint St. David is considered. It is 
the proper custom in Wales to wear 
on this day a leek in or on the hat 
on St David's Day and in allusion 
to the legend that at one time a 
great battle between the Welsh and 
Saxons in the sixth century, the 
Welsh, by his advice adorned their 
hats with leeks in order to be dis- 
tinguished from their enemies. The 
victory gained by the Welsh in that 
battle was attributed to this cause, 
hence, the leek was ever afterwards 
offered in veneration and held in 
iionor of St David. 



(ST.) DENNIS DAY— St Den- 
nis Day is the ninth of October, is 
the day of St. Dennis, the patron 
saint of France. According to 
legend he was put to death in 272, 
upon a hill near Paris, since called 
from that circumstance Montmartre 
(Mons Martyrum). His head had 
no sooner been cut off, than the 
body rose, and taking up the head, 
walked with it two miles. 

DISMAL DAY (May 3)--The 
third day of May is called ^'Dismal 
day." It is unlucky to beg^n any 
new work or business on that day. 

DOG DAYS (July 3 to August 
11) — ^Toads are said never to open 
their mouths during dog-days. 

Unlucky to go in swimming in 
dog-days. 

About Halberstadt, in Germany, 
they say that during the dog-days 
the cows do not drink. 

Dog days bright and clear 
Indicate a good year; 
But when accompanied by rain. 
We hope for better times in vain. 

The dog-days are the hot, sultry 
season of summer during parts of 
July and August; so called from the 
rising of the dog-star, Sirius, dur- 
ing that period being coincident 
with the rising of the sun. In the 
people's mind, however, the name 
of the dog-days refers to the fre- 
quency of dog-madness during the 
hot season. The dog-days cover 
the period from July 3 to August 
11. 

Walsh says in his "Cimosities of 
popular customs:" We must look 
to Egypt for the origin of the ob- 
servance of these days. The rising 
of Tayout, Sihor, or Sirius coincid- 
ed in ancient times with the sum- 
mer solstice and the overflowing of 
the Nile; and, as the latter was the 
source of the fertility of Egypt, the 
period was regarded as sacred, and 
the influence of the dog-star was 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1515 



deemed peculiarly auspicious. The 
superstitious feelings generated in 
Egypt with regard to the dog-days 
gradually spread throughout the 
world, and made themselves felt 
like many other ancient supersti- 
tions. But» while the rising of the 
dog-star was the harbinger of plen- 
ty and prosperity to the Egyptian, 
it was just the reverse to the Ro- 
man, who looked upon the dog- 
days as unfortunate and even pre- 
judicial to life, coming as they did 
in the most unhealthy period of the 
year. The dog-days are still talked 
about, not only in Europe, but in 
America; but it does not require 
Cassendi s grave argument to con- 
vince people that the dog-star can- 
not possibly exercise any good or 
bad influence upon the earth. Pop- 
ular prejudices linger a long time 
even after light has begun to break. 
To this day many sensible persons 
believe that tRe weather is affected 
by the moon, and that equinoctial 
storms attend the sun's imaginary 
passage across an imaginary line. 
Yet the fixed stars combined do af- 
fect the earth. They are original 
sources of light and heat; their 
force is identical with that of the 
sun, and they daguerrcot>'pc them- 
selves. Without the additional beat 
furnished by the fixed stars the sun 
would not render the earth habit- 
able. Sirius is a sun superior to 
Sol himself; but, individually, he 
can but give a name to the dog- 
days. 

(ST.) DUNSTAN'S DAY (May 
17th) — To be bom on St. Dun- 
stan day is bad for all those who are 
not destined for the church. The 
success of those who are so des- 
tined will be pre-eminent. A good 
day on which to launch a ship, or 
buy in stock. 

St Dunstan was the patron saint 
of all goldsmiths and jewelers. He 
was a smith and worked up all sorts 



of metals in his cell near Glaston- 
bury church. It was in this cell, 
according to the legend, that Satan 
had a gossip with the saint and 
Dunstan caught his sable majesty 
by tlie nose with a pair of red-hot 
forceps. 

St. Dunstan, it is said, bought up 
a quantity of barley for brewing 
beer. The devil knowing how anx- 
ious the saint would be to get a sale 
for his beer, offered to blight the 
apple-trees so that there would be 
no cider; and hence a greater de- 
mand for beer. This offer was 
made on condition that the saint 
should sell himself to the devil. St. 
Dunstan accepted the offer and 
stipulated that the trees should be 
blighted on the 17th of May. Since 
then frosts at that time are called 
**St. Dunstan's frosts." 

St Dunstan lived in the reign of 
King Athelstane, grandson of Al- 
fred, in the tenth century. He was 
a monk of Glastonbury Abbey. In 
his lonely cell, his harp, touched by 
invisible fingers for his solace, 
breathed the hymn : "Gaudete an- 
imi.'* He also (says the ancient 
chronicle) once heard the angels 
sing, "Peace to the land of Eng- 
lysshemen." He had moreover at 
Glastonbury his famous tussle with 
the arch-fiend, and by a sharp cau- 
terizing process quickly routed 
him. 

EASTER— If you find a little 
calf on Easter Sunday, keep it and 
raise it, for it will bring you a small 
fortune. 

It is bad luck to paint a cross on 
Easter eggs, and good luck to paint 
flowers on them. 

The day after the Passover a 
piece of bread is burned to show 
that the prohibition against leav- 
ened bread is then begun. 

If the sun shines on Easter, it 
will shine on W hit Sunday. 



I5i6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Who steps not barefoot on the 
floor on Easter day, will be safe 
from fever. 

If you bathe with cold water on 
Easter day, you will keep well the 
whole year. 

To wear new clothes during the 
three weeks following the feast of 
the Passover is inauspicious. 

It IS lucky to find the eggs of 
wild birds at Easter and eat them 
for breakfast (Scotch.) 

In Macedonia, when the eggs are 
colored for Easter, one of them is 
rubbed over the izct so it will al- 
ways be ruddy. 

It is lucky to put on a new bon- 
net on Easter day, and still more 
lucky if a bird leaves a mark on it 
(Gloucestershire, England.) 

In Transylvania it is considered 
unlucky to the soul if a person dies 
at Easter. 

It is a good omen to have your 
babe baptized on Easter day. 

To cry on Easter is a sig^ that 
you will have a sad fourth of July. 

Parents have good luck, if a child 
is bom on Easter. 

It is very unlucky to keep Easter 
eggs; destroy them. 

If a hen hatches a setting of eggs 
on Easter Sunday, the chicks will 
all be drowned. 

^gg rolling on Easter day used 
to be practiced with the idea that 
the farm lands over which the eggs 
were rolled would be sure to yield 
abundantly at harvest time. 

If you stand by an open grave on 
Easter and a clod of earth rolls 
from your feet into the grave, it is 
a sign that you will be buried with- 
in the year. 

If a squirrel runs across your 
path on Easter, it is baa luck. 

If you see a star fall on Easter 
night, you will lose your lover. 



To receive a sudden fright <m 
Easter Sunday is a very ill omen. 

An Irish woman declared that 
she had seen the sun dance for joy 
on Easter morning: "It gave three 
skips just as it came over the hill, 
for I saw it with my own eyes!" 

Cross-buns at Easter will bring 
good luck. (Alleghany.) 

The Irish say that at Easter the 
wild ducks uncover their eggs. 

A death in the family on Easter 
day is very ominous. It means the 
death of another of the family or of 
a dear friend. 

If you get engaged on Easter 
Sunday, you will not be married. 

It is lucky to receive the unex- 
pected gift of an Easter-egg. 

If you fall upstairs on Easter day, 
it is a sign that you will sckmi be 
robbed. 

For a grown person to stumble 
and fall on Easter Sunday is a very 
bad omen. 

A good housekeeper will visit 
every room in the house on Easter 
morning to secure good luck in her 
housekeeping for another year. 

If you receive an invitation on 
Easter, accept it; if you don't, you 
will never have such an invitation 
again. 

If married on Easter Sunday, 
your whole future will be bright 

On Easter Sunday blow a loud 
horn into the cattle-house, and as 
far as the sound is heard, so far 
will wild beasts keep away for the 
year. 

If a pet lamb dies on Easter Sun- 
day, you will never have another. 

It is unlucky to make love be- 
tween Easter and Whitstmtide. 

It is a lucky thing for you, if a 
friend happens to bring an infant 
for the first time into your house on 
Easter morning. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES, 



1517 



If you attend a funeral on Easter^ 
expect more bad news. 

If a little lamb is given you on 
Easter Sunday, you are in for the 
best of luck. 

To put on a garment wrong side 
out on Easter morning, is a bad 
omen. 

If the grease used at Easter in 
frying cross-buns is applied to the 
axles of wagons in which the har- 
vest is hauled home, mice will not 
eat the grain. 

To have a disappointment on 
Easter is a sure sign that you did 
something wrong on Good Friday. 

It is believed, if a young hus- 
band mistakes someone else for his 
wife on Easter morning, that he 
will be a widower within a year. 

On Easter day the priest comes 
to bless the house in Albania, and 
as he leaves, the women throw af- 
ter him the embers from the hearth, 
so that he will take all danger from 
fire away with him. 

To give a man a red egg at Eas- 
ter will secure liis love. (^Tyrol.) 

To marry before the three weeks 
have expired since the Passover, is 
extremely unlucky. 

If the urn of Amorgos is full of 
water at Easter, it is a sign of a 
plentiful harvest; but if empty, a 
bad harvest. (Greek.) 

A red egg is placed on the graves 
on Easter Sunday in ^Vrmenia, so 
tliat the dead shall have a part in 
the resurrection. 

If you wish to be lucky through 
the year, yuu must not fail to wear 
a sprig of green on garment or coat 
un Easter day. 

Dutch fishermen say it is un- 
lucky to eat meat on Easter. 

In Transylvania, if a person finds 
riches on Easter Sunday and appro* 
priates them, he will have bad luck. 



In Manchester, on Easter Mon- 
day six women go out and the first 
man they meet, they throw over 
their heads twice. 

If a person will abstain from eat- 
ing meat on Easter, he or she will 
not contract a fever diuing the en- 
suing year. 

In Transylvania it is very un- 
lucky to work out in the fields on 
any Thursday between Easter and 
Whitsunday. 

Cakes and buns baked on Easter 
holidays are supposed to possess 
supernatural powers. It is an old 
belief that the custom of eating 
buns on Good Friday, protects the 
house from fire. 

In Catholic times, in England^ 
people used to put out their fires on 
Easter day and would relight them 
from a flint. It was thought that 
a brand from this fire was a sure 
protection from thunder storms. 

''At Easter let your clothes be new. 
Or else be sure, you will it rue." 
(Poor Richard's Almanac) 

If you go early Easter morning 
to the grave of a friend who has 
died during the year, and just as 
the sun is rising sing a hymn, the 
soul of the loved one will rise that 
hour. 

"When my lord falls in my lady's lap, 
England t^ware of some mishap." 

Meaning when Easter comes near 
Lady's day (March 25th). 

In Cumberland they bless the 
wax of the candles un Easter eve, 
and putting out the fires in the 
churches, light them anew from a 
flint. This is to bring new bless- 
ings on the parish. 

If you place a pail on the ground 
in the sun on Easter morning and 
fill it with water, vou will see the 
Easter lamb when the water has 
become quiet. 

if a newly married couple will go 
out of the house at simrise on E 



I5i8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



ter morning and walk thrice around 
the house, it will bring luck to it 

On Easter the French peasant 
bestows on his children an egg 
dyed scarlet like the Cardinal's 
cloak and all believe that it conies 
from Rome. 

In Ireland they believe that on 
Easter morning angels descend 
from Heaven bearing baskets of 
eggs which they deposit in the 
homes of the fedthful. 

In a portion of Bavaria where 
Easter Saturday fires are lighted in 
the churchyard with steel and flint, 
every household brings its walnut- 
branch which after being partially 
burned, is carried home and laid on 
the hearth to protect the house 
from lightning. 

In Macedonia, Christians fast 
three days and three nights before 
Easter, not eating or drinking a 
thing, believing that this secures 
them the forgiveness of their sins. 

An Easter superstition of French 
origin says that the young girl who 
wishes to live long, marry the man 
of her choice, and prosper, must 
never wear any other flower than 
the jonquil or violet on that day. 
These only bring good luck. 

In East Yorkshire the young 
people go to the nearest market- 
town to buy some articles of dress 
or ornament to wear the first time 
on Easter Sunday, otherwise they 
believe that birds, notably rooks or 
"crakes," will spoil their clothes. 

It was at one time maintained 
that the sun danced on Easter day. 
In "The Wedding" Sir John Suck- 
ling writes: 

''But oh, she dances such a way. 

No sun upon an Easter day. 

Is half so tine a sight." (1641.) 

Sometimes the early Christians 
thought that among the eggs they 
had so carefully colored at Easter 
in memory of the blood of Christ, 



a bad one was slipped by the Devil, 
which being an acctu*sed egg, 
doomed the one who got it to ill 
fortune. 

The Slavs have a peculiar cus- 
tom of throwing water on people 
for two days after Easter. They 
think it bad luck for the thrower to 
fail in the attempt to cover a per- 
son with water; if they succeed, 
both will be blessed 

On Easter Sunday take a cake, 
some wine, and some eggs to be 
blessed, and then when you get 
home divide it with everything and 
everybody, especially the poultry 
and cattle, so that they will become 
attached to their home and return 
good profits. (Bohemia.) 

On Easter Monday it is lucky for 
the men in Bohemia to give the 
women a switching so that the fleas 
will not bite. 

The maiden who wishes to know 
if her lover is faithful should rise 
early on Easter morning and eat an 
apple. Meantime she will say: 

"As Eve in her thirst for knowledge ate. 
So I, too, wish to know my fate!" 

If the seeds are even, he will prove 
faithful; if there is an odd number, 
alas I 

In Macedonia, early on Easter 
morning when the people return 
from church they carry lighted 
candles with them. If these are ex- 
tinguished on the way home, it is 
a sign that someone in the family 
will die ; but if they keep burning, it 
is believed that the family will be 
multiplied. With this light they 
light the little oil-lamp which bums 
in front of the household-pictures 
of the saints. 

Superstitions innumerable have 
clung around Easter since the days 
of Bel and Woden. One of the 
quaintest of these, that the sun 
dances in the Heavens every Eas- 
ter morning, is found in England^ 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1519 



Ireland and Brittany. Suckling al- 
ludes to this belief in the often- 
quoted lines: 

**No sun upon an Easter morn 
Was half so fair a sight." 

In Brittany the maidens dance 
hand in hand around the bonfires, 
believing that the flames will give 
them health, beauty and lovers in 
plenty. 

In Malta, on Easter Sunday, as 
soon as the "Gloria" is sung in the 
churches, mothers dip their babies 
in a bath, in which are thrown some 
flowers which were used to deco- 
rate the sepulchre on Good Friday. 
This the mothers do to cure their 
little ones from any fright they may 
have taken. 

Some mothers dip their other 
children in succession in the same 
bath when the baby is taken out, 
and this they do in order that their 
children might not inherit the 
fright the one from the other. 

The origin of the Easter-egg is 
told in the following legends: A 
bird sang a sorrowful lay over 
Christ's tomb and as a reward for 
its devotion its eggs were ever after 
of bright colors. Another story is 
of an exile who in prison received a 
decorated Easter egg which said: 
"Hope in God." He recognized 
the handwriting of his wife, and 
managing to communicate with her 
regained his freedom. 

It is said that good luck, health, 
and prosperity can be obtained by 
keeping a bottle of Easter-water in 
the house and occasionally taking 
a sup. It keeps sweet and pure the 
entire year and makes the best skin 
bath. It is obtained by rising on 
Easter morning before the light of 
day has fallen upon the waters, go- 
ing to a running stream, and get- 
ting a pail or pitcher of it. Bottle 
it for future use. In going and re- 
turning you must under nu circum- 
stances look behind you nor speak 



to anyone, but go and return ih 
silence. 

An old German Easter custom 
consisted in the assembling in the 
villages during the Easter holidays 
of all the marriageable maidens in 
order to present to each new-made 
bride at whose wedding they had 
danced, a beautifully ornamented 
ball. This ball was borne upon a 
gaily decorated pole in a solemn 
procession through the village, and 
presented to the young bride. She 
was thereby laid under obligation 
to furnish free music for the even- 
ing to all who might wish to dance. 
This would bring good fortune to 
her and her household. It is from 
this gay festival custom that the ex- 
pression is said to have originated, 
"To give a ball" 

Lady Sudeley of Winchcomb, 
Gloucestershire, England, who was 
a spectator of the magnificent cere- 
monies of the Catholic church at 
Rome on Easter Sunday, and who 
witnessed the impressive scenes 
which followed the scattering of pa- 
pers amongst the crowd, writes: 
•*As these fell from the balcony and 
were wafted by the wind above the 
heads of the people a scramble en- 
sued that was truly ludicrous to the 
spectators. Not so, however, to 
those who almost fought for the 
coveted treasures, and no wonder, 
for those papers were Indulgences, 
papal indulgences, .sccnrin)^ to the 
fortunate possessor a certain remis- 
sion of punishment which was due 
here or hereafter as expiation of 
sm. 

Some old sayings about Easter- 
eggs: 

The one who gets a golden egg. 
Will plenty have and never beg. 

The one who gets an egg of blue. 
Will find a sweetheart I'ond and true. 

The one who gets an egg of green. 
Will jealous be and not serene. 



IS90 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



The one who gets an egg of black. 
Bad lack and troubles ne'er will lack. 

The one who gets an egg of white. 
In life shall find supreme delight 

The one who gets an egg of red. 
Will many tears of sorrow shed. 

Who gets an egg of purple shade. 
Will die a bachelor or maid. 

A silver egg will bring much joy 
And happiness without alloy. 

A lucky one the «gg of pink. 

The owner ne'er sees dangers' brink. 

The one who gets an egg of brown. 
Will have establishment in town. 

The one who speckled egg obtains. 
Will go through life by country lanes. 

A striped egg bodes care and strife 
A sullen man or scolding wife. 

The one who gets an egg of plaid. 
His heart is good but luck is bad. 

Passover, or Pesach, the Jewish 
Easter, is the feast in commemora- 
tion of the night when the 
Lord, smiting the first-bom of the 
Egyptians, "passed over" the 
houses of the children of Israel. It 
is celebrated during the full moon 
of Nisan (March), and extends over 
seven days, following the paschal 
supper, at which the paschal lamb 
was sacrificed. It is also called the 
feast of unleavened bread, and large 
round biscuits of unleavened wheat- 
flour, called "matze," are eaten dur- 
ing that time in remembrance of 
the fact that the Jews in their hur- 
ry to leave Egypt were forced to 
take along unleavened bread, which 
was baked in the sun. To the or- 
thodox Jew the preparation of the 
matzes is a matter of superstitious 
importance, and most particular 
care is taken in selecting the wheat, 
grinding the flour and packing it 
in perfectly new barrels which have 
been especially selected for this 
purpose. All this must be done by 
Jews. When the making of the 
matzes begins, two men bring from 
opposite comers the flour and 
water, and two other men knead 



the dough in wooden dishes. There 
must always be two men handling 
the flour and the water, and each 
one separate from the other, as a 
drop of water mixed prematurely 
with the flour would spoil all. The 
water must be procure! the day be- 
fore and allowed to settle over 
night, and when it is used, it must 
not be stirred so as not to stir up 
unclean settlements, but have it as 
pure as possible. All the follow- 
ing processes, simple as they are in 
themselves, are made complicated 
by the superstitiously scrupulous 
care employed, as every single op- 
eration must be done by one or two 
different persons. The baking 
must be done only in daylight, 
work beginning at sunrise and end- 
ing at sunset 

The matzes, though ordered long 
in advance, are not delivered into 
the homes until they have under- 
gone a thorough cleaning and all 
leaven, every crumb of leavened 
bread, or any kind of fermented 
food or liquor has been removed. 
This search for leavened food is 
a solemn ceremony performed on 
the eve of Passover by the master 
of the house, while strict silence 
must be observed. After the mas- 
ter has gathered every crumb he 
can find, it is burned; and he de- 
clares that if any leaven should re- 
main, it will be null and accounted 
dust of the earth. In some less or- 
thodox Jewish households in Eu- 
rope, leavened food or fermented 
liquor may in case of necessity, or 
if it is too much to destroy, be kept 
in the house; but in that case the 
housewife must lock it up in a clos- 
et and hand the key to some old 
Christian friend to keep until the 
feast is over. 

If matzes should perchance come 
in contact with ordinary bread they 
would become unfit for use dtuing 
the festival. 

Some orthodox Jews consider it 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1521 



very unlucky even to mention the 
word leaven during passover. 

The paschal lamb is slain in com- 
memoration of the lamb which God 
commanded the Israelites to kill 
when about to deliver them out of 
bondage. The blood of the paschal 
lamb is sprinkled on the doorstep 
01 smeared on the doorposts of the 
house to protect the first-bom from 
the destroying angel. 

The particular dishes of the pass- 
over-meal consist of roast lamb 
with mint-sauce» horse-radish, or 
other bitter herb, the latter, togeth- 
er with a cup of vinegar or salt 
water, to remind of the bitter op- 
pression suffered in Egypt; the 
matzes; roasted eggs as a symbol 
of oreatioo and fecundity, which 
formed the usual festival sacrifice; 
while wine is drunk at certain mo- 
ments accompanied by special 
toasts, each having a particular 
symbolism. 

The Jewish custom to leave the 
doors open during the feast is said 
to have its origin in the necessity of 
asking Gentiles to look in and con- 
vince themselves that no blood of a 
Christian child was used in the cer- 
emonial, a charge that was fre- 
quently made and is even in our 
times made occasionally by fanat- 
ical anti-Semites. As the Jews be- 
lieve that they are under the special 
care of God at Passover, some 
leave their doors open at night to 
show their confidence in his guardi- 
anship. 

When the story of the slavery 
under Pharaoh and the deliverance 
from Egypt is read after dinner, the 
finger is dipped in the wine and the 
drops sprinkled over the shoulder 
at the mentioning of every plague, 
in repudiation thereof. 

Easter, which is in the Christian 
church the festival in commemora- 
tion of the resurrection of Christ, is 
the successor of the Jewish Pass- 
over (Pesach). Both festivals were 



identical in date, and in fact are 
identical in their root. The opposi- 
tion of the Christians to the Jews, 
which became very acute at the be- 
ginning of the fourth century, led to 
a change of date, to be determined 
by lunations, which, however, es- 
pecially as these lunations do not 
tally with the facts of astronomy, 
makes the Easter calculations so 
difficult as to lead to occasional 
mistakes. Such a mistake oc- 
curred in 1818 when Easter was 
kept on the wrong day. 

"Thirty days hath September 
Every person can remember. 
But the dates when Easters oome. 
Puzzle even scholars some!" 

While non-Teutonic nations, in- 
cluding, however, the Scandinavi- 
ans (who call Easter, Paaske) and 
the Dutch (who call it Paasch), 
cling to the Semitic word derived 
from the Aramaic word pesach (to 
pass by), the German- and EngUsh- 
speaking people have the name 
Easter, which is a relic of the 
old heathen feasts to celebrate the 
return of the Spring. It is doubt- 
less derived from the name of the 
old Saxon goddess Ostarra, Oster- 
ra, or Eastre, who was the person- 
ification of the East, of the morn- 
ing, of the spring. Many supersti- 
tions and obscure customs, extant 
to this day, stand proof of how 
deeply her worship was rooted in 
the Northern countries, so that 
many had to be taken over by the 
Christian festival while supplanting 

the old heathen festival 

As in the old heathen times, so 
was the Christian Easter a time of 
exuberant joy ; the pagan joy at the 
rising of the natural sun, at the 
awakening of nature from the 
deathlike sleep of winter, easily be- 
came the Christian joy at the rising 
of the sun of righteousness, at the 
resurrection of Christ from the 
grave. The Christian Easter was 
originally, in conformity to the pa- 



1522 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



gan Spring festivities, a sort of 
thanksgiving observance lasting 
eight days. This period was grad- 
ually cut down until it finally be- 
came a single day commemorative 
oC the resurrection, though in some 
parts of Germany, the celebration 
still extends over two or three days. 

Easter was a favorite time for 
baptism. All labor ceased; all 
trades were suspended; the law 
courts were closed; alms were gfiv- 
en to the poor; slaves were freed. 
Easter Sunday became known as 
''Dominica Gaudii" ("Sunday of 
Joy"), because the people gave 
themselves up to enjoyment, sports, 
dances, and entertainment of every 
kind, after the austerities of Lent 

An old Easter superstition makes 
the sun participate in the general 
felicity by dancing in the heavens. 

In Devonshire, the maidens rise 
early on Easter morning to see the 
dancing sun and in the center of its 
disk a lamb and a flag. 

In Scotland, superstition had it, 
that the sun even whirled round 
like a mill-wheel and gave three 
leaps. This unusual merriment of 
the sun could be seen in its reflec- 
tion in a pool or a pail of water, the 
movement of which of course 
caused or strengthened the illusion. 

In many countries it is a very 
general custom to wear new clothes 
on Easter Sunday and it is consid- 
ered bad luck to wear old clothes. 
In East Yorkshire is the saying, 
that the birds, especially rooks or 
**crakes," will spoil the dothes, un- 
less the person wears something 
new on Easter day. 

To meet a lamb at any time is 
lucky, because the devil can take 
any other form than that of a lamb 
or a dove; but to see a lamb on 
first looking out of the window on 
Easter day is particularly lucky, es- 
pecially if its head is turned in the 
direction of the house. It is not so 
fortunate, however, if it is looking 



the other way or lying down. 
Easter lambs of sugar or pastry are 
given the children on Easter day 
in many parts of Germany. 

On Easter day the water is be- 
lieved to possess many exceptional 
properties, peasants ride their 
horses into the water early in the 
morning to ward off sickness. Girls 
wash their faces with the morning 
dew, to improve their beauty. 
Water drawn with the stream and 
while the wind is due east, is sup- 
posed to have grpat healing virtue. 
Much importance is attaiched to 
rain or shine on Easter day: 

''A good deal of rain on Easter Day 
Gives a crop of good grass, but little 
good hay." 

If the sun shines on Easter morn- 
ing, it will shine on Whitsunday. 
Another notion is to the effect that 
if it rains on Easter day, it will rain, 
if only a few drops, every day dur- 
ing the ensuing year; while if the 
sun shines, there will be shine, at 
least a little, every day. 

In Germany the children believe 
that the rabbits lay beautifully- 
colored eggs at Easter. 

This connection between the 
hare and Elaster originates in the 
hare's connection with the moon, 
of which the hare has been from 
very ancient times a symbol, to- 
gether with the fact that Easter is 
to a certain extent a lunar holiday. 
A few of the reasons of the hare 
being identified with the moon are: 
The hare is a nocturnal animal and 
comes out at night to feed. The 
female carries her young for a 
month. Hare and moon were be- 
lieved to have the power of chang- 
ing their sex; the new moon was 
masculine, the waning moon was 
feminine. The young of the hare 
are born with their eyes open, 
while rabbits are bom blind; hence 
the belief that the hare never closed 
its eyes, and therefore was consid- 
ered to resemble the moon, who is 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1523 



called the "open-eyed watcher of 
the skies at night." 

The custom of the Christians to 
present Easter-eggs as a symbol of 
the resurrection, has been adopted 
from the peoples of the East, par- 
ticularly the Persians, where the 
egg was since the most ancient 
times symbolical of creation, or the 
re-creation of Spring. In Christian 
countries the Easter-eggs were 
painted red in allusion to the blood 
of the Redeemer. 

The usage of interchanging eggs 
at Easter has also been referred for 
its origin to the egg games of the 
Romans which they celebrated at 
the time of our Easter, when they 
ran races in an eg^-shapcd ring, 
and the victor received eggs as a 
prize. These games were instituted 
in honor of Castor and Pollux who 
came forth from an egg, deposited 
by Leda, after Jupiter had visited 
her in the shape of a swan. 

Others allege that the custom 
was borrowed from the Hebrews 
who at the passover set on the table 
two unleavened cakes and two 
pieces of lamb. To this they added 
some small fishes because of the 
leviathan, a hard egg because of 
the bird Zig, and some meal be- 
cause of the behemoth. 

In some remote districts of 
France it is still customary for the 
priest of the parish to go around 
to each house at Easter and bestow 
on it his blessing. In return he 
received eggs, plain and painted. 

In Italy an egg dyed scarlet like 
the cloak of a Roman Cardinal is 
carried by some for luck all the 
year round. 

It is very unlucky to give away 
a colored egg that has been pre- 
sented to you at Easter. 

In the district of Brisse there is 
a custom of scattering a hundred 
eggs on a level place covered with 
sand and a lad and lass holding 



each other by the hand come for- 
ward to execute a country dance 
called the "Branlie." If they suc- 
ceed in finishing it without break- 
ing an egg they become affianced 
and not even the will of their pa- 
rents will avail to break their union. 

In some parts of Australia it is 
thought not only unlucky but un- 
holy to color eggs at Easter, and 
he or she indulging in it, will nevec 
be married. 

EMBER DAY— On Emberfast 
before Whitsuntide, no cabbage 
should be planted, as it will have a 
bitter taste. (Belgium.) 

EPIPHANY Qanuary 6th) — 
Brooms bound during the twelfths 
protect against witchcraft 

Do no threshing in the twelfths, 
or all the com within hearing will 
be spoiled. 

If cattle are fed with stolen kale 
(a kind of cabbage) during the 
twelfths, they will come to no harm. 

Whatever is dreamed during the 
twelfths will come to pass in the 
twelve months of the year. 

If a broken arm is bound five or 
six times round with thread spun 
in the twelfths, it will speedily be- 
come sound. 

In the twelfths magpies should 
be shot and burnt to a powder, 
which is good for the ague. 

Those who wear linen made 
from yam spun during the twelfths 
will be devoured by wolves. 

No moth will come into yam 
spun during the twelfths. 

If hens are fattened with peas 
during the twelfths, they will lay 
many eggs. 

At twelfth day the days are 
lengthened a cock*s stride. 

In the country between Hamelin 
and Minden and in other places, it 



1524 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



is believed that no dung should be 
taken out of the cow house during 
the twelfths, else the cattle will be 
sick the following year. 

He who steals on twelfth-night» 
can steal safely for a year. 

If you eat peas or beans on 
twelfth*night, you will fall sick. 

On twelfth-day in Ireland, they 
set up a sieve of oats as high as 
they can and in it a dozen candles. 
In the center is a larger one, all 
lighted, so as to have luck all the 
year. 

On the twelfth-night the dead 
walk, and on every tile of the house 
a soul is sitting waiting for your 
prayers to take it out of Purgatory. 

If in the twelve-nights neither 
master nor man bring fresh-black- 
ened shoes into the stables, the cat- 
tle will be bewitched. 

On twelfth-night in Scotland a 
board is covered with cow's dung, 
candles set in it, and sprinkled with 
ash to make them light easily. They 
are then lighted, each being named 
for someone present, and as each 
dies, so will the life of the owner. 

In the "Book of Precedents," 
published in London in 1616, we 
read that the 6th of January was 
five times lucky for Charles, Duke 
of Anjou, and equally lucky for the 
Earl of Sunderland. 

If a Danish girl wishes to see her 
future husband, she must repeat 
the following verse before going to 
bed on the eve of Epiphany : 

"Ye three holy kings to you I pray, 
That ye to-night will let me see, 
Whose cloth I shall spread. 
Whose bed I shall make. 
Whose name I shall bear, 
Whose bride I shall be." 

Be sure for luck's sake to spin 
off all the distaffs on the morrow 
after twelfth-day. 

The twelve days after Christmas 
make the almanac for the year. 



Tis thus believed in Trinity Bay, 
New Bedford, Mass., and Nova 
Scotia. In Nova Scotia it is said 
that the first seven days of January 
foretell the first seven months of 
the year. 

Those who do not spin in the 
twelfths may not wind on the 13th. 
(North Germany.) 

In Transylvania whoever dies on 
the feast of Epiphany, is considered 
lucky. 

In Styria, Austria, Epiphany is 
commonly called St Bertha's day, 
and it is believed that the devil is 
abroad in great force on that St. 
Bertha's night If one makes on 
that night a mag^c circle, and 
stands therein holding elder-berries 
gathered on St John's night, one 
would obtain the magic fern-seed 
which will come wrapped in a chal- 
ice cloth, and confer on one the 
strength of thirty or forty men. 

On Epiphany, or as it is called 
in Bohemia, "Three Kings' Day," 
the festival of the three wise men 
who visited the Infant Saviour, 
three crosses should be made on 
every door, not only of the house 
but on the stables, pens and coops, 
to keep witches away. Bonfires are 
made at night and brooms are 
thrown as high as possible, all on 
fire, to represent the burning and 
the scattering of the witches. But 
beware that you do not point at 
one of the flying brooms! One of 
the fiery darts will pierce your fin- 
ger. 

When Queen Elizabeth visited 
Sudely Castle, Gloucestershire, 
about 300 years ago, on twelfth- 
night, "drawing the bean and pea" 
took place in her presence. No 
reason is given for the introduction 
of the bean and pea into the 
twelfth-cake, but Brand takes us to 
the ancient Greeks for the bean, 
and it may have been used on ac- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



tS2$ 



count of its mystic meaning. It 
was not allowed to be used for food 
by any of the disciples of Pythago- 
ras lest it should be a receptacle of 
a departed soul, to eat which would 
be as impious as eating human 
flesh. 

In Macedonia, on the 6th of Jan- 
uary, which commemorates the 
baptism of Jesus Christ, a cross is 
thrown into the river by the priests 
and dived for by the men. Sick 
children are dipped into the water 
for healing. Some of this holy 
water, which is considered to have 
medicinal value, is carried home by 
the people, and health is insured to 
all who wash in it 

In Kavadartsy, some of this 
water is used to make new leaven 
for the bread, and some is also 
thrown into the well. 

In Monastir straw dipped into 
this holy water, is wrapped around 
the trunks of trees to make them 
fruitful. 

On the eve of Epiphany, the Al- 
banians sprinkle the grapevines 
with holy water, believing that this 
will induce them to bear well. 

On the eve of Epiphany, the Al- 
banians also roll a round cake to 
the middle of the vineyard, and 
then distribute it in bits for the 
ravens, crows, and other birds, say- 
ing: ''Assemble, oh ravens, oh 
crows, and eat, so that we may eat 
and drink and you do us no harm." 
This will so appeal to the honor of 
the birds that they will not touch 
the vines. 

In Bohemia, the inscription 
**three kings*' is made upon the 
door of the chief room of the house 
from the inside, every year on the 
6th of January, "Three Kings' 
Day" by the priest, teacher, or sex- 
ton of the town, with a blessed 
crayon or chalk, in the form of C 
X M X B X 1899 (or whatever year 
it may be), which means the names 



of Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar, 
the three wise men who paid court 
to the Infant Jesus. This inscrip- 
tion protects the house from evil 
spirits and prevents them entering 
the rooms. It also brings blessings 
to the inhabitants. This we find of 
course only in Catholic families, 
and none of their domiciles are 
without it The priest blesses the 
chalk for the believers, that they 
make inscriptions also upon the 
doors of their stables and bams to 
repel all witchcraft and magic that 
might do harm to the cattle or 
crops. 

*Twelfth-day" is the twelfth day 
after Christmas, or Epiphany, oc- 
curring on the 6th of January. It 
is a festival of the Christian church 
in commemoration of the manifes- 
tation of Christ by the star which 
guided the mag^ to Bethlehem. 
*Twelfth-night" is the eve of Epiph- 
any, when many social festivities 
and superstitious rites were ob- 
served. "Twelfth-tide" is the time 
or festival of twelfth-day. "The 
Twelfths" are the twelve days be- 
tween Christmas and Epiphany. 
Epiphany is also called Little 
Christmas," being the social fes- 
tival which brings the merry-mak- 
ings of the Chnstmas cycle to an 
end. 

A special cake, called ''Twelfth- 
cake," is prepared for the festivities 
on twelfth-night. A bean or a coin 
is baked into it, and, the cake being 
divided by lot, whoever draws the 
slice containing it is entitled to pre- 
side as king or queen over the fes- 
tivities. This custom is a relic of 
the old Roman festival of the Sat- 
urnalia, at the close of which the 
Roman children drew lots with 
beans to see who would be king. 

A series of cards, called 
"Twelfth-night cards," represent- 
ing different characters such as 
king, queen, minister, maids ol 



XS36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



honor, or ludicrous or grotesque 
personages, were distributed 
among Uie guests, who had to as- 
sume the respective characters dur* 
ing the festivities. 

A curious custom is the annual 
cutting of the Baddeley cake at 
Drury Lane Theater, London, on 
Twelfth-night William Baddeley, 
the last actor to wear the uniform 
of "His Majesty's Servants," left 
£100 in bank stock, the income 
from which was to buy a Twelfth- 
cake, with wine and punch, which 
the ladies and gentlemen were re- 
quested "to partake on every 
Twelfth-night in the g^eat gfreen- 
room." 

The Devonshire farmers have an 
old custom of wassailing the fruit 
trees on the eve of Twelfth-day. 
They proceed with their servants, 
who carry large pitchers or milk- 
pails filled with cider, to their or- 
chards. Here one tree is selected 
as representative of the rest, and 
saluted with certain incantations; 
cakes are dipped in the cider and 
hung up on the branches, and the 
tree is sprinkled with the cider. 
They all dance merrily around it 
and afterward return home to feast. 
This is done in order that the trees 
should bear more fniit 

"Wassail the trees that they may bear 
You many a plum and many a pear; 
For more or less fruits they will bring 
As you do give tbem wassailing." 

(ST.) ETIENNE'S DAY— It is 
unlucky to eat cabbages on St. Eti- 
enne's day, because he once con- 
cealed himself among them to es- 
cape martyrdom. 

FAST DAYS— Fastmg in Hin- 
dustan is auspicious fortune. 

To drink nine drops of water be- 
fore fasting is said to make you fast 
much easier. 

Fast-days are held by the Indians 
to be essential to luck in all situa- 
tions of life. 



Fasts in old age appear to have 
for their object the renewal of pow- 
ers and virtues which they attribute 
to the rite. 

It was believed to be a sign of 
good luck in Peru, to fast long be- 
fore a feast, especially to abstain 
from salt, garlic, and meat 

If you will fast a whole day in 
Bohemia, you will see beautiful 
golden pigs running around the 
room in the evening. 

To show their valor, Indians or- 
nament their pipes with tufts of 
feathers from the red-headed wood- 
pecker, when fasting. 

(ST.) GEORGE'S DAY — If 
lights are seen on St George's eve, 
it is a sign of good luck. 

Persons bom on St Gregory's 
day will meet many crosses and 
stumbling blocks in their pursuit 
after the capricious goddess For- 
tune. 

St George's day is a lucky day 
on which to hunt for treasure. 

St George's day is still cele- 
brated by guilds of Crossbow in 
many Flemish towns. 

Finns considered it very unlucky 
to make any disturbance on St 
George's day. (Probably from fear 
of war, as St George is the patron 
saint of armourers.) 

Lights seen before midnight on 
St George's denote where treas- 
ures are hid. They are lighted by 
benevolent spirits who wish to 
favor mortals. 

In Wiesland, Germany, if clouds 
come from the sea on St George's 
day, fish will be abundant that year. 

On the night of St. Gregory's 
day boys used to be questioned in 
their sleep as to their fondness for 
study. If the answer was satisfac* 
tory, they were allowed to go with 
their books; if they answered in the 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1527 



negative, or if they made no reply, 
which was frequently the case, they 
were pat to the plough* 

In Macedonia, on St. George's 
day, girls swing under a green tree 
with a red Easter-egg so that they 
may have health and beauty and a 
fine complexion during the year. 

(ST.) GILES' DAY (September 
lst)^St. Giles' day (Sept. 1) is in 
honor to the French abbot of Nis- 
mes, a native of Greece, who lived 
in the beginning of the eighth cen- 
tury. He was famous for his bene- 
fits to the poor. According to 
legend, he gave on one occasion his 
last coat to a sick mendicant, who 
was cured miraculously by putting 
it on. St. Giles has thus become 
the patron saint of beggars and 
cripples. 

GOOD FRIDAY— In the Isle 
of Man no iron is allowed to be put 
ill the fire on Good Friday, a stick 
of the rowan-tree is used instead. 

Eating buns on Good Friday 
protects the house from fire. 

If you hang your clothes in the 
sun of Good Friday, no moths nor 
wood-lice will trouble them. 

People in Yorkshire keep a hot- 
el oss-bun from one Good Friday to 
another, to keep the house safe 
against fire. 

In Florida it is held that three 
loaves of bread baked on Good Fri- 
day and put into a corn-crib, will 
prevent the mice from nibbling the 
com, or any rats, weasels, or worms 
from devouring it 

The Spaniards attributed the 
sour and downcast looks of their 
King Philip to the disagreeable 
visions to which he was subjected 
and which were believed to have 
been caused by his having been 
bom on Good Friday. 

"Wean yer chccl 'pon Goody 



Vriday, then 'e'll graw peart an' 
strong." 

If you should get struck with a 
stick on ''Long Friday," it is a bad 
omen, predicting law-suits and 
trouble. 

The people in the North of Eng- 
land think they can charm away 
Popery by making many little cross 
marks on their cakes before they 
put them in the oven on Good Fri- 
day. 

If you eat lentils on Good Fri- 
day, you will not be out of money 
in a year. 

If the first thing you eat on Good 
Friday is an egg laid on Maundv 
Thursday, you will come to no boo- 
ily harm that year. 

If you see the elevation of the 
crucifix on Good Friday, you will 
not die that year. 

Plant cabbages on Good Friday 
after the sun goes down, and they 
will never be troubled with bugs. 

If it rains on Good Friday, the 
turf will be parched three times 
during the year. (German.) 

It is unlucky to go out unwashed 
on Good Friday. 

Farmers will not disturb the 
earth on Good Friday. The Lord 
was put into it on that day. 

If anything is planted in the 
earth on Good Friday, it will flour- 
ish and yield abundajitly. 

German peasants go into the 
fields on Good Friday and invite 
God to make their trees fmitful. 
They think this will be lucky in 
harvest. 

It is considered very lucky to 
make a new friend on Good Friday. 
Friends made on that day will be 
faithful unto death. 

If you plant beans on Good Fri- 
day, they will never appear above 
the ground. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1529 



GUY FAWKES' DAY (No- 
vember 5) — On the island of 
Guernsey the burning of Guy 
Fawkes' effigy is also still observed, 
by the figure called here "The end 
of the year/' This name is due to 
a popular confounding of this ob- 
servance with an ancient custom, 
now extinct, of burning or burying 
an effigy of the old year on New 
Year s eve. 

Guy Fawkes' day is an anniver- 
sary, on November 5, of the discov- 
ery of tlie Gunpowder Plot in Eng- 
land, 1605. It is peculiarly an Eng- 
lish observance. In memory of the 
providential deliverance of the king 
and Parliament **Te Deums" were 
sung in the churches, and the an- 
niversary became a red-letter day 
in English annals. It was and is 
still observed in a peculiar manner. 
During the day straw-stuffed ef- 
figies of Guy Fawkes are carried by 
boys and men about the streets on 
chairs or trestles supported by two 
poles, like a sedan-chair. Some of 
these effigies are life-size, and are 
gotten up in tawdry finery, with a 
mask or "false-face" topped by 
three-cornered cocked hat They 
go from house to house, attended 
by troops of admiring urchins, stop- 
ping from time to time to sing or 
chant: 

"Please to remember the fifth of 
November, 
The Gunpowder treason and plot, 
1 sec no reason why Gunpowder treason 
Should ever be forgot 
Hip, Hip, Uurrahl" 

Another form of the doggerel 
sung is: 

*Tbc fifth of November, since I can re- 
member, 

Gunpowder treason and plot, 
Thi» i^ the day that God did prevent 

To blow up his king and parliament! 

"A stick and a stake for Victoria's sake. 

If you won't give me one. 
Then I'll Uke two— the better for me 

And the worse for you." 

The boys always close with the 



appeal, "Please to remember the 

fuy!" or "Please remember the 
re!" soliciting gifts of pennies or 
firewood. In this way they collect 
a good many shillings. The mon- 
ey goes to buy fireworks, and the 
fagots go to the fire; for at night 
the "guy," as the effigy of Fawkes 
is called (whence our word mean- 
ing a grotesque figure of any sort), 
is burned in an immense bonfire, 
the bigger the better, to the accom- 
paniment of a fusillade of fireworks. 
Our Election day often falls on the 
5th of November, or thereabouts. 
So, about the time the American 
boys are dancing round the Elec- 
tion-night bonfire, English boys are 
burning the guy. In fact, the two 
observances are really one and the 
same thing. From the earliest 
colonial times in New England, the 
custom having been brought over 
by the first settlers, the 5th of No- 
vember was celebrated by burning 
an effig}' of Guy Fawkes and by 
letting off fireworks, or by carrying 
about the village street at night a 
pair of hideous ''pumpkin bees" 
witli candle-ends inside. These 
were supposed to represent the 
Pope and the devil, and they were 
burned together in a fire on the 
common. Gradually, however, the 
significance of the day faded from 
sight At tlie present time, though 
the memory of the Gunpowder Plot 
and of the ''pumpkin faces** has 
long disappeared, the boys in some 
of the New England towns annual- 
ly build fires on the night of the 
5th of November, though they can- 
not tell why they do so, any more 
than they can tell why tops, mar- 
bles, and kites arc "in" or "out" 
of season. But in New York and 
its sister cities the cudtum, though 
still blindly kept up, has been shift- 
ed to tiie night of the annual Elec- 
tion day; and both i'rotestant and 
Catholic boys, who know or care 
nothing about the Gunpowder Plot 



1530 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



or Guy Fawkes' day, unconsciously 
join in commemorating the old 
English custom that sprang from 
intense loyalty to the Protestant 
faith and to the Protestant king and 
Parliament of England. (Reddall, 
"Fact, Fancy, and Fable/') 

HALCYON DAYS— Halcyon 
days are the fourteen days from 
the eleventh of December to 
Christmas eve. Supposed to be, in 
their calm and tranquil character, 
an exception from the season. The 
term is now a regular adjective in 
our language, is derived from the 
bird kingfisher or halcyon, which, 
from the days of Aristotle at least, 
has been the subject of a curious 
superstition. The ancients sup- 
posed that it built its nest on the 
ocean, and brought forth its yotmg 
at the winter solstice. To account 
for the preservation of the nest and 
young amidst the severity of the 
season, they imagined that the bird 
had a power of lulling the raging 
of the waves during the period of 
incubation; and this power was be- 
lieved to reside in its song. 

HANDSEL MONDAY— Hand- 
sel Monday is the first Monday of 
the New Year, when it was formerly 
usual in Scotland for servants, chil- 
dren and others to ask for or re- 
ceive presents or "handsel." Most 
tradespeople have a particular es- 
teem for what they call handsel 
money. They kiss it, spit upon it, 
and put It in a pocket by itself. 

In some parts of Scotland it is 
considered very unlucky to spend 
money in any form on Handsel 
Monday. 

Handsel Monday, the first Mon- 
day of the year, is still observed as 
a festive day in some rural districts 
in Scotland and England, as a time 
for giving presents. On the even- 
ings of Handsel Monday, as well as 
of Christmas, Hogmanay and New 



Year's day (q. v.), parties of young- 
men and boys went about dis- 
guised in old shirts and paper viz- 
ards, singing at the various houses 
for a small guerdon. These guiz- 
arts, as they were called, acted as a 
rustic kind of drama, in which the 
adverture of two rival knights and 
the feats of a doctor, were conspic- 
uous. 

HOCK DAY— Hock day U the 
fifteenth day after Easter, marked 
by the old English custom by which 
the men and women of rural dis- 
tricts goin^ out the road with 
ropes, and mtercepting passengers 
to raise money from them, sup- 
posed to be disposed in pious uses. 

HOLIDAYS IN GENERAL— 
It is unlucky to mention any sad 
event in China on a holiday. 

If the sign of the cross is seen in 
the heavens, it signifies some na- 
tional calamity; especially on a cer- 
emonial day. 

In ancient Egypt holidays were 
unlucky days to do any business, 
and all the public offices were 
closed. 

In Russia the Jews have one holy 
day that is more sacred than any 
other, and on that day they do 
nothing but sit on a bag of ashes 
and have other people wait on 
them. This brings them good for- 
tune. 

If from the fires of the three 
Holy Eves (Christmas, New Year 
and High New Year), glowing em- 
bers are left the next morning, you 
will want for nothing all that year. 

The Koreans have special feast- 
days in honor of certain animals, 
such as the **cow-day," the "snake- 
day," the "hen-day,'^ etc 

On "cow-day," if a man makes a 
loud noise of hammering, he will 
find that his cow or ox will break 
its leg. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1531 



On "snake-day" one must not 
cut up sauerkraut with a knife; it 
is the same as cutting the snake. 

On "hen-day," if the wind blows 
the rooster's tail about, it will be a 
very windy spring. 

During the first French Repub- 
lic several feasts called "Sanscul- 
ottides" were celebrated, as follows: 

The 17th of September, dedi- 
cated to The Virtues. 

The 18th of September, dedi- 
cated to Genius. 

The 19th of September, dedi- 
cated to Labor. 

The 20th of September, dedi- 
cated to Opinion. 

The 21st of September, dedi- 
cated to Rewards. 

These five days were instituted 
to fill up the space between the end 
of Fructidor (the 12th month of the 
Republican calendar) and the new 
year. (See "The Months.") 

During the first French Republic 
the year was divided into the fol- 
lowing months: 

AutumtL 

Vend^miaire (Vintage month), 
Sept. 22 to Oct. 21. Brumaire 
(Foggy month), Oct. 22 to Nov. 20. 
Frimaire (Sleety month), Nov. 21 
to Dec. 20. 

Winter. 

Nivose (Snow month), Dec. 21 
to Jan. 19. Pluvose (Rain month). 
Jan. 20 to Feb. IH. Venlose (Wind 
month), Feb. 19 to Mar. 20. 

Spring. 

Germinal (Sprout month), Mar. 
21 to Apr. 19. Floreal (Flower 
month). .\pr. 20 to May 16. Prai- 
rial (Pasture month), May 20 to 
June 18. 

Summer. 

Messidor (Har\'est month), June 
19 to July 18. Fervidor (Hot 
month), July 19 to Aug. 17. Fruc- 
tidor (Fruit month), Aug. 18 to 
Sept. lU. 



The remaining five days (Sept, 
17 to 21) were called Sansculot- 
tides and celebrated as National 
holidays. (Sec "Holidays.") 

Most of the holidays are marked 
by special dishes being cooked for 
dinner, or special cakes being 
baked, or certain delicacies eaten; 
as snap-dragons on Christmas eve, 
plum-pudding on Christmas day, 
oranges and barley sugar on St. 
Valentine's eve. pancakes on Shrove 
Tuesday, salt codiish on Ash Wed- 
nesday, frumenty on Mothering 
Sunday (Mid-lent), spinach and 
eggs on Green Thursday, cross 
buns on Good Friday, eggs on 
Easter, figs on Palm Sunday 
(hence also called Fig Sunday), 
gooseberry tart on Whitsunday, 
goose on Michaelmas day, nuts on 
All Hallows', soulspieces (long 
cakes) on All Souls* day, turkey on 
Thanksgiving, raisin cakes (called 
"Stollen" in Saxony), honey cakes 
(called '*Lebkuchen*' in Southern 
Germany) at Christmas, large 
"Bretzel" (in Southern Germany) 
at New Year's, etc. Many people 
feel very unhappy and consider it 
an omen of ill luck if they cannot 
partake of these special national 
(or even but local) dishes and deli- 
cacies belonging to certain holi- 
days; on the other hand the eating 
of them is considered luckv, ward- 
ing off evil and bringing health and 
good fortune generally. 

Helgium is a composite and ar- 
tificial nation, men of different 
races having been precipitated into 
an amalgamated mass by the revo- 
lution of 1830 and the recognition 
of the five great powers in the suc- 
ceeding year. A line drawn 
through tiie capital, Urussols. di- 
vides the country into two portions 
nearly equal in area and population, 
of which the northern region is oc- 
cupied by an agricultural race of 
Prankish origin which has retained 



1532 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



the old Teutonic idiom, while to the 
south are people of kin to the Gauls 
of Picardy, using a dialect of the 
old "langue d* oie" or "Romane" 
which in its polished form has be- 
come what we know as French. 
The former portion is the Flemish 
and closely resembles the neighbor- 
ing race in Holland, being phleg- 
matic, individualistic, and slow to 
change; the latter or "Walloon" 
race being volatile, with strong af- 
finities for France, and advanced 
ideals. 

Belgian folk-lore thus naturally 
follows this line of cleavage. 
Among both races the traditions 
and observances are colored by, 
and usually derived from, the prac- 
tice of pagan ancestors, but while 
the Flemings betray their descent 
from Teutonic and even Scandi- 
navian ancestors, the Walloons are 
evidently affected by their Gallo- 
Roman origin. Many Belg^ian cus- 
toms on certain feast-days, some of 
which will be found under the dif- 
ferent headings, will illustrate this. 
It will be remembered that 
throughout Europe generally, at 
least from the middle of the sixth 
century A. D., it was the avowed 
policy of Rome to capture and 
adopt pagan usages to facilitate the 
propagation of Christianity. Some 
of the traditions and customs are 
common to almost all the European 
peoples, Celt, Teuton or Slav; a 
few are still traceable in modem 
England. But Belgium is an es- 
pecially favorable scene by reason 
of the unusual fervor and fidelity 
with which old rites are still ob- 
served there. The people and cler- 
gy are alike unaware of the origin 
of their observances and almost uni- 
versally regard them as having 
been instituted by the church. 

HOLY CROSS DAY (Septem- 
ber 14) — The 14th of September is 
Holy Cross day, a festival of the 
Greek and Roman churches to 



commemorate the exaltation (A. D. 
G28) of what was claimed to be the 
cross of Christ, that is the discovery 
of the cross in a cave near Jerusa- 
lem by the Empress Helena, the 
mother of Constantine. It is also 
called Holy Rood day, the Holy 
Rood being the cross of the cruci- 
fixion, usually placed over the en- 
trance of the chancel in Roman 
Catholic churches. The Wednes- 
day, Friday, and Saturday after 
Holy Rood day are Ember days, 
and the week in which they occur 
is one of the four Ember weeks. 
(See "Ember Days.") 

HOLY SATURDAY — On 
Holy Saturday, the day before 
Easter, a candle is blessed by the 
priest in the Roman Catholic 
church. This is called "the pas- 
chal candle" and placed on the gos- 
pel side of the altar, there to re- 
main from Easter eve to Ascension 
day. To provide lights for the bur- 
ial of the poor in some churches 
the paschal candle was broken after 
Trinity Sunday and made up again 
into small tapers exclusively for the 
funeral service of the poor people. 
In old wills bequests were made for 
the same purpose under the name 
of "the poor light" Rock, "Church 
of our Fathers." 

HOLY WEEK — Holy week, 
sometimes, but incorrectly, called 
Passion week, is the week preced- 
ing Easter Sunday. Passion week 
is the week beginning with Passion 
Sunday and preceding Holy week. 

HOURS OF THE DAY AND 
NIGHT — In Cornwall it is be- 
Ueved, if the cock crows before 
midnight, that he is greeting the 
angel of death who is flying over 
the house. 

In Sussex if the clock strikes 12 
while a hymn is being sung, a 
death will follow in the week. 
(English.) 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIEaWCES. 



1523 



The twelfth hour of the night is 
said to be the hour when many 
mystic things may happen. 

If you make any remark that 
seems ominous, be sure to add, ''I 
hope I say it in a lucky hour." 

Midnight and exactly noon are 
unsafe to be out of doors in Tran- 
sylvania. 

The hour of the day when a per- 
son is born will represent the hour 
of his death. 

Singing and merry-making in the 
early morning before breakfast is 
an indication of an unhappy day. 

"From twelve till two 

WUl tell what the day wiU do." 

'*Tis the hour that scatters spells on 

tree and flower 

Now to a chaplet might be wreathed 
Of buds o'er which the moon has 

breathed, 
Which worn by her whose love has 

strayed. 
Might bring some Peri from the skies." 
(Moore: Lalla Rookh.) 

There is one hour in every day 
when whatever you wish will be 
granted, but no one knows what 
hour that is. It is all a chance if 
we come on it. 

There is also an hour in the day 
when ghost-seers can see spirits, 
but only one ; at no other time have 
they the power, yet they never 
know the hour. The coming of it 
is a mystery. 

(ST.) HUBERTUS' DAY— Ac- 
cording to a popular Belgian be- 
lief, the bread that the priest 
blesses on St. Hubertus* day, will 
never get mouldy. 

IXXOCEXTS' DAY (Decem- 
ber 2«th>^lt was considered un- 
lucky to marry or to begin any 
work on Childermas day. 

The learned Gregory says, "It 
hath been a custom, and yet is else- 
where, to whip up the children up- 
on Innocents' day morning, that 



the memory of Herod's murder 
might stick the closer, and in a 
moderate proportion to act over the 
'crueltie again in kinde.' " 

Innocents' day, on whatever day 
of the week it happens to fall, is al- 
ways a cross day all the year 
through. It is the "feast of the 
holy innocents, held on the 28th of 
December in commemoration of 
Herod s butchery of the children of 
Bethlehem under two years old, 
with the design of cutting off the 
Infant Jesus. It is also called Chil- 
dermas day." 

The coronation of Edward IV. 
was put off till the Monday, be- 
cause the preceding day was Qiil- 
dermas day. 

(ST.) JAMES* DAY Quly 25th) 
— He who eats oysters on St. 
James' day will never want money. 

In East Prussia it is unlucky to 
climb a tree on St. James* day. 

An ancient custom in Belgium 
marks St. James' day as set apart 
for gifts to faithful servants, who 
therefore look forward to it as a 
lucky day. 

The old Sarum liturgy had a 
form for blessing apples on the day 
of St. James, and there has ever 
been an old adage that he should 
never want money who ate oysters 
on St. James* day. Churchill in 
writing a satire upon superstitious 
notions, said: 

"July to whom, with Dog star in her 

train, 
St. James gives oysters and St. Swithin 



rain. 



On the day of St. James the 
Apostle {July 25) the priests used 
to bless the apples in Catholic 
times. On St. James* day in the 
times of old style (now Aug. 7) oy- 
sters appeared in London, and 
there is a popular notion that he 
who cats oysters on that day will 



ISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



never want money for the rest of 
the year. 

(ST.) JOHN'S DAY (December 
27th) St John the Evangelist— If a 
girl or lad pick a flower on St. 
John's day on which is sitting a St 
John bug, he or she will marry in 
the year. (Bohemia.) 

It was believed that those who 
put their trust in St John the Evan- 
gelist on this day, the twenty- 
seventh of December, were safe 
from all injury from poison be- 
cause John is said to have drank 
some without dying in consequence 
thereof. 

It is an old custom among Ro- 
man Catholics to drink hallowed 
wine on St. John's day, to be pro- 
tected against poison during the 
year. This is based on the legend 
that a priest of Diana challenged 
St. John to drink a cup of poison 
which he had prepared. St. John 
made the sign of the cross on the 
vessel, and emptied it without in- 
jury to himself. 

(ST.) JOSEPH'S DAY (March 
19th) — ^All persons bom on the 
19th of March of any year will be 
prosperous. 

It is unlucky to marry on St. 
Joseph's day. 

Among the Highlanders mar- 
riages on the festival day of St 
Joseph are carefully avoided as be- 
ing unlucky. 

If on March 19th of any year you 
marry, move, travel, or do any- 
thing you like, it will all turn out 
successfully. 

LAMMAS' DAY (August 1st)— 
Highlanders bathe to this day at 
midnight of Aug. 1st in Lorkmaur. 
Sutherlandshire, to cure themselves 
of all bodily ailments, repaying the 
spirit of the lake with coin for these 
benefits. 



Lammas day, the first day of 
August, called also the Gule of 
August, was one of the great fes- 
tival days of our heathen ancestors, 
having been held as a day of 
thanksgiving for the new fruits of 
the earth. It was observed with 
bread of new wheat and there was a 
custom in some places at no dis- 
tant period for tenants to be bound 
to bring in wheat of the new crop 
to their lord on or before this day. 
Till the middle of the last century 
the shepherds in various places in 
Scotland were accustomed to hold 
festive meetings on Lammas day, 
on the tops of conspicuous hills, 
turf towers and benches having 
been previously ccwistructed for the 
purpose. The Gule of August 
which is of Celtic origin and means 
a festive anniversary was Latinized 
by the early Christian priesthood 
into Gula, which means throat. 
This, in connection with its having 
been the day of the festival of St 
Peter ad Vincula in honor of a relic 
of St Peter's chains, seems to have 
this suggestion to all worshipping 
this relic on this day or by kissing 
it would be cured of diseases of the 
throat 

LENT — If you eat meat in Lent, 
the best cattle in the stall will die. 

A dry Lent foretells a fertile 
year. 

On Mid-Lent Sunday, in Cath- 
olic countries, pine-boughs bound 
with variegated paper and spangles 
are carried about by children and 
hung over stable doors to keep 
away evil spirits. 

In Macedonia, dining Lent 
twenty fish-heads are strung on a 
string. When anyone is bewitched 
or under the spell of the evil eye, 
these heads are dipped three times 
into water and the afflicted one 
washes in this water to cure him- 
self. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1555 



Among the Walloons the first 
Sunday in Lent is a feast day on 
which bonfires are lighted on the 
hills and mountains for good luck, 
and is a survival of the ancient cult 
of Thor. 

In Burgundy it is the custom on 
the first Sunday in Lent to make 
large fires in the streets called 
"Firebrands" and hence the day is 
called "Firebrand Sunday." This 
practice originated in the proces- 
sions formerly made on that day by 
the peasants, with lighted torches 
of straw, to drive away, as they 
called it, the bad or evil air from 
the earth. 

Any Friday in Lent, except 
(iood Friday, write twelve letters of 
the alphabet on several pieces of 
paper, also twelve figures and the 
same number of blank cards; then 
put them in a bag, shake it well, 
and let each person draw one slip. 
Blank shows a single life, a figure 
intrigue, and a letter a happy mar- 
riage. 

The Wednesday, Friday, and 
Saturday after the first Sunday in 
Lent are called "Ember Days," 
and the week in which they occur 
Ember week. The name originates 
from the custom that on these days, 
our forefathers ate no bread but 
wliat was baked in a simple and 
primitive fashion under hot ashes. 
There arc four other Ember days in 
the year, which are the Wednesday, 
Friday and Saturday after Holy 
Rood day (Sept. 14) q. v., and on 
St. Lucia*s day (Dec. 13), q. v. 

In Bohemia the first Sunday in 
Lent is called Black Sunday, as 
then the women go to church in 
black habiliments; the second 
Sunday is called Roast Sunday, as 
they prepare their meals mostly of 
roasted com, browned flour, roast- 
ed pease and the like. The third is 
called Sneezing Sunday. The ex- 
planation of this name reaches as 



far back as 590 A. D., when Pope 
Gregorius. during a pestilence in 
Rome, when everybody who 
sneezed had got rid of the pesti- 
lence and danger of death, ordered 
to salute every sneezing person 
with* a "God Help You!" This 
order reached Bohemia on the 
third Sunday and has been contin- 
ued in the churches. The people 
took to it and now they say that 
sneezing on that Sunday is particu- 
larly blissful and that as many 
times as one sneezes on that day, 
so many years will be added to his 
life. 

(ST.) LEONARD'S DAY (No- 
vember 6th) — ^The mere mention 
on the sixth of November of St. 
Leonard's name, was believed by 
the ancient monks to break the fet- 
ters that bind a monk. 

LORD MAYOR'S DAY (No- 
vember 9th) — Hail on Lord May- 
or's day in London is considered a 
very bad omen for all concerned. 

(ST.) LUCIA'S DAY (Decem- 
ber 13th)— St. Lucia's day (Dec. 
13) is in honor of St. Lucia of oyra- 
cuse, who obtained a high character 
for a devout and charitable life, and 
died in 304. This is the last of the 
Ember Days of the year. (See Em- 
ber Days.) 

On St. Lucys' day put three beans 
in a bag, one whole, one without the 
eve and the other without the rind. 
Shake them up and draw one from 
the bag. If you draw the whole one, 
vou will have a rich wife or hus- 
band; the one without an eye, a 
slickly mate; the one without the 
rind, a partner witliout a penny. 

(ST.) LUCIUS DAY— If swine 

are let out on St. Lucius* day, they 
get vermin. 

(ST.) LUKE'S DAY (October 

18th) — Say the following on St. 
Luke's day: 



IS36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



"St Luke, St Luke, be kind to me. 
Let me in dreams my true love see;** 

and you will dream of the one you 
arc to marry. 

St. Luke's Day is dog-whipping 
day because a dog CMice swallowed 
the consecrated wafer in York Min- 
ster on that day. 

St. Luke's Dav is celebrated on 
the eighteenth of October in mem- 
ory of St Luke the Evangelist On 
this day the fair was held at Charl- 
ton, a village near Blackheath, a cu- 
rious custom kept up until not long 
ago. People go to this fair mask- 
ed; the men generally wore wom- 
en's clothes; and many bore horns 
upon their heads. It was a scene of 
wild riot and confusion. The booths 
had horns of various animals for sale 
and even the gingerbread was mark- 
ed with tluit figure. ''Horns! 
Horns!" was the universal cry. The 
gentry used to come in multitudes 
to see the sports of this occasion. 
This custom was in celebration to 
St. Luke, being usually repre- 
sented in the act of writing with an 
|ox by his side, having wing^ and 
large horns. The ox has been se- 
lected as an emblem of meditation, 
appropriate to this evangelist from 
the habit of this animal to ruminate 
upon his food. 

LUPERCALIA (February 15th) 
— The old Roman festival of the 
Lupercalia which was celebrated on 
the 15tn of February, is of special 
interest to us, because it coincides 
with our Valentine's day. The Lu- 
percalia were in fact the origin of 
this Saint's day, inasmuch as the 
Christian church substituted the 
Saint Valentine for the old Roman 
god or goddess, in accordance with 
their general policy of retaining the 
old ceremonies where they could 
not be extirpated, and merely modi- 
fying their significance. One of the 
old customs of the Lupercalia, 
which exists in England to this day, 



consisted in putting the names of 
young women into a box bx^m 
which they were drawn by the 
young men. This was originally re- 
tained by the Christian church with 
the modification of substituting 
Saints' names for lovers'. Though 
also this custom is practised to this 
day, the old pagan style suited the 
young people better, and hence St 
Valentine's Day has retained to this 
day the old significance of the Lu- 
percalia of choosing mates. 

The feast of the Lupercalia was 
one of the most ancient Roman 
festivals. It was celebrated in hon- 
or of Lupercus, an old deity, fre- 
quently confounded with Pan, and 
worshipped by shepherds as the 
guardian of their flocks against 
wolves, together with Juno Febru- 
ata (Juno the fructifier). The day 
was called dies februatus (the day 
of expiation or purification) and the 
whole month februarius (the month 
of purification). 

The traditions of this festival, its 
localities, and its rude strange rites, 
belong to the most primitive times, 
when Rome was a half-savage com- 
munity of shepherds. The Luper- 
cal, the wolfs grotto, was a cave on 
the western slope of the Palatine 
Hill, overshadowed by a fig-tree, 
under which the twin in^ts 
Romulus and Remus had been 
stranded by the Tiber, and where 
they were found by the she-wolf 
Luperca, the wife of Lupercus, who 
lived in that cave and nursed them. 
The Luperci, who celebrated this 
festival yearly, were young men of 
noble birth, who formed two broth- 
erhoods, the Fabian and Quintilian 
Luperci, belonging respectively to 
the Sabine and Latin parts of the 
city. A third brotherhood, the Ju- 
lian, was afterwards added in honor 
of Julius Caesar. The number of 
the Luperci is uncertain. The festi- 
val commenced with the sacrifice of 
goats and a young dog at the Lu- 
percal. Then two young men were 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1537 



brought in and their foreheads 
touched with the bloody knife; 
another of the brotherhood wiped 
the blood away with wool dipped 
in milky upon which the youne men 
broke into a laugh. Then followed 
the sacrificial bancjuet of the broth- 
erhood, after which the Luperci, 
clothed in nothing but pieces of the 
hkles of the slaughtered goats, and 
holding in their hands thongs cut 
from the same hides, ran up and 
down through the city, striking 
everybody that they met. Women 
wouid come forth voluntarily to be 
struck, since they believed that the 
ceremony rendered them fruitful 
and procured them an easy delivery. 
It was as leader of the Luperci Julii, 
a month before Caesar's assassina- 
tk)n and the very year of the estab- 
lishment of this brotherhood, that 
Mark Antony, 

On the Lupercal 

Thrice did offer him a kingly crown. 

The act of running about with 
thonjp of goat-skin was a symbolic 
purification of the land, and that of 
touching persons a purification of 
them. 

The festival of Lupercalia though 
it necessarily lost its original import 
at the time when Romans were no 
longer a nation of shepherds, was 
yet always observed in commemo- 
ration of the founders of the city. 
The festival kept its ground even 
after the triumph of Christianity, 
and was the last of the pagan festi- 
vals to be given up. 

(ST.) MARGARETS DAY 
(July 20)— St. Margaret's Day was 
in honor of St. &iargaret, a holy 
Italian Virgin, martyr^ in 278. On 
this day pregnant women used to 
flock to the church to pray for safe 
delivery. 

(ST.) MARK'S DAY (April 4) 
— Ashes are sifted on the hearth on 
St. Mark's eve, and if in the morn- 
ing the mark of a shoe is impressed 
there, it is a sign that one of the 



family will die before the year is 
out 

The cotintry people gather brake- 
seed on St. Mark's eve, which they 
carry about with them as a charm 
against evil influences. 

In North Wales no farmer dares 
use his team on St. Mark's day; it 
is said that one man*s team was 
''marked" by the loss of an ox. 

One's health upon St. Mark's day 
will be his health all the year. 

If you sit on the church porch on 
St. Mark's eve for three successive 
years from eleven to midnight, you 
will see on the third anniversary the 
ghosts of all those who are to die 
the following year. 

In Yorkshire, England, the peo- 
ple believe that to sit in the church- 
door on St Mark's eve at midnight, 
is to see the ghosts of all in the 
parish who are to die in the coming 
year pass in a procession into the 
church. 

"When the midnight signal tolls. 

Along the churchyard green 

A mournful train of sentenced souls 

In winding sheets are seen! 

The ghosts of all whom death shall 

doom. 
Within the coming year. 
In pale procession walk the gloom 
Amid the silence drear!" 

St Mark's, the Evangelist's Day, 
(April 25) on the eve of St Mark's 
day, maidens used to make the 
dumb cake. This was done by a 
number not exceeding three and it 
was to be done in silence. When 
the cake had been prepared, each 
broke off a piece at twelve o'clock 
and ate it; then walked backwards 
to her sleeping-room. It was 
thou|;ht that those who were to be 
mamed would hear a noise as of 
a man approaching. Those who 
heard nothing were to remain un- 
married. Another okl practice of 
this eve was for men to go a fast- 
ing to the church porch and take 
their station there before mkl-night. 



1538 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



expecting to see during the hour 
between twelve and one, the spirits 
of all who were to die in the parish 
during the ensuing year walk into 
the church in the order in which 
they were to die. 

In the North of England a super- 
stition still lingers to the effect that 
if a person watches in the church 
porch on St Mark's eve from eleven 
at night till one o'clock in the 
morning, he will see the apparitions 
of all who are buried in the church- 
yard during the ensuing year; and 
in very many farmhouses on the 
Border, till within a recent date, 
ashes were sifted over the hearth on 
that night, in the belief that the 
footprints of anyone fated to die be- 
fore the next St Mark's eve would 
be visible in the morning. How 
these superstitions came to be con- 
nected with St. Mark's is not clear, 
but the one last mentioned is evi- 
dently related to practices, much 
older than Christianity, which still 
prevail in some of the isles that 
stud the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans. These practices are based 
on the belief that spirits are suffi- 
ciently substantial to leave visible 
marks of their presence. The Phili- 
pines expect the dead to return on 
the third day after interment. 
"Wherefore they set a vessel of 
water for him to wash himself clean 
from the gravemould, and strew 
ashes to see footprints." 

On St. Mark's eve go into your 
garden at a quarter before midnight 
and walk three times round it. 
After you have made the third 
round, stand still and keep your 
eyes fixed on the roof of your 
house. While standing keep your 
hand, if possible, on a fruit bush of 
any kind (but it must not be a tree), 
and listen, as the clock strikes 12, 
whether there is the slightest noise. 
Do not turn your eyes from the 
roof. Then if the slates of the top 
of the house raise themselves up 



and go flat down into their proper 
places again, you will have very bad 
news of a frimd or relative, inform- 
ing you either of their des^ or ill- 
ness. If the slates rise up and fadl 
dovm close to where you are, it is 
a sig^ that your death will be 
caused either by something heavy 
fedling down from a great height 
upon you, or by your idling from a 
great height; but, whichever you 
see, if the bushes prick your hands, 
or you happen to see a light shin- 
ing somewhere, it is a sign you will 
be warned of your danger before it 
be too late. All must be done be- 
fore the clock stops striking, or as 
it finishes striking the hoar of 
twelve. 

(ST.) MARTIN'S DAY (No- 
vember 11)— To have good luck, 
the Irish believe that blood must be 
spilled on St Martin's day, there- 
fore generally a goose or a black 
cock IS killed and the blood sprin- 
kled on the floor and threshold. 

To kill a black cock and sprinkle 
the blood on the house on St Mar- 
tin's day, brings good luck. (Lady 
wade, "Ancient Legends.") 

Bad luck to the miller who allows 
his mill-wheel to be turned on the 
eleventh of November. 

At the time of St Martin's sum- 
mer old men are given to gaiety. 
(Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV, iL, 2.) 

St Martinmas, or Martlemas, is 
a festival in honor of St. Martin of 
France, who lived during the fourth 
century. It was celebrated on the 
11th of November and took the 
place of an old pagan festival. In 
Germany St. Martin's goose holds 
a prominent place in the menu 
about that time. 

St Martin's Day or Martinmas 
(November 11) was formerly the 
greatest term day in England and 
Scotland, marked by leases and en- 
gagements of servants and payment 
of com at Survey. On the conti- 






I* 

r 



I 



I 



I 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES, 



1559 



nent, from an early age, the day has 
been distinguished convivially; and 
this apparently for two reasons, 
namely, that now the people first 
tasted the wines of the season, and 
killed the animals required to be 
salted for their winter provisions. 
The entrails of these animals, pre- 
pared as sausages, or blood-pud- 
dings, became the subject of an im- 
mediate feast, while the rest of the 
meat was salted and set aside. In 
some countries, also, the goose, 
which is elsewhere enjoyed at 
Michaelmas, was now presented. 

(ST.) MARY'S DAY (April 9) 
— ^The Virgin Mary's day is a good 
day to write for favors, also good 
to begin any undertaking. 

The English believe to be bom 
on Virgin Mary's day gives brave 
men and virtuous women many 
trials in life which their prudence 
will overcome, and competence in 
their latter days. 

MAUNDY THURSDAY — 
The eggs of Maundy Thursday are 
good against thunder and light- 
ning. (Netherlands.) 

If you carry an egg about with 
you on Maundy Thursday, you will 
see all the witches with tubs on their 
heads. 

It is a general custom in (jer- 
many to have spinach and eggs for 
dinner on Green Thursday. 

In olden times people believed 
that tliey would turn into donkeys 
before Martinmas, if they did not 
cat nine sorts of herbs on Maundv 
Thursday. 

Portuguese sailor^ have a custom 
of dressing their ships in mourning 
on the anniversary of the betrayal of 
Jesus and hanging an ef&gy of Jesus 
at the vardarm. 

An egg laid on Green Thursday 
win hatch a chicken that will 
change its color every year. 



Seeds sown on Green Thursday 
will bear floweis of many colors. 

The same egg, if taken into a 
church or an assembly, will enable 
you to see the witches. Kneel with 
your back to the altar but be very 
careful, for if you break the egg, 
your heart will be broken too. 

Eating cracknels on Maundy 
Thursday keeps fever away. (Crack- 
nels are small, brittle fancy bis- 
cuit shaped in a dish. Mention- 
ed in the Bible, 1st Kings, 24, 3. 
Cracknel bread is a luxury among 
the negroes of the southern United 
States, as small bits of fat pork fried 
crisp are put into it Also called 
"goody bread.") 

He who fasts on Maundy Thurs- 
day, will catch no fever that year; 
or if he does, he will soon get over 
it. 

Maundy Thursday is the Thurs- 
day preceding Good Friday and 
Easter, on which the king of Eng- 
land distributed alms to a certam 
number of poor persons at White- 
hall; it is so named from the 
maunds or baskets in which the 
gifts were contained. 

According to some etymologists, 
the word comes through the old 
French mand^ from the Latin man- 
datum (commandment) which is the 
first word of the service chanted at 
the ceremony of washing the feet of 
pilgrims on that day, which is done 
to this day by various sovereigns 
and church dignitaries in commem- 
oration of Christ having washed his 
disciples* feet. 

The da^ is also called Shere 
Thursday m allusion to the physical 
purity acquired by the ablution of 
the day; the word sheer, shere, or 
chare coming from the middle Eng- 
lish shere which means pure, unal- 
loyed, clear. 

In Germany it is called Green 
Thursday. 

It is also frequently, though in- 
correctly, called Holy Thursday 



IS40 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



which is, however, Ascension Day, 
forty days after Easter, or ten days 
before Whitsuntide* 

Since the beginning of Queen 
Victoria's reign it has been an es- 
tablished rule to present a donation 
of money, known as Maundy pen- 
nies, to twice as many aged and de- 
serving poor men and women as 
there are years in her majesty's life. 
These are silver pennies, twopences, 
threepences, and fourpences, coined 
especially for this occasion, and are 
sold by many receivers at big 
premiums. Some of the officials, 
during the ceremony, wear white 
scarves, in memory of the linen 
towel with which our Lord girded 
himself when he stooped to wash his 
followers' feet 

MAY DAY— If you get wet the 
first day of May, you willbe healthy 
all the year. 

A piece of wild radish worn on 
Walpurgis night enables the wearer 
to see ghosts and witches. 

Throughout Europe the May- 
pole is supposed to impart a fertiliz- 
ing influence over both women and 
cattle as well as vegetation. 

Milk is poured by the Hindus 
upon the roots of the sacred tree on 
May day, so that it may bear much 
fruit. 

It is so lucky for a servant to 
bring in a bough of hawthorn 
blossoms on the tirst of May that 
it was an old custom to treat them 
to cream at breakfast. 

In Ireland food left over from 
May-day eve to May-day, is not 
eaten but buried, lest evil befall. 

Hares found on May-morning 
are witches and should be stoned. 

Sometimes on May-day a snow 
white heifer appeared among the 
cattle in Ireland, and this was con- 
sidered to bring the highest good 
luck to the farmer. 



In ancient times in Ireland, the 
men and women were bled on May 
eve, and the blood sprinkled around 
them, to prevent evil for the year. 

Draw crosses on your doors be- 
fore May-day eve and the witches 
can do no harm. 

The witches in Ireland make 
great effort to steal the milk on 
May-day morning, and if they suc- 
ceed the luck passes from the fam- 
ily, and the milk and butter belong 
to the fairies for a whole year. 

On the 1st day of May at exact- 
ly twelve o'clock, take a looking- 
glass and place it so that you can 
see the water in the well in the 
glass, and you will see the reflection 
of your future wife or husband. 

Spread your handkeFchief on 
growing wheat the last day of April 
at sunset. The next morning go to 
it and you will see the initials of 
your future wife or husband formed 
by the dew. 

On the eve of May-day the 
younger members of almost every 
family in the Isle of Man gather 
primroses and throw them before 
the doors of their houses to prevent 
the entrance of evil spirits on that 
night. 

If one knocks on one's own door 
when hanging May-baskets, it is a 
sign that someone of the family will 
die before the year is out 

A sprig of hawthorn gathered on 
May-day and hung in the entry to 
a house will prevent all evil influ- 
ences. 

He who goes to church on Wal- 
purgis day with a wreath of ivy on 
his head can recog^nize all the 
witches. 

If you pull herbs on May-day 
eve in the name of the Trinity, they 
will have healing properties; but if 
you pull them in the name of Satan, 
they will work evil to whoever uses 
them. (Irish.) 



FOLKLORE. AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



IS4I 



If you fill your mouth full of meal 
on the first of May and not speak 
to anybody, the name of the first 
man you hear mentioned will be 
that of your future husband. 

In Ireland they fasten a green 
bough of a tree on the house on 
May-day so that they will have 
plenty of milk. 

On the first of May the Irish 
used to place before the door a 
green bush covered with yellow 
flowers to keep all ill luck away. 

Ringing consecrated bells on 
W'alpurgis nieht hinders the witches 
that dance with the devil on cross- 
roadsy from hurting anyone. 

No fire is lighted in Ireland on 
May-day till smoke is seen coming 
from the priest's house. 

If you tease a cat on Walpurgis 
eve, it will turn into a witch and 
harm you. 

If a person cut a piece of turf 
and place it on his head on May- 
night, the witches cannot harm 
him. 

In Northumberland, the young 
girls prepare for the May feast the 
Alay syllabub, made of warm milk 
from the cow, sweet cake and wine. 
Into this a wedding ring is dropped, 
(or which the girls fish with a ladle. 
Whoever gets it will be married 
first. 

If anv food is left over from May 
eve to May day it must not be eat- 
en but buried in the garden, be- 
cause the fairies really ate the food 
and left a piece of turf in its place 
made to look like food, and it any 
one should touch it, it would be 
fatal 

Our Aryan ancestors and the 
herdsmen of Sweden used to watch 
on the first of Mav in which branch 
of the mountain-ash the sun would 
strike first and, cutting off that 
branch, they would beat the year- 
lings on the loins and haunches re- 



peating at each stroke a verse in 
which they pray that as sap comes 
into the tree, so may milk come into 
their udders. 

Before sunrise on the morning of 
the 1st of May, set a glass of water 
where the first rays of the rising 
sun will fall upon it, and break into 
it the white of an egg. The form it 
will take after the first rays of the 
sun have touched it, will show the 
business of your future husband. 

"The fair maid who on the first of May, 
Goes to the fields at break of day 
And washes in dew from the hawthorn 

tree. 
Will ever after handsome be." 

At Oxford, May-day is not only 
ushered in by the singing of the 
famous hymn on Magdalen Tower, 
but with flowers and garlands, 
jacks-in-the-green by the sweeps, 
and blowing of horns by the chil- 
dren, who are thus unconsciously 
celebrating the ritual of the goddess 
Flora. 

The ceremony of rolling ban- 
nocks was performed in Scotland on 
May eve. The young people took 
bannock-cakes to a hill and rolled 
them down to tell their fortunes. If 
a cake broke in the rolling, the 
owner would meet with some dis- 
aster. They ate a little, left a little 
for the cuckoo, and put the rest 
under their pillows in their sweet- 
heart's name to dream when they 
sliould be married. 

On the first of May the purifica- 
tion of flocks is made in Scotland 
with sulphur, olive, pine, laurels, 
and rosemary. Offerings of milch, 
cheese, boiled wine, and cakes are 
made to obtain good luck. The 
fecumlity of the flocks much de- 
pends upon these ceremonies. Also 
early in May the people propitiate 
the ghosts of their ancestors. 

A charm said by the maidens of 
Gloucestershire, England, when 
gathering May-dew in the early 
morning of May-Day. ami washing 



1542 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



their faces with it, as a beautifier, 
runs as follows: 

"I wash my face with water 
Which has never rained or run, 
I wipe my face with a napkin 
Which was never wove nor spun." 

On May eve, in Bohemia, the 
young men make fires outside the 
towns and use their brooms made 
of fine branches of trees to throw 
coals from the fire into the air. 
They call this "burning the witch- 
es/' If one of the young men has 
a sweetheart, he may determine 
whether or not they are to be mar- 
ried by throwing his broom high in 
the air and if it comes down alight, 
the wedding will take place. 

The legendary Irish hero O'Don- 
oghue was a lord of Lake Killar- 
ney, its islands, and the surround- 
ing land. His sway was just and 
generous, and his reign propitious. 
He was brave, hospitable, and wise. 
Annually since his disappearance, 
for nobody knows whether he ever 
died, he reappears to visit the pleas- 
ant places where he lived. Every 
May morning he may be seen glid- 
ing over the lake, mounted on a 
white steed richly caparisoned, pre- 
ceded by youths and maidens who 
strew spring flowers in his way. 

The celebration of May-Day is 
doubtless prompted by nature her- 
self as it is the first day of the glori- 
ous spring month. The Celtic na- 
tions worshipped on this day the 
sun, as the immediate author of the 
glories of the season, under the 
name of Baal; hence the festival of 
Belstein, still faintly observed in 
Ireland and the Scotland High- 
lands. Where fires were occasion- 
ally kindled in the eve of May day. 
The Romans held games on this 
day called Floralia, at which there 
was great display of flowers, danc- 
ing and general merry making. 
The May-3ay jollities of modem 
Europe, seems to be directly de- 



scended from this old Roman festi- 
val 

In England the celebration of 
May-day opened with the day itself, 
that is at midnight. Immediately 
after twelve had struck, everybody 
was astir, wishing each other a 
merry May. Then the people went 
forth with music and the blowing 
of horns, to some neighboring 
woods, where they employed them- 
selves in breaking down and gath- 
ering branches. These they brought 
back at an early hour, and planted 
over their doors. In some places a 
pole was erected over the top of 
which a garland was suspended and 
round this pole the young people 
danced in a joyful ring. 

In Germany it is still customary 
especially in the mountainous parts 
of Southern Germany to get up 
very early on May morning and 
take a (May-walk) before breakfost 
to some community, where the ris- 
ing of the sun will be watched. 

Many superstitions are attached 
to May-day. One of the most 
widely spread beliefs is that the dew 
of that morning has the most pow- 
erful cosmetic properties. Women 
gather on May-day before sunrise 
to wash themselves with dew to im- 
prove their beauty. 

A sprig of hawthorn gathered on 
May-day and hung over the house 
door is believed to ward off all ma- 
lign influences. 

In the United States May-day is 
particularly marked by letter-car- 
riers and policemen receiving new 
uniforms, a custom that is also to be 
found in London. 

The first of May is called May- 
day and is celebrated in many coun- 
tries as the beginning of summer. 
Various ceremonies and supersti- 
tions are connected with this day. 
most of which are of heathen origin, 
a heathen festival marking the com- 
mencement of stmimer, having been 
held in early ages about the same 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1M3 



time. In many places the first of 
May is dedicated to St. Walpurgis 
an English nun, niece of St. Boni- 
face, and sister of St. Wilibald and 
St. Winibald, who had come in the 
eighth century to Germany to found 
religious houses. She died in 779 
as abbess of the two Benedictine 
convents at Heidenheim and Eich- 
staedl in Bavaria. Her relics were 
laid in a hollow rock at the latter 
place. From this rock exuded a 
kind of bituminous oil, afterwards 
known as Walpurgis oil and regard- 
ed as of miraculous efficacy against 
disease. Walpurgis night, being the 
night before the first of May, has 
obtained great significance in witch- 
craft in Germany. It was on that 
night, when the witches held their 
great annual festival together with 
the devil and all kinds of evil spirits 
on the Blocksberg (or Brocken) in 
the Hartz Mountains. They rode 
thither on broomsticks and he- 
goats accompanied by owls, bats 
and the like, and it was considered 
dangerous to be out on that night. 
This witches' Sabbath has been im- 
mortalized in Goethe's Faust. 

Some people stick a thorn on that 
night in their house door so that the 
witches can do them no harm ; oth- 
ers mark the sign of the cross on 
their house door with chalk for the 
same reason. 

Walpurgis night is considered in 
Germany ominous by lovers, in a 
similar way as Hallowe'en is in 
England and America. The fol- 
k)wmg are such German supersti- 
tions: 

Spread your pocket-handkerchief 
on the night of the SOth of April 
upon the green wheat in the field; 
arise early on May morning and 
vou will find vour lover's initials 
traced in dew u|X)n the handker- 
chief. 

If you sleep with one stocking on 
on the dOth of April, pull it off on 
the morning of the first of May and 
you will find a hair in the toe of the 



stocking, the color of your future 
husband's or wife's hair. 

Polydore Virgil says that the 
Roman youdis used to go into the 
fields and spend the calends of May 
in dancing and singing in honor of 
IHora, goddess of fruits and flow- 
ers. The early English consecrat- 
ed May-day to Robin Hood and the 
Maid Marian, because the favorite 
outlaw died on that day. Stow says 
the villagers used to set up May- 
poles, and spend the day in archery, 
morris-dancing, and other amuse- 
ments. 

Historians mention that there 
was a time in Malta, during the 
Government of the knights of St 
John, when it was customary on the 
1st of May to deck the Grand Mas- 
ter's palace-balcony, and the doors 
of those who were invested with the 

fraud cross, with branches of trees, 
t appears that this sign of a holi- 
day, which was introduced in Malta 
by the families from the island of 
Rhodes, was a remnant of the wor- 
ship of the sun, formerly adored by 
the Rhodians. 

Bourne cites Polydore Virgil, as 
telling us that among the Italians 
the youth of both sexes were accus- 
tomed to go into the fields in the 
Calends of May, and bring thence 
branches of trees, singing all the 
way as they came, and to place 
them on the doors of their houses. 
This, he observes, is a relic of an 
ancient custom among the hea- 
thens, who observed the last four 
days of April, and the 1st day of 
May in honor of the goddess Flora 
who was imagined to be the deity 
presiding over the fruits and flow- 
ers, and would increase the crops 
and give general prosperity. 

The following interesting article 
on May Day customs and charac- 
teristics, by Emma Seevers Jones, 
is quoted from "Self Culture," June, 
1899: 
**It may not be generally known 



X544 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



that the first day of May is a festi- 
val in honor of an American 
'*saint/' canonized by that strictly 
American method, popular accla- 
mation. The colonial troops under 
George Washington, having de- 
prived themselves of the patronage 
of St George by their rebellion, 
cast about for a saint of their own. 
Their choice fell on Tamina or 
Tamanend, a sagamore of the Dela- 
ware Indians, who, tradition says, 
had whipped the deviL Naturally 
the soldiers concluded that the con- 
queror of the devil could also van- 
quish St George and the dragon. 

According to tradition the war 
waged between St Tamina and the 
devil lasted for many moons, and 
the conflict was so fierce that whole 
forests were trampled by them into 
prairies. St. Tamina nnally came 
off victorious, and^the devil retired 
in confusion to Manhattan Island, 
where he received a hearty wel- 
come. From that time forth St. 
Tamina was the hero of his people, 
and his many good qualities were 
quoted as examples for emulation. 

The colonial troops inscribed the 
name of St Tamina upon their ban- 
ners, and held celebrations in his 
honor on the first day of May. 
These celebrations were a combina- 
tion of the Indian war dance and 
the old English May-Day frolics. 
The May-pole was crowned with a 
liberty cap, and was hung with 
wampum and bucks' tails, aiKl bore 
a tomahawk, instead of the gar- 
lands of flowers used to decorate the 
English May-pole. The observ- 
ance was kept up by the army until 
the war of 1812, when General 
Dearborn put a stop to it because 
of the debauchery it fostered among 
the troops. 

The army was not alone in doing 
honor to the "saint." His virtues 
were sung by poets, and his life 
was dramatized and appeared on 
the stage in many places. Societies 
bearing his name were formed. 



which largely took the place of the 
modem dub. 

"There's a barrel of porter in Tammany 
Hall, 
And the Buck-tails are swigging it all 
the night long. 
In the time of my childhood 'twas pleas> 
ant to call 
For a seat and cigar 'mid the jovial 
throng." 

— ^wrote Halleck. And Eddis wrote 
soon after the Revolution: 

''Besides our regular assemblies 
every mark of attention is paid to 
the patron saint of each parent do- 
minion; and St George, St An- 
drew, St. Patrick, and St David 
are celebrated with every partial 
mark of national attachment Gen- 
eral invitations are given, and the 
appearance is always numerous and 
splendid. The Americans on this 
part of the continent have likewise 
a saint, whose history, like those of 
the above remarkable characters, is 
lost in sable uncertainty. The first 
of May is, however, set apart to the 
memory of St Tamina, on which 
occasion the natives wear a piece of 
buck's tail in their hat or in some 
conspicuous situation. During the 
course of the evening, and generally 
in the midst of a dance, the com- 
pany are interrupted by the sudden 
intrusion of a number of persons 
habited like Indians, who rush vio- 
lently into the rooms, singing the 
war-song, giving the whoop, and 
dancing in the style of those people, 
after which ceremony a collection is 
made and they retire, well satisfied 
with their reception and entertain- 
ment" 

The wearing of bucks' tails was 
perhaps an imitation of the English 
^'wearing of the May;" and the 
largess demand may have been in 
memory of the custom in some 
parts of England, when the boys 
cried, "Ha'penny, a penny, or a 
good wet back," on meeting any 
pedestrian without his "May. Un- 
less the unlucky wight speedily re- 
sponded to the demand, he was 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1545 



drenched with water from the "dip- 
ping-homs" by the boys. These 
"dipping-horns" were bullocks* 
horns attached to a long stick and 
carried full of water dipped up from 
the ditch. Not much time was al- 
lowed the victim for producing the 
"ha'penny, penny/' as the boys 
would much rather give him ''a 
good wet back." Before the "dip- 
ping" could be done, the consent of 
the mayor was necessary, and the 
bolder spirits among the boys ap- 
peared before him, asking '* Please, 
sir, may we dip?" According to 
time-honored custom the mayor re- 
plied, "Certainly — anyone without 
the *May;' but don't dip anyone 
else or you'll get into trouble.' 

The "May" was a sprig of green 
gathered in the early morning and 
worn all day. In some places a 
branch of the narrow-leaved elm 
was gathered, in others the bloom 
of the hawthorn was the "May." 
Hawthorn was also used to dec- 
orate the houses on May Day; and 
the expedition into the g^ove after 
it was call^ ''going a-Maying," 
and the carrying of it home was 
"bringing in the May," while the 
hawthorn bloom came to be called 
"May." 

Even Henry VIII and Queen 
Elizabeth went "a-Mayingf" and 
held May games. The erecting of 
a May-pole was a matter of course, 
and it sometimes stood until the 
following May Day. Young men 
and maidens danced around the 
May-pole with flowers and songs. 
The most attractive maiden was 
chosen "Queen of the May," hom- 
age being paid her as long as the 
day lasted. This choosing of a May 
queen may have been a relic of the 
pagan custom of Rome when the 
goddess Flora was especially wor- 
shipped. 

The observance of May Day was 
general in England until the Puri- 
uns of the Commonwealth put a 
stop to the festivities and uprooted 



the May-poles. The custom was 
revived after the Restoration, but 
was not so universal, and has nearly 
if not entirely died out. 

The rugged Puritans of New 
England did battle with the May- 
pole also. To them it was an em- 
blem of Satanic rule, and all who 
danced about it were consigned to 
eternal flames without mercy. In 
such an inhospitable atmosphere it 
could not flourish long, and soon 
became a thing of the past 

The custom of giving "May bas- 
kets," however, continued down to 
a generation ago, and for aught we 
know may still be observed in some 
States. A basket, tastefully ar- 
ranged with flowers, was left by the 
love-sick swain at the door of his 
lady-love; children tied baskets and 
bouquets on the door-knob of the 
house wherein dwelt their play- 
mates; and friends remembered 
each other by gifts and flowers on 
May Day morning. 

Perhaps May Day has been more 
universally observed in America as 
"moving-day" than in any other 
manner. The following comical ac- 
count of it is given by Irving in his 
"Knickerbocker": 

"It having been solemnly re- 
solved that the seat of empire 
should be removed from the g^een 
shores of Pavonia to the pleasant 
island of Mana-hata, everybody was 
anxious to embark under the stand- 
ard of Oloffe the Dreamer, and to 
be among the first sharers of the 
proniise<l land. A day was appoint- 
ed for the grand migration, and on 
that day little Communipaw was in 
a buzz and a bustle like a hive in 
swarming-time. Houses were turn- 
ed inside out ami stri|)[)C(l of the 
venerable furniture which had come 
from Holland; all the community, 
great and small, black and white, 
man, woman, ami child, was in com- 
motion, forming lines from the 
houses to the water-side, like lines 
of ants from an ant-hill ; everybody 



X546 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



was laden with some article of 
household furniture; while the busy 
housewives plied backwards and 
forwards along the lines, helping 
everything forward by the nimble- 
ness of their tongues. 

By degrees a fleet of boats and 
canoes were piled up with all kinds 
of household articles; ponderous 
tables, chests of drawers resplendent 
with brass ornaments; quaint cor- 
ner cupboards; beds and bedsteads; 
with any quantity of pots, kettles, 
frying-pans, and Dutch ovens. In 
each boat embarked a whole family, 
from the robustious burgher down 
to the cats, dogs, and little negroes. 
In this way they set off across the 
mouth of the Hudson, under the 
guidance of Oloffe the Dreamer, 
who hoisted his standard on the 
leading boat 

This memorable migration took 
place on the first of May, and has 
long been cited in tradition as the 
grand moving. The anniversary of 
it was piously observed among the 
'sons of the pilgrims of Communi- 
paw,' by turning their houses topsy- 
turvy and carrying all the furniture 
through the streets in emblem of 
the swarming of the parent hive; 
and this is the real origin of the uni- 
versal agitation and 'moving* by 
whi^h this most restless of cities is 
turned out of doors on every May 
Day." 

MEMORIAL DAY — On the 

day of the "festival of the tombs," 
a branch of willow is introduced 
under the tiles of the house and 
allowed to hang down over the 
door where all the passers-by can 
see it, as this assures peace and safe- 
ty to the dwellers therein, no mat- 
ter what is taking place outside. 

In April of each year a day is 
selected in China for especial wor- 
ship at the graves. Every man, 
woman and child hastens away to 
the family tombs. They take offer- 
ings and candles. To neglect this 



ceremony is counted a slight to 
one's dead parents and will bring 
the worst kind of ill luck. To a 
Chinaman there is no greater sin 
than to neglect the graves of his 
ancestors and no greater calamity 
can happen than to die and be 
buried away from his native land. 

(ST.) MICHAEL'S DAY — 
(September 29th) — St Michael's 
Day is a festival of St Michael and 
of all the holy angels. 

On Michaelmas day all yellow 
carrots in the fields should be 
housed. All left will rot (Bel- 
gium.) 

If you lock up everything on St 
Michael's day, thieves will not come 
near you for a year. 

Rain on St Michael's day is the 
sign of a mild winter; but if this day 
is dry and the wind from the north- 
west, it indicates a severe winter. 

It was, till late, a universal cus- 
tom among the islanders of St 
Kilda on Michaelmas Day to pre- 
pare in every family a loaf or cake 
of bread, enormously large, and 
compounded of different ingre- 
dients. This cake belonged to the 
Archangel, and had its name from 
him (St. Michael's Bannock). Every 
one in each family had his portion 
of this kind of shewbread, and had, 
of course, some claim to the friend- 
ship and protection of Michael. 

MID-LENT SUNDAY— Mid- 
Lent is a great feast among the 
Walloons, on which a mythical be- 
ing called **Le Compte Mi Careme/' 
is supposed to visit children in the 
night, leaving good gifts for the 
good and rods for the undeserving. 
He takes the place of St. Valentine 
for young girls sending them fig- 
ures in March, bread and ginger- 
bread. This again is held to be a 
reminiscence of the Scandinavian 
god Thor. 

Mid-Lent Sunday, the third Sun- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



«547 



day in March, is a holiday in the 
church of England on which it was 
considered necessary for all true 
Christians to pay a visit, if possible, 
to their mother church to make 
some small offering. It was cus- 
tomary to visit their parents, carry- 
ing with them some gift, and to re- 
ceive the parental blessing in return 
together with a mess of furmety, a 
kind of sweetened porridge. This 
practice was called *'going a moth- 
ering." and the day was hence 
called Mothering Sunday. 

The Maltese frequently make 
children believe that the ghagiusa 
(the oldest woman living in the par- 
ish) is killed at noon on Thursday, 
the middle of Lent. 

Mothers, after fasting the first 
twenty days of Lent, send their chil- 
dren to the door of the parish 
church, or of some convent, to see 
the sexton or some friar throwing 
the old woman from the steeple 
down below. 

The disappointment of the chil- 
dren is indeed very great when at 
noon« they don't see the ghagiusa 
thrown down. 

MIDSUMMER DAY— On St. 
John's day if you pluck a plant after 
the sun rises, in Altmark, after a 
time you will suffer with cancer. 

Pluck a rose on St. John's at 
midnight and wear it to church, 
and your lover will come and pluck 
it out of your bottonhole. (Corn- 
wall.) 

After daybreak on St. John's it is 
dangerous to pluck herbs, the gath- 
erer running the risk of getting a 
cancer. 

\'ines shaken on St. John's day 
will make wine of a fine flavor. 

Onions turned in their bed on St. 
John's day will come out fine. 

If a lighted match goes out, it is 
a sign of bad luck. 

A lighted brand taken from the 



fire built on St. John's eve, brings 
luck if it can be taken home with- 
out breaking it. 

If a man jumps over a St John's 
fire, he will conquer all his enemies. 

The summer solstice (24th of 
June) is the pivot day of the year 
and '*need-fires" are kindled in Bel- 
gium by the friction of sticks, a 
pagan practice reaching back to 
Neolithic times, but always dis- 
countenanced by the church. 

In Albania, as in many other 
countries on St. John's eve, cver>'- 
one jumps over a bonfire, even the 
very old, because it insures them 
good health. 

Fires made on Midsummer eve 
protect the land from evil. 

If on Midsummer night nine 
kinds of flowers are laid under the 
head of a person, the sleeper will 
dream of his or her sweetheart 

It is unlucky to fetch anything 
green into the house on St. John's 
dav. 

If there are fires on the moun- 
tains on the day of the feast of St. 
John it is a sign of good luck to the 
flocks. 

In Ireland they believe that on 
St. John's eve the souls of the peo- 
ple leave their bodies and wander 
by land and sea to the place where 
death shall finally separate them 
from their bodies forever. 

In the Bavarian Alps the boys 
still leap over St. John's fires, and 
make wreaths to look through, 
which prevent sore eyes through 
the year. 

If on St. John's day anything 
green is bought, it will cause cancer. 

A piece of wood passed lightly 
over the body in silence before sun- 
rise on St John's day will heal all 
open sores. 

It is unlucky to gather herbs on 
St John's day after the sun rises. 



1548 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



In Ireland on Midsummer eve^ 
the people carried live coals into the 
cornfields to prevent blight 

In Ireland it is believed that the 
souls of persons asleep on St. John's 
eve could leave their bodies and 
visit the place of their death. 

On Midsummer-day» at noon, the 
sun is believed in Portugal to be 
dancing. 

A Danish myth tells us that 
whoever wanders under an elder- 
tree at twelve o'clock on Midsum- 
mer's eve will see the king of Fairy- 
land go by with all his train. 

In countries where fires are light- 
ed for luck on Midsummer eve, 
men dip brooms in tar and run 
around with them from one fire to 
another. When burnt out, they are 
placed in the fields as charms 
against blight 

On St John's eve the people 
took means of preventing Elfin 
visitors from entering the house by 
hanging St. John's wort over their 
doors. 

If two persons take an apple on 
St. John's eve, and cutting it in two 
find an uneven number of seeds, the 
one who holds the half containing 
the greatest number of seeds will be 
married first 

In the vicinity of Mount Etna the 
country people have a great aver- 
sion to sleeping beneath trees on St. 
John's eve, lest they should become 
possessed of an evil spirit. 

If you dig up a burdock-root on 
St. John's day between eleven and 
twelve at noon you will find a lucky 
coal which is good for many 
charms. If you find it, it will 
miraculously teach you what it is 
good for. 

In the Isle of Man it is believed 
that if you happen to tread on a bit 
of St. John's wort on St. John's 
night, a fairy will rise up and carry 
you about at a great pace and never 



let you go till morning, when he 
will drop you just where he happens 
to be. 

If a couple cuts an apple in two 
on St John's eve, and in cutting cuts 
two seeds in two, it is a sig^ that 
one or the other will have a death, 
or become a widow or widower dur- 
ing the year. 

At the summer solstice, if you 
shoot at the sun, three drops of 
blood will fall. They must be gath- 
ered up and preserved, for that is 
the fern seed. 

The Azoreans believe that on St 
John's day the king-fern produces a 
beautiful flower. All about it dance 
the witches, but whoever has the 
courage to go alone at midnight and 
pluck the flower, will have every 
wish of his heart fulfilled. 

A plantain has a rare coal under 
the roots, found only on one hour 
in the day, and on one day in the 
^ear. If a maiden will search for 
It at twelve o'clock on Midsummer's 
day and put it beneath her head at 
night, she will not fail to see her 
future husband in a dream. 

In Germany the peasants have a 
pretty fancy that the blessed Virgin 
went strawberrying on St. John's 
day with the children. Owing to 
this no mother who has lost a little 
one, will touch a strawberry on that 
day for fear her child will be depriv- 
ed of its share. She thinks the 
Mother Mary will say to her child: 
"Stand back, for your mother has 
eaten your share!" 

For a girl to leap over a fire built 
on St. John's eve, three times over 
and back, is certain of a speedy mar- 
riage and good luck in after lite with 
many children. 

In "A Midsummer Night's 
Dream," Shakespeare alludes to a 
charm which was popularly believed 
in and practiced on midsummer- 
night. A pansy was placed on the 
eyes of Titania the Queen of the 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1549 



fairies so that when she awoke from 
slumber she should fall in love with 
the first thing her eyes rested upon. 

The populace of Madrid were 
long accustomed on St John's eve 
to wander in the fields in search of 
vervain, from a notion that this 
plant possesses preternatural powers 
when gathered at twelve o'clock on 
that eve. 

A Bohemian charm to see if love 
will be true and fortunate, is to go 
on St. John's eve, and pluck nine 
kinds of flowers, binding a white 
wrap upon your arm, and going to 
bed to dream of your lover. This 
is called "St. John's wreath." In 
the morninc^ you go before sunrise 
to an apple-tree and throw the 
wreath backwards over your head 
in order to find the distance it falls 
beyond the apple-tree. This will 
tell whether your wishes will come 
out soon or late. 

Go backwards into the garden on 
Midsummer eve, gather a rose and 
putting it in a clean sheet of paper, 
keep it until Christmas day without 
looking at it. It will be as fresh as 
in June. Stick it in your bosom, 
and whoever is to be your husband, 
will come and take it out. 

On Sl John's day the villager 
goes before daylight barefoot to a 
neighbor's field and picks up two 
hands full of barley which he binds 
together like a rope. This is bound 
around the body of a sick animal 
and a chapter of St. John rea<l to 
the animal; it will recover at once. 

The Bohemian thinks that he can 
make himself shot-proof twenty- 
four liours by fimiing on St. John's 
day nine cones on the top of a pine 
tree, taking them home and eating 
a kernel on each day he wishes to 
be invulnerable. 

When a mother loses a child, she 
cats neither strawberries nor cher- 
ries until the day of St. John the 
Baptist. It is said that at that time 



the \irgin goes about heaven giv- 
ing this fruit to the little children. 
If a mother has not been self-deny- 
ing, and has eaten of this fruit, when 
the Virgin comes to the child of 
such a one, she says: 'Toor child, 
there isn't much left for you, your 
mother ate your share," so mothers 
abstain for this reason. (Bohemia.) 

An old Portuguese superstition, 
still in existence in some parts of 
Portugal, is the celebration of the 
eves of St. John, St, Anthony, and 
St. Peter. Bonfires are made of 
large thistles, and when they have 
burnt long enough, they are taken 
out and stuck separately in the 
ground until the next day. The 
young girls do this to test their true 
loves. If the thistle retains a faint 
purple color in the center of the 
blossom, their love will be prosper- 
ous and happy. 

Thorpe says in his "Northern 
Mythology:" **I have often ob- 
served devout Roman Catholics go- 
ing on the morning of St. John's 
day to neighboring sand-hills about 
Hanover, gathering on the roots of 
herbs a certain insect, looking like 
drops of blood, and thought by 
them to be created on purpose to 
keep alive the remembrance of the 
foul murder of St. John the Baptist, 
and only to be met with on the 
morning of the day set apart for 
him by the Church." 

St. John's day is thus obser\'ed in 
Ravello, Italy: The people repeat 
their rosaries until midnight and 
then look out, firmly believing that 
they will see Herodias and her 
daughter pass, riding on a fiery 
plank, the daughter saying, "Moth- 
er why did vou sav it?" and the 

« * * 

mother, "Daughter, why did you 
do it?" and then plunge into the sea, 
which is the reason why. after St. 
John's day, the temperature of the 
sea rises and bathing begins. 

In ancient times in Greek Islands 
the hare was believed to be able to 



I550 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



conceive again when already ex- 
pectant, and was thus supposed to 
aid fertility. On St John's eve 
young women would dance around 
a fire with stones on their heads. 
.When the fire got low, they flung 
the stones into the embers, and 
when it went out they crossed their 
legs with the coals and ran to bathe 
in the sea. This was called the 
hare's fire which would make them 
fecund. 

The St John's fire, also called. 
Midsummer-fire has long been re- 
garded as able to give abundance 
Tor the year and the same time to 
clear out the vermin. The people 
scatter little pieces of paper in the 
fire exclaiming, "In paper, out 
fleas I" 

"Faire braire les poeles" is a 
singular usage with the supposed 
result of driving away evil spirits. 
It prevailed up to a few years ago, 
in the parish of St. John's in die 
island of Jersey. The ceremony 
took place annually on St. John's 
eve and consisted in obtaining a 
brass boiler partly filled with water 
and encircling it with a covering of 
strong rushes, strings also of rushes 
were attached to it and these being 
wetted, the persons who surrounded 
the cauldron drew these rapidly 
through their hands, by means of 
which a vibration and an accom- 
paniment of uncouth and inhar- 
monious noises was produced. At 
the same time others blew horns 
from cows to swell the note of dis- 
cord. 

St John's day or Midsummer day 
is in Ireland and Scotland fre- 
quently called Beltane or Beltein, 
probably in reminiscence of old hea- 
then times, Baltane signifying 
Baal's fire. In some parts of Ire- 
land, the Beltein festival is observed 
on Jtme 21st; in Scotland on May- 
day (old style), in imitation of the 
nncient Roman festival in honor of 
Cybele, "the mother of tlie gods," 



which took place at the beginning 
of May, and consisted in orgiastic 
nightly dances on mountains and in 
forests, huge fires being kindled. 
In Ireland and Scotland Beltein 
fires are kindled at these times, and 
the young muster on some green 
spot, feast on a dish of eggs and 
milk, and go through various cere- 
monies. 

In Perthshire the women throw 
ashes and a live peat over their 
heads on Beltane morning, for luck. 

The natives of the Canary Islands 
believe that it is good luck to see 
the sun dance on St. John's morn- 
ing. It is indeed a curious sight, 
for it appears to revolve round and 
round like a silver shield, an effect 
caused sometimes by the atmos- 
phere. It only happens, if the 
morning is very clear. 

On the Canary Islands, all ani- 
mals of the farm and all the people 
bathe in the sea for good luck on St. 
John's day. The natives also plant 
three grains of wheat on that morn- 
ing, and if the three come up at 
once at the end of five days, all will 
be well with the harvest for that 
year; but if they straggle up, one 
after the other, the harvest will be 
bad. 

Women put out bottles of wine 
at night and taste them in the morn- 
ing. If the wine has soured in the 
night, the thoughts of that woman 
are bad. 

On the eve of St. John, the na- 
tives of the Canary Islands put out 
a basin in the open air. At dawn of 
the following day they look in the 
water, and if they see their face re- 
flected in the basin, they will live 
the year out; but if they see no 
shadow of themselves, they will die. 
Another custom among the Canar>* 
Islanders is to put three potatoes 
under the bed on St John's eve, the 
first skinned, the second half skin- 
ned, and the third not skinned at 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1551 



all. The next morning the girl 
selects one with her eyes shut; if 
she gets the skinned one, her future 
husband will be poor; if the half 
skinned one, he will be moderately 
well off; but if she selects the un- 
skinned potato, he will have a whole 
coat to his back and a fortune be- 
sides. Still another notion is for a 
girl to throw three carnations out of 
the window on St. John's morning; 
should some one pick them up, her 
husband's name will be the same as 
tliat of the person who picked them 
up: but if nobody picks them up, 
she will die an old maid. 

Midsummer day is the 24th of 
June, the feast of St. John the Bap- 
tist. On Midsummer eve it was the 
custom in former times to kindle 
fires, called St. John's fires, upon 
hills in celebration of the summer 
>olstice; this custom is to this day 
upheld in the Swiss and Bavarian 
Alps. Many superstitious rites and 
wild revelries were held on this oc- 
casion, and midsummer madness is 
the name for the mad and indeco- 
rous practices formerly common 
during these festivities. 

If any unmarried woman fasting 
on Midsummer's eve, leaves a clean 
cloth with bread, cheese, and ale 
upon the table at midnight and sits 
down as if to eat, leaving the street 
door open, the person whom she 
afterward is to marrv, will come 
into the room and drink to her by 
bowing; and after filling the glass 
will leave it on the table and mak- 
ing another bow, retire. 

On Midsummer's eve seven maid- 
ens go together to a silent grove; 
there each one of them gathers a 
sprig of red sage and all return into 
a private room with a stool in the 
mi<l<lle; each one having a dean 
shift turned wrong side out then 
hang them on a line across the 
room, ami every one lays the sprig 
of red sage in a basin of rose water 
set on the stool. After this is done. 



they place themselves in a row and 
remain until twelve or one o'clock 
without speaking a word, whatever 
might happen. After midnight each 
one's sweetheart or future husband 
shall take each maid's sprig out of 
the rose water and sprinkle his 
love's shift; those whose sprigs will 
not be moved will never be married, 
but sobs and sighs will be heard. 

On St. John's eve at "Ave Maria" 
the village maidens in Madeira try 
their fortunes in various ways. 
They take a newly laid egg, break 
it in a tumbler of cold water, and 
place it out of doors in a secluded 
place. Should the white rise in lines 
that in any way represent a ship, 
they will soon take a voyage. If it 
at all resembles a house, it means 
marriage and settling down. If a 
coffin or tombstone, it means death. 

Slips of paper tightly rolled up 
are inscribed with the names of the 
most popular village lads and placed 
in a bowl of cokl water out of doors. 
The slips must be looked at early 
in the morning and the one most 
widely opened will be the fortunate 
suitor. 

On St. John's day at early dawn 
the girls comb their hair by the side 
of still water. Those who see their 
shadow will outlive the year, but 
should anvone be shadowless she 

m 

will die before the year is out. 

Crowds of peasantry and towns 
folk, men and women, bathe in the 
sea on St. John's day so as to have 
luck through the year. 

On both St. John's and St. 
Peter's days the houses are profuse- 
ly ornamented with sprays of myr- 
tle, bay, rosemar}', etc., to bring 
luck for the year. 

On St. John's morning a girl 
goes to a window, and the sort of 
man she sees will represent what 
her husband is to be. This really 
happened in an instance where a 
girl saw a lame man, and afterwards 
married one. 



1552 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



A girl spreads a white cloth and 
places a decanter of wine with two 
glasses with pen, paper and ink. At 
midnight she goes into the rocnn 
and there stands the devil who 
pours out wine for both, drinks her 
healthy writes the name of her hus- 
band, and vanishes. 

A girl wraps up three sprays of 
rosemary and ties them up secure- 
ly. Next morning the paper with 
the name of her future husband has 
burst, and the rosemary is outside 
the paper. (Madeira.) 

In Malaga it is customary to cele- 
brate St. John's day with pomp and 
merry-making; and upon the eve of 
the 24th, illuminations and sudden 
blazes of fire appear in several of 
the public streets. The festivity al- 
ways closes with a g^and illumina- 
tion of the church which bears the 
saint's name, and appropriate cere- 
monies are in order. Just as the 
church-clock strikes the hour of 
twelve, midnight, girls of the sev- 
eral wards rush together toward the 
sea and public fountains, dipping 
their heads into the water as a 
boon from the saint to bestow on 
them a husband. Another custom 
is to melt lead and pour it into a 
glass; should the melting turn in 
the shape of a handsaw, a boat, an 
axe, a sabre, etc., the belief is that 
the presumptive husband is to be 
either a carpenter, sailor, peasant, 
or of a trade indicated by the form 
that the lead assumes in the water. 

Still another notion is to pour the 
yolk and white of a fresh egg into 
a glass and put it away. In the 
morning, if the yolk has assumed 
the form of a boat, it is a sure sign 
that the lover will come soon. 

It is also traditional for girls to 
bum wild artichokes on the very 
curbstone of a well, mingled with 
prayers to the saint for a husband. 

At this time the households are 
supplied with salt-water for the pur- 



pose of purifying, and as an assur- 
ance of peace and prosperity. 

The salt water, after being used, 
is thrown in the street. If it should 
h^pen that a man passing by, 
should tread upon the water, it is 
the sign of prosperity; but if a 
woman should step on it, it is a very 
bad omen. 

The fires built in honor of the 
saint bum up the miseries of life 
and so are considered very lucky. 

MONTH AND DAYS OF 
THE MONTH— If it rains on July 
10th, it will rain for seven weeks. 

Sit between two fires in July and 
be purified. 

February doth cut and shear. 

Napoleon III believed the 2d of 
December was his lucky day; on 
that day he assumed the throne as 
emperor of France. 

In the early part of March, large 
bonfires are built in Macedonia, and 
the children jump over them so that 
they will not be bitten by fleas that 
year. 

As the first three days of Decem- 
ber^ so will be the three first months 
of the year. 

During the first week in August, 
the women of Macedonia do not 
wash linen lest it be torn. 

On the 23d of the month Choiak, 
a man is blinded if the eyes of cer- 
tain divinities fall upon him. (An- 
cient Eg>'ptian.) 

In China it is unlucky if infants 
see or touch articles made of bam- 
boo, in a certain month. 

If it rains on the first of May, a 
girl lets down her hair and runs 
through the yard letting the rain fall 
on it so that her hair will grow. 
(Macedonia.) 

September was called "Gerst- 
monath," or barley-month, so 
named from the barley-liquor, 
called "beer-legh" made then. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1553 



June is called **Weyd-monath" 
(Pasture-month) because then the 
pasture was richest. 

August was called '*Am-monath" 
or "Barn-month" meaning harvest 

October was the cold month or 
**\Vyn-monath" as wine was exten- 
sively cultivated in England at the 
time of the Saxons and harvested in 
that month. 

November was "blood-month" as 
a great many cattle were then 
slaughtered for winter stores or in 
sacrifice to their deities. 

Rain-water caught and bottled in 
June, is considered very beneficial 
for the face and hands. 

The Spaniards believe if April is 
cold, there will be plenty of bread, 
and but very little wine throughout 
the year. 

Cromwell believed the 3d of De- 
cember was his lucky day. 

During April it is considered very 
lucky to ornament oneself with 
twigs, branches, leaves and buds. 
It will preserve life and health. 

The Ashantees believe September 
the most lucky day for travelling. 

As far as the last moon of No- 
vember runs into December there 
will be no snow. 

June is a good month in which 
to make any contract or receive a 
promise of marriage, as it generally 
turns out sincere and prosperous. 

It is lucky in September to set^ 
barley cakes at the door of the bam 
for the rats so that they may spare 
the grain stored there. (English.) 

Woe to them who are bom in 
October ; their own parents will hate 
them, especially their mother. 

On the first of October a maiden 
in love should plant two beans in 
one pot. If both beans shoot forth, 
marriage will come to pass; if only 
one, then one or the other will 
prove false. 



In East Comwall the people 
bathe in the sea the first three Sun- 
days in May for good luck. 

Any Sunday in .\pril is a lucky 
time to play against a faro bank. 

If it snows in May, be sure to let 
it fall on your face, as it will bring 
good luck. 

April was the month of the Saxon 
goddess Eustre, probably originally 
Astarte. 

"Eschew the fifth day," says Vir- 
gil in his elaborate almanac of lucky 
and unlucky days, "is the birthday 
of the ghastly Orcus and the furies." 
But the 17th day, he assures us, is 
lucky. 

May was the great rural festival 
of the Anelo-Saxons and was cele- 
brated with great pomp and rejoic- 
ing. 

The 13th day of the month is al- 
ways an unlucky day. 

To miscount day of month: — leg- 
acy or present. 

If you ask a favor of any person 
on the 14th day of any month, it 
will be granted. 

Among the Chinese the 7th day 
of the month is unlucky to start on 
a journey or to do anything for the 
fii^t time. 

Tlie month of June was called by 
the Romans mensis juniomm, being 
dedicated to the younger people of 
their community. 

It always rains on the first Satur- 
day in August. (Persia.) 

The (Thinese take their idols into 
the streets in processions in July 
and August, to prevent summer- 
complaint among the people. 

The last day of February was 
deemed unlucky to the Egyptians. 

As the 21st of November so will 
the whole winter be. 

The second of January is a lucky 
day in Belgium for weddings. 



I5S4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



Virgil says that the ninth day is 
good lor runaways, but bad for a 
thief. 

It is lucky to begin a journey on 
the 11th day of the month. 

If a death occurs on the 22d of 
March^ two more will follow at once 
in the neighborhood. 

In India, on the second day of the 
new moon, the women feist for luck. 

"Opening of the seal" on the 2(Hh 
day of the first month in the 
Chinese year is a national omen of 
the best of luck. 

Embroidered pockets of red cloth 
are worn on the first five days of 
tihe fifth month by children as a 
safeguard against the colic 

About half the people in China 
refrain from eating meat on the 17th 
day of the eighth month, so as to be 
successful in the transaction of busi- 
ness. 

If the month of February k un- 
usually cold, expect a hot stmmier. 

Violent north winds in February 
herald a fruitful year. 

When the north wind does not 
blow in February, it will surely 
come in March. 

There is always a fine week in 
February. 

"February bright and dear, 
Gives to us a good flax year." 

To eat fish on the fifth day of the 
moon in the month of Maghu, 
would cause a Hindu to have bad 
luck. 

The Egyptians believed it to be 
unlucky to embark on the river Nile 
on the 19th of the month Athor. 

If Janiveer weather be summerly gay. 
Twill be winterly weather till calenda 
of May. 

January was called by the hea- 
then Saxons "Wolf-month;" be- 
cause then the wolves were most 
ravenous. It was also called "After 
Yula" or after Christmas. 



The month of January is looked 
upon as an unlucky month for 
crowned heads. Charles I of Eng- 
land; Napoleon III, and King Vic- 
tor Emmanuel of Italy died in 
January. 

February makes a bridge, March 
breaks it 

For every thunder with rain in 
February there will be a cold spell 
in May. 



"If February gives much snow, 
A fine summer it doth foreshow.'* 

When the cat lies in the sun in 
February, she will creep behind the 
stove in March. 

February is often called "double- 
faced." 

'niie Welshman had rather see his 

dame on the bier» 
Than ever to see a fair Februeer." 

The first three days of February 
are said among the Highlanders to 
presage the weather of the year. 

The first three days of March are 
unlucky. 

Never speak ill of March. 

"March borrowit of April 
Three days, and they were ilL"* 

March is considered to be an im- 
lucky month but the first snow that 
comes in it, is good for sore eyes if 
taken after the sun has shone on it 

In some portions of England the 
old farmers called the first three 
days of March **blind days" which 
were considered unlucky ones, on 
which no farmer would sow his 
seed. 

The last three days of March are 
unlucky. 

A damp rotten March gives sor« 
row to farmers. 

A bushel of March dust is worth 
a king^s ransom. 

When March is like Aprils April 
will be like March. 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1555 



If March comes in with adder's 
head, it goes out with peacock's 
tail. 

March grass never did good. 

Winds in March and rain in April 
promise great blessings in May. 

March, if it comes in like a lamb, 
will go out like a lion. If it comes 
in like a lion, it will go out like a 
lamb. 

If the March wind blows across 
the bed, you will sleep well all the 
year afterward. 

To be caught in the first April 
shower is a sign of wealth later on. 

If at crescent moon in March the 
weather is very foggy it is believed 
a sign of heavy thundershowers and 
hailstorms in the near future. 

Every year in the month of 
March the Romans held a cere- 
monial festival to Mars, the god of 
war. It was supposed this would 
insure peace in the city for a year. 

On the 26th day of the 7th 
month, the Japanese crowd the 
streets about two or three o'clock in 
the afternoon, watching for the 
moon to become visible, as they be- 
lieve it is good luck to sec the moon 
rise on tlult day. 

May, the month of Marie, was 
dedicated by the Northmen to her 
prototype the goddess Freya; in 
Belgium, the poles or trees planted 
before her shrine on the morning 
of May-day are removed with music 
and largess at the end of the 
month. 

On the 31st of July the people of 
the Ardennes make "wolf-cakes" 
the dread of that old European 
beast of prey not extending beyond 
their woo<led limits. 

In Belgium, April 15th is the day 
when a welcome awaits the swallow, 
the harbinger of Spring. To see 
one the first thing m the morning 
is the best of luclc 



The month of November has re- 
tained its original Roman name 
from being the ninth month of the 
Roman year before the reform 
effected by the Julian Calendar. 
Our Saxon ancestors called it wint- 
monat (wind-month). 

The month of October has retain- 
ed its old name from having been 
the eighth month of the Roman 
year before the Julian reform of 
calendar. The Saxons called Octo- 
ber Wynat-monat, from its being 
the time when wines were annually 
brought into Germany, none being 
made then in that country. 

The March sun makes people 
black. To prevent it doing so, take 
a thread of white and a thread of 
red silk and twist them together and 
tie them around the wrist, or neck, 
or leg. (Greek.) 

The month of September has re- 
tained its old name as the seventh 
month in the Roman year before 
the Julian reform of the calendar. 

The month of July was custom- 
ary called by the Romans, Quintilis, 
as the fifth month of the Roman 
year. When it became the seventh 
month in consequence of the re- 
form of the calendar by Julius 
Caesar. It was named in his honor 
Julius, by the Emperor Augustus. 

**A peck of March dust is worth 
a king s ransom." (English.) 

The month of March which 
ranked among the Anglo-Saxon as 
the first month of the year, was 
named in honor of Mars, the sup- 
posed father of Rome. Our Anglo- 
Saxon ancestors called it Lenct 
Monath that is Lent or Spring 
Month. 

The month of April comes from 
the Latin word apcrio, because it 
was the season when things opened. 
By the Saxons it was called Ostra 
month, probably from the same 
word from which Easter is supposed 



1556 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS, 



to have been derived^ namely Ostra, 
the goddess of spring. 

It is the common belief that the 
month of February should have a 
course of snow, rain and sleet in 
order that all the powers of humidi- 
ty may be exhausted before the 
commencement of March, when an 
opposite kind of weather is looked 
for. 

Japanese children are carefully 
instructed in a thorough knowledge 
of the almanac, as it is considered 
vulgarly disgraceful not to know 
the lucky and unlucky days which 
play such an important part in all 
what the Japanese do and must 
particularly be considered in such 
great events as marriage, starting 
on a journey, starting a business 
enterprise, burying the dead, etc 

If it rains on the 8th of June, it 
will rain in some part of the day for 
the next forty. This saying came 
from a great drouth which once oc- 
curred, and the prayers of the faith- 
ful were granted from that day for 
the next lorty, with gentle rains. 

"When March the aist is past. 
Just watch the silvery moon. 
And when you see it full and round. 
Know Easter'll be here soon." 

For a Hindu not to perform 
certain ceremonies in strict con- 
formity to the rules laid down on 
the 7th, 8th, and 9th day of the 
moon before a certain image, is a 
very bad omen; nothing less than 
to be deprived of reason or speech, 
or both. 

On the 25th of April, the Greeks 
worshipped a certain god to propi- 
tiate their com which otherwise 
wotdd mildew. Hence probably the 
custom of blessing the fruits, that 
formerly prevailed in England, and 
hence also the notion among the 
peasantry that to plough or to do 
other work on St. Mark's day, 
would be apt to bring down divine 
vftath. 



The thirteenth day of any month 
is to be considered as always a day 
to be careful to avoid even remote 
contingencies of danger, and if it 
happens to come on Friday, a per- 
son is hedged about with a multi- 
plicity of hoodoos. 

On the 13th day of the month, 
place under your pillow a map of 
the world or of the country you hve 
in, and you will dream of the place 
where you will meet your future 
husband or wife. 

Among the North American In- 
dians they have the moon as a 
synonym, as "Moon of Bright 
Nights" for April; "Moon of 
Leaves" for May; "Moon of Straw- 
berries" for June; "Moon of Fall- 
ing Leaves" for September and the 
"Moon of Snowshoes" for Decem- 
ber. 



"Oh, brother January, 

If I had the power of thee, 

I'd freeze the porridge pot over the fire 

And the lark in the tree!'' 

Highlanders say that if the three 
days from the 11th to the 14th of 
February are stormy, it is a sign of 
good weather for the rest of the 
month; but if they are bar, there 
will be no more g^od weather that 
spring. 

March was dedicated by the old 
Saxons to the goddess Rtioeda and 
therefore called "Rhed month." 
"Iliyd-monath," was another name 
by which it was known. 

After the introduction of the 
teachings of Jesus, March was held 
in great reverence as the month in 
which Lent began. 

The natives around Canton be- 
lieve that water drawn after mid- 
night of the seventh day of the 
seventh moon, possesses especial 
efficacy in the cure of cutaneous 
diseases or fevers, if used in the 
cooking of gruel for the patient. 

December was "Fust-monath," 
also winter-month and after the in- 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



«557 



troduction of Christianity, "Helig- 
month" or Holy month. There was 
more festivity in this month than in 
any other, it was a custom to light 
great fires in the open air in honor 
of the gods and as a means of driv- 
ing off evil spirits. 

With the Bulgarians, March is 
the only female month in the year. 
It is called **Mother March/' and in 
it the women claim a sort of su- 
premacy over their husbands. They 
do no work as if they did their 
goddess would not send rain for a 
year but lightning and bum up 
their homes. 

In Macedonia, in March, when 
fleas appear for the first time, one 
of them is caught, wrapped and tied 
up in a nettle-Teaf, and taken to the 
house of a person bearing a name 
not in general use. Here the flea 
is thrown down and it is believed 
that all the rest of the fleas will con- 
gregate there. 

On the fifteenth of May visita- 
tions of fields take place in Belgium 
something like the "beating parish 
iKDunds" m England, and probably 
representing the circuits of the Am- 
haroalian brethren in Rome, when 
similar exercises were made accom- 
panied by the singing of archaic 
hymns. Tlie period in Belgium is 
known as that of ''rogation,** and 
tree-worship used to go on. of 
which the name of "Rue de Tarbre 
b^nit" still bears witness in a suburb 
of Brussels. 

February was called bv the old 
Saxons the "Cake-month ' in allu- 
sion to the many cakes which in this 
month they were in the habit of 
offering to their gods. The well- 
known habit of baking cakes on 
Shrove Tuesday is a remnant of the 
old superstition. Of course all these 
ceremonies were done in hopes of 
good luck. 

The month of December has re- 
tained its original Roman name 



having been before the Julian 
calendar the tenth month of the 
Roman year. Our Anglo-Saxon 
ancestors called December winta 
monat, (winter month); but, after 
becoming acquainted with Chris- 
tianity, this name was changed into 
heligh monat, or holy month, with 
reference to the celebration of the 
nativity, the twenty-fifth day. 

The month of August was origi- 
nally called by the Romans, Sex- 
tilis, as being the sixth month of the 
year. When it became the eiehth 
in consequence of the reform of the 
calendar by Julius Caesar, it was 
named after Emperor Augustus to 
whom it had been a fortunate 
period as in this month he assumed 
his first consulship, celebrated three 
triumphs, subdued Egypt, received 
the oath of allegiance of the legions 
that occupied the Janiculum, and 
terminated the civil wars in Rome. 

The month of May was called by 
the Romans, mensb maiorum, be- 
ing dedicated to the ekler persons 
of their community. According to 
others May derives from Maria, the 
mother of Mercury who was wor- 
shipped on the first day. The Sax- 
ons are said to have given the 
month the name Trimilchi, because 
they then began milking their cows 
three times a day. 

The Romans consider it unlucky 
to marry in May. May has the 
best reputation of all months and is 
a general favorite in imagination of 
folk-lore and poetry. 

When on the first day of the 
great Akron Street Fair in Septem- 
ber, 1899, the first one of the free 
attractions which consisted in a 
high wire walking act across How- 
ard Street, came to an abrupt end 
by tlie wire walker having a fall that 
disabled him for life, many people 
attributed that terrible accident to 
the fact that the fair had been 
opened on the thirteenth day of the 
month. 



X558 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



The month of February as to- 
gether with the month of January 
have been added to the list of 
second Roman King in the year 
672 B. C The name originates 
from the Latin word Februa which 
means the name for all objects that 
were thought to have the e£Fect of 
moral purgation in their religious 
ceremonials and these ceremonials 
took place at this season. 

The months January and Febru- 
ary are said to have been added to 
the list of months by the second 
Roman King, Numa Pompilius, in 
the year before Christ ^12, The 
name is unquestionably from Janus, 
the god of the year of mythology, 
to whom the first day was sacred 
and hence in whose honor it was 
celebrated with riotous feastings 
and givings of presents. 

The months, which the Slavs 
call "moons," according to a Slavic 
legend come from a panslavic 
source. Twelve men, old and ugly, 
beautiful and young, sit in the deep 
woods around a fire. Their names 
are those of the months of the year, 
and each one month succeeds the 
other in turn as president Nobody 
is allowed to approach them un- 
punished, but innocent children and 
poor people in distress are often 
helped by them. They can change 
the weather of the whole country. 
For that purpose for instance, 
young May exchanges places with 
old January which makes the fire 
bum high and winter changes into 
spring at once for as long as May 
sits in the presidential chair. 

There are certain dates which are 
fortunate for dreams and on which 
they are likely to come true. They 
are the 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 15th, 
18th, 19th, 22d, 27th, 30th, and are 
certain to foreshadow the future in 
some way or other. 

Dreams on the 13th, 20th, 21st, 
28th, and 29th, are never known to 
be realized; though some people 



claim, that the 20th day of the 
month is also a lucky day for 
dreams. 

There is an old sa3ring among 
English and Scotch rustics which 
represents March as borrowing 
three days from April and they are 
thus described: 

"The first it shall be wind and weet» 
The next it shall be snaw and sleet. 
The third it shall be sic and freeze. 
Shall gar the birds and stick to the 
trees." 

From ancient times till the pres- 
ent day there seems to have been a 
dread of the sunshine in March. 
There is a Grerman saying that "one 
had better be bitten by a snake than 
feel the sim in March." This prob- 
ably means that very hot weather in 
March is apt to increase Vitality. 

With the exception of the 27th 
day, March is an unlucky month to 
be married in. In many countries 
Wednesday is said to be the luckiest 
day of the week to be married, and 
if the 27th day of March, which is 
St John's of Egypt, comes on 
Wednesday, the couple who are 
fortunate enough to be married on 
that day, will be kind and loving to 
each other to the end. They will 
also acquire great wealth and have 
several rosy-cheeked healthy chil- 
dren. 

Much rain in January, no blessing 
to the fruit. 

Fruit that grows in January will 
generally be costly or dear. 

January warm, the Lord have 
mercy. 

January wet no wine you get 

Fog in January brings a wet 
spring. 

Hoar frost and no snow is hurtful 
to fields, trees, and grain. If gp-ain 
grows in January there will be a 
year of great need. 

Dry January, plenty of wine. 
January 1st — Morning red, foul 



FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 



1559 



weather, and great need. January 
2d. — As the weather is tliis day so 
will it be in September. 

If the grass grows green in Janu- 
ary, it wul grow the worse for it all 
the year. 

In January if the sun appear, 
March and April pay full dear. 

(English.) 

A January thaw is a sign for a 
July freshet 

Much rain in October, much 
wind in December. 

If October brin^ heavy frosts 
and winds, then will January and 
February be mild. 

When it freezes and snows in Oc- 
tober, January will brin^ mild 
weather ; but if it is thundenng and 
heat-lightning, the winter will re- 
semble April in temper. 

Warm October, cold February. 

As the weather in October, so 
will it be in the next March. 

If the first snow falls on moist, 
soft earth, it indicates a small har- 
vest; but if upon hard, frozen soil, a 
good harvest. 

A K^od October and a grood blast. 
So blow the hog-acorn and the mast 

In some countries the girls use 
their shoes in March to see whom 
they shall marry. On going to bed 
they place their shoes across to 
make a letter T, and say, — 

**Hoping this night my true love to see^ 
I place my shoes in the form of a T.'* 

Then they will dream of "him." 

An old Irish superstition says that 
it is very dangerous to sleep out of 
doors in the month of May, for that 
is the time when the fairies are very 
powerful and on the watch to carry 
off the handsome girls as fair>'- 
brides, the young mothers as nurses 
for the fairy babies, and the hand- 
some youn^ men for husbands to 
the fairy pnncesses. 

Ausonius represents the month of 
May as Hermaphroditus, son of 



Mercury and Venus, partaking of 
the double nature of spring and 
summer. He is depicted by Auso- 
nius as dressed in a long tunic with 
enormous flowing sleeves. In one 
hand he bears a deep, narrow 
wicker basket filled with flowers, 
with the other he holds a blossom 
to his nose. This evidently refers 
to the Roman festival of Floralia, 
held at the beginning of May in 
honor of the goddess Flora, when 
supplications were offered to the 
Deity for the protection of the blos- 
soms. 

As July, so the next Januar}'. 

July. God send thee calm and fair. 
That happy harvests we may see: 

With quiet time and healthsome air. 
And man to God may thankful be. 

What July and August left un- 
done in cooking, September will 
have undone in roasting. (Ger- 
man.) 

Whatever July and August do 
not boil, September cannot fry. 

In Korea, on the fourteenth day 
of the first month, a person who is 
entering upon a critical year in his 
life, makes an effig\' of straw; 
dresses it up with his own clothing 
at evening, casts it out on the road, 
and then feasts merrily during the 
whole night. Whatever happens to 
the man of straw thus kicked out of 
the house is supposed to happen to 
the man's former self now gone into 
the past : and fate is believed to look 
upon the individual in new clothes. 
as another man. This is a parallel to 
our notion of beginning a new life 
(in New Year's, and not unlike tlie 
custom of carousing on New Year's 
nif^ht and then taking the pledge on 
New Year's day. 

The 5th. 15th. and 25th of each 
month are the "Fridays" of the 
people of **the land of morning 
calm" (Korea). They will not be- 
gin any work on those days; and in 
the beginning of each of the four 
seasons of the year, they post up on 



1560 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS. 



their houses such sentences as 
VLongevitv is like the south moun- 
tain" or "Wealth is like the easter 
sea/' in the expectation that this 
acknowledgement will bring some 
of the wealth and long life to them. 

In Korea, the fifteenth day of the 
first month is called, "Stepping on 
the bridge." A man and woman 
go out together over the bridge at 
the rising of the moon and view the 
moonlit scenery, indulging mean- 
while in refreshments bo£ of the 
solid and liquid sort It is believed 
that if one crosses oVer seven 
bridges on this night, one will be 
free from all calamities during the 
year. 

"Khait el Mooseleman" is an 
Arabic custom, and means thin 
cord-like marks, being tracings of 
the mussulman "khait,** a cord or 
thread, and denoting the blood- 
marks traced by the finger on each 
side of the doorway. This cere- 
mony is performed during the great 
feast of the year which is held on 
May 22nd, and generally lasts a 
week. This feast seems to have no 
particular title, but is called gener- 
ally "El ede." 

On the evening of the 22d, the 
best and (attest sheep in the village 
is killed, and the sheikh or chief of 
the village dips his finger in the 
blood and traces a cross on each 
side of the doorway while repeat- 
ing verses from the Koran. This is 
supposed to counteract the malig- 
nant influence of evil spirits. The 
custom is the more curious, in that 
on ordinary occasions the Arab will 
not touch blood and thinks himself 
defiled if a drop of blood even falls 
on his garments. This superstition 
is confined to localities. 

In Monastir, Macedonia, on the 
first day of March, before the re- 
turn of the storks from the South, 
a woman twists together t\vo differ- 
ent kinds of yam and then with her 
hands behind her back, tries to pass 



it through the eye of a large needle. 
This done she is asked what enemy 
she has, and when one is named, 
she is told to sew up his mouth so 
that he may nevermore speak ill of 
her. Still holding the threaded 
needle behind her back, she goes 
through the motion of sewing up 
his mouth and repeats the process 
as she mentions her enemies one 
after another. When the list has 
been exhausted, the twisted yam is 
cut into certain lengths and tied 
around the necks and wrists of each 
member of the family. These are 
worn until the first stork is seen and 
then taken off and thrown upon the 
tiled roof. The storks are supposed 
to gather these cords for their nests. 

Sheridan's